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Bahan kajian MK Kajian Lingkungan dan Pembangunan

KONSEP PEMBANGUNAN BERKELANJUTAN

Disarikan oleh: Prof Dr Ir Soemarno MS Malang-Agustus 2011

Sustainable development is
development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.

ASPEK EKONOMI
Economic progress is often evaluated in terms of welfare (or utility) measured as willingness to pay for goods and services consumed. Mmany economic policies typically seek to enhance income, and induce more efficient production and consumption of goods and services. The stability of prices and employment are among other important objectives.

Economic Activities and Global Change Issues - A Systemic View

ASPEK EKONOMI
Economic efficiency helps maximize income. It is measured against the ideal of Pareto optimality, which encourages actions that will improve the welfare of at least one individual without worsening the situation of anyone else. The perfectly competitive economy is an important (Pareto optimal) benchmark, where (efficient) market prices play a key role in both allocating productive resources to maximize output, and ensuring optimal consumption choices which maximize consumer utility. If significant economic distortions are present, appropriate shadow prices may be used.

ASPEK EKONOMI
The well-known cost-benefit criterion accepts all projects whose net benefits are positive (i.e., aggregate benefits exceed costs). It is based on the weaker quasi Pareto condition, which assumes that such net benefits could be redistributed from potential gainers to losersleaving no one worse off than before. More generally, interpersonal comparisons of welfare are fraught with difficulty both within and across nations, and over time (e.g., the value of human life).

ECONOMIC ASPECT
Economic sustainability seeks to maximize the flow of income that could be generated while at least maintaining the stock of assets (or capital) which yield these beneficial outputs. Economic efficiency continues to optimize both production and consumption. Problems arise in identifying the kinds of capital to be maintained (e.g., manufactured, natural, human and social capital), and their substitutability. Often, it is difficult to value these assets (especially ecological and social resources) and the services they provide.

ECONOMIC ASPECT
The issues of uncertainty, irreversibility and catastrophic collapse pose additional difficulties, in determining dynamically efficient development paths. Many common microeconomic approaches rely on marginal analysis (e.g., comparing incremental costs and benefits of economic activities), which assumes smoothly changing variables. They are inappropriate for analyzing large changes, discontinuous phenomena, and sudden transitions among multiple equilibria. Recent work has begun to explore the behavior of large, non-linear, dynamic and chaotic systems, and concepts like system vulnerability and resilience.

ASPEK LINGKUNGAN
Development in the environmental sense is a recent concern relating to the need to manage scarce natural resources in a prudent manner because human welfare ultimately depends on ecological services. Ignoring safe ecological limits could undermine long-run prospects for development. Recent literature covers links among environment, growth and sustainable development. Environmental sustainability focuses on overall viability and normal functioning of natural systems. For ecological systems, sustainability is defined by a comprehensive, multiscale, dynamic, hierarchical measure of resilience, vigor and organization.

ASPEK LINGKUNGAN
Resilience is the ability of ecosystems to persist despite external shocks, i.e., the amount of disruption that will cause an ecosystem to switch from one system state to another. An ecosystem state is defined by its internal structure and set of mutually re-inforcing processes. Vigor is associated with the primary productivity or growth of an ecosystem.

Organization depends on both complexity and structure of the system.

ASPEK LINGKUNGAN
Natural resource degradation, pollution and loss of biodiversity are detrimental because they reduce resilience, increase vulnerability, and undermine system health. The notions of a safe threshold and carrying capacity are important, to avoid catastrophic ecosystem collapse. Sustainability may be also linked to the normal functioning and longevity of a nested hierarchy of ecological and socioeconomic systems, ordered according to scale e.g., a human community would consist of many individuals, who are themselves composed of a large number of discrete cells.

ASPEK LINGKUNGAN
Gunderson and Holling use the term panarchy to denote such a hierarchy of systems and their adaptive cycles across scales. A system at a given level is able to operate in its stable (sustainable) mode, because it is protected by slower and more conservative changes in the super-system above it, while being simultaneously invigorated and energized by faster changes taking place in subsystems below it. Sustainable development is not necessarily synonymous with maintaining the ecological status quo. A coupled ecologicalsocioeconomic system could evolve, while maintaining levels of biodiversity that guarantee resilience of ecosystems on which future human consumption and production depend.

PEMBANGUNAN BERKELANJUTAN

ASPEK SOSIAL
Social development usually refers to improvements in both individual well-being and overall social welfare resulting from increases in social capital typically, the accumulation of capacity enabling individuals and communities to work together. The quantity and quality of social interactions underlying human existence (including levels of mutual trust, and shared social norms and values), determine the stock of social capital. Thus, social capital grows with greater use and erodes through disuse, unlike economic and environmental capital, which are depreciated or depleted by use. We note that some forms of social capital may be harmful (e.g., cooperation within criminal gangs). There is also an important element of equity and poverty alleviation . Thus, the social dimension of development includes protective strategies that reduce vulnerability, improve equity and ensure that basic needs are met.

ASPEK SOSIAL
Social sustainability parallels environmental sustainability. Reducing vulnerability and maintaining the ability of socio-cultural systems to withstand shocks, is also important. Enhancing human capital (through education) and strengthening social values, institutions, and governance are key aspects. Many harmful changes occur slowly, and their long-term effects are often overlooked in socio-economic analysis. Preserving cultural capital and diversity worldwide, strengthening social cohesion, and reducing destructive conflicts, are integral elements of this approach. An important aspect involves empowerment and broader participation through subsidiarity i.e., decentralization of decision-making to the lowest (or most local) level at which it is still effective. In summary, for both ecological and socioeconomic systems, the emphasis is on improving system health and its dynamic ability to adapt to change across a range of spatial and temporal scales, rather than the conservation of some ideal static state.

LATAR SEJARAH
UN Conference on Environment and Development, or the 1992 Earth summit in Rio de Janeiro unanimously adopted Agenda 21, a blueprint for sustainable development. Millennium Development Goals UN General Assembly resolution 55/2, outlined 8 targets aimed at reducing poverty and promoting sustainable development. World Summit on Sustainable Development reaffirmed the commitment to Agenda 21 and Millennium Development Goals

MELLENIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS

The Millennium Development Goals The Water and Sanitation Sector

INDEKS KEBERLANJUTAN

Sustainable development indicators (SDI) have the potential to turn the generic concept of sustainability into action.

The "Daly Rules"


The three operational rules defining the condition of ecological (thermodynamic) sustainability: 1. Renewable resources such as fish, soil, and groundwater must be used no faster than the rate at which they regenerate. 2. Nonrenewable resources such as minerals and fossil fuels must be used no faster than renewable substitutes for them can be put into place. 3. Pollution and wastes must be emitted no faster than natural systems can absorb them, recycle them, or render them harmless.

Energy, Emergy and Sustainability Index (SI)


Emergy = the accounting system of embodied energy.

A quantitative sustainability index (SI) as a ratio of the emergy (spelled with an "m", i.e. "embodied energy", not simply "energy") yield ratio (EYR) to the environmental loading ratio (ELR).
The "Emergy Sustainability Index" (ESI), "an index that accounts for yield, renewability, and environmental load. It is the incremental emergy yield compared to the environmental load".

Life Cycle Assessment LCA


Life Cycle Assessment is a "composite measure of sustainability." It analyses the environmental performance of products and services through all phases of their life cycle: extracting and processing raw materials; manufacturing, transportation and distribution; use, re-use, maintenance; recycling, and final disposal

Sustainable Livelihoods Approach : SLA


Livelihoods approaches are a way of thinking about the objectives, scope and priorities for development. They place people and their priorities at the centre of development. They focus poverty reduction interventions on empowering the poor to build on their own opportunities, supporting their access to assets, and developing an enabling policy and institutional environment.

Sustainable Livelihoods Approach : SLA


Core to livelihoods approaches are a set of principles that underpin best practice in any development intervention: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. People-centred Responsive and participatory Multi-level Conducted in partnership Sustainable Dynamic

Sustainable Livelihoods Approach : SLA


Livelihoods approaches are based on a conceptual framework to aid analysis of the factors affecting peoples livelihoods, including: 1. the priorities that people define as their desired livelihood outcomes 2. their access to social, human, physical, financial and natural capital or assets, and their ability to put these to productive use 3. the different strategies they adopt (and how they use their assets) in pursuit of their priorities 4. the policies, institutions and processes that shape their access to assets and opportunities 5. the context in which they live, and factors affecting vulnerability to shocks and stresses.

Public Health Outcomes Support Sustainable Development

EMPAT TIPE KEBERLANJUTAN FAO : 1. Institutional sustainability.


Can a strengthened institutional structure continue to deliver the results of technical cooperation to end users? The results may not be sustainable if, for example, the planning authority that depends on the technical cooperation loses access to top management, or is not provided with adequate resources after the technical cooperation ends. Institutional sustainability can also be linked to the concept of social sustainability, which asks how the interventions can be sustained by social structures and institutions;

EMPAT TIPE KEBERLANJUTAN FAO :


2. Keberlanjutan ekonomi dan finansial

Can the results of technical cooperation continue to yield an economic benefit after the technical cooperation is withdrawn? For example, the benefits from the introduction of new crops may not be sustained if the constraints to marketing the crops are not resolved. Similarly, economic, as distinct from financial, sustainability may be at risk if the end users continue to depend on heavily subsidized activities and inputs.

EMPAT TIPE KEBERLANJUTAN FAO :


3. Keberlanjutan Ekologi Are the benefits to be generated by the technical cooperation likely to lead to a deterioration in the physical environment, thus indirectly contributing to a fall in production, or well-being of the groups targeted and their society?

EMPAT TIPE KEBERLANJUTAN FAO :


4. Keberlanjutan Energi

This type of sustainability is often concerned with the production of energy and mineral resources. Some researchers have pointed to trends which document the limits of production.

sustainomics and sustainable development


Sustainable development triangle key elements and links (corners, sides, center).

Sepuluh kunci keberlanjutan pembangunan


1. Participation and ownership. Get the stakeholders (men and women) to genuinely participate in design and implementation. Build on their initiatives and demands. Get them to monitor the project and periodically evaluate it for results. 2. Capacity building and training. Training stakeholders to take over should begin from the start of any project and continue throughout. The right approach should both motivate and transfer skills to people. 3. Government policies. Development projects should be aligned with local government policies.

Sepuluh kunci keberlanjutan pembangunan:


4. Financial. In some countries and sectors, financial sustainability is difficult in the medium term. Training in local fundraising is a possibility, as is identifying links with the private sector, charging for use, and encouraging policy reforms. 5. Management and organization. Activities that integrate with or add to local structures may have better prospects for sustainability than those which establish new or parallel structures. 6. Social, gender and culture. The introduction of new ideas, technologies and skills requires an understanding of local decisionmaking systems, gender divisions and cultural preferences.

Sepuluh kunci keberlanjutan pembangunan:


7. Technology. All outside equipment must be selected with careful consideration given to the local finance available for maintenance and replacement. Cultural acceptability and the local capacity to maintain equipment and buy spare parts are vital. 8. Environment. Poor rural communities that depend on natural resources should be involved in identifying and managing environmental risks. Urban communities should identify and manage waste disposal and pollution risks.

Sepuluh kunci keberlanjutan pembangunan:


9. External political and economic factors. In a weak economy, projects should not be too complicated, ambitious or expensive. 10. Realistic duration. A short project may be inadequate for solving entrenched problems in a sustainable way, particularly when behavioural and institutional changes are intended. A long project, may on the other hand, promote dependence.

Pilar-pilar Pembangunan Ramah Lingkungan


Economic Development poverty eradication Social Development active participation of women; education; good governance Environmental Protection prevent environmental degradation and patterns of unsustainable development At the local, national, regional, and global levels

PEMBANGUNAN EKONOMI
Poverty eradication/ Pengentasan Kemiskinan Halve, by 2015, the proportion of the worlds people with income less than $1/day Basic health services for all, reduce health threats Increase food availability Combat desertification, mitigate effects of drought and floods Provision of clean drinking water Enhance industrial productivity

Changing Unsustainable Patterns of Consumption and Production


Teknologi Produksi Bersih Developing cleaner, more efficient energy technologies Maintain urban air quality and health, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions Sound management of chemicals throughout their life cycle, and of hazardous wastes

Protecting the Natural Resource Base of Economic & Social Development


Prevent water pollution to reduce health hazards and protect ecosystems Watershed and groundwater management Support desalination of seawater, water recycling Ensure the sustainable development of oceans, marine environmental protection

KRISIS AIR
Water crisis is a term used to refer to the worlds water resources relative to human demand.

The term has been applied to the worldwide water situation by the United Nations and other world organizations.
Others, for example the Food and Agriculture Organization, said in 2003 that there is no water crisis but steps must be taken to avoid one in the future. The major aspects of the water crisis are allegedly overall scarcity of usable water and water pollution.

Beberapa prinsip manifestasi krisis air.


1. Inadequate access to safe drinking water for about 884 million people. 2. Inadequate access to water for sanitation and waste disposal for 2.5 billion people 3. Groundwater overdrafting (excessive use) leading to diminished agricultural yields 4. Overuse and pollution of water resources harming biodiversity 5. Regional conflicts over scarce water resources sometimes resulting in warfare

SUSTAINABLE WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT

(SWRM)
Pengelolaan sumberdaya air berkelanjutan 1. Pengelolaan dan Perencanaan Air 2. Pengolahan dan daur-ulang air limbah 3. Kualitas Air 4. Pengendalian Pencemaran 5. Pengelolaan dan Ekonomi 6. Sistem Penunjang Keputusan 7. Sistem Hydraulic 8. Risiko banjir 9. Pemodelan Hydraulic 10.Problematik Irrigation 11.Governance dan Monitoring

Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM)


is what most people aim to achieve in both, research and practice, to enable a sustainable way of handling water resources. An often quoted definition of IWRM is given by the Global Water Partnership: IWRM is a process which promotes the co-ordinated development and management of water, land and related resources, in order to maximize the resultant economic and social welfare in an equitable manner without compromising the sustainability of vital ecosystems. (GWP 2000: 22)

Action Agenda Focus on Five Key Thematic Areas (WEHAB)


Priority areas for action, identified by UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan: Water and sanitation Energy Health Agriculture Biodiversity protection and ecosystem management

AIR dan SANITASI


Water is not only the most basic of needs but is also at the center of sustainable development. Around 1.2 billion people still have no access to clean drinking water Around 2.4 billion people do not have adequate sanitation.

SUPLAI AIR RAMAH LINGKUNGAN

PANEN AIR HUJAN

SUPLAI AIR RAMAH LINGKUNGAN

Kolam Panen Air Hujan

AIR dan SANITASI


Beberapa isu-isu kunci: Prevent water pollution to reduce health hazards Protect ecosystems Introduce technologies for affordable sanitation, industrial and domestic wastewater treatment River basin, watershed and groundwater management Support desalination of seawater, water recycling Marine environmental protection - oceans, seas, islands and coastal areas are essential components of the Earths ecosystem

Kontribusi Teknologi Nuklir untuk Mengelola Sumberdaya Air


IAEA-supported projects worldwide using nuclear techniques: Isotope techniques for water resources development and management Automatic tracer flow gauging stations in ephemeral rivers Investigating dam and reservoir leakages and safety Electron beam purification of wastewater

Kontribusi Teknologi Nuklir untuk Mengelola Sumberdaya Air


Nuclear power plants are used for saltwater desalination

Kontribusi Teknologi Nuklir untuk Mengelola Sumberdaya Air RCA Projects:


Isotope Techniques for Groundwater Contamination Studies in the Urbanized and Industrial Areas Investigating Environmental and Water Resources in Geothermal Areas Use of Isotopes in Dam Safety and Dam Sustainability

Energy
Some 2 billion people lack access to electricity and rely on traditional fuel sources such as firewood, kerosene, or biomass for their cooking and heating.

ENERGI RAMAH LINGKUNGAN


is the provision of energy such that it meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. Sustainable energy sources are most often regarded as including all renewable sources, such as plant matter, solar power, wind power, wave power, geothermal power and tidal power. It usually also includes technologies that improve energy efficiency.

TEKNOLOGI ENERGI RENEWABLE


are essential contributors to sustainable energy as they generally contribute to world energy security, reducing dependence on fossil fuel resources, and providing opportunities for mitigating greenhouse gases. First-generation technologies: hydropower, biomass combustion, and geothermal power and heat. Second-generation technologies include solar heating and cooling, wind power, modern forms of bioenergy, and solar photovoltaics. Third-generation technologies are still under development and include advanced biomass gasification, biorefinery technologies, concentrating solar thermal power, hot dry rock geothermal energy, and ocean energy.

Energy
Some key issues: Focus on access to energy in rural areas Energy conservation and energy efficiency building design & management, better mass transportation, advanced and innovative cleaner technologies Promotion of renewable energy Action on climate change ratification by countries of the Kyoto Protocol

Energy & Contributions of Nuclear Technology


Nuclear Power reduces emission of greenhouse gases
Some IAEA-supported projects worldwide: Comparative studies on natural gas and nuclear power Uranium resources development Operational and safety issues of nuclear power plants Nuclear power plants for saltwater desalination

Energy & Contributions of Nuclear Technology


Electron beam purification of flue gases Isotopic techniques to study climate change and predict future global changes resulting from greenhouse gases Rational exploitation of geothermal sources Isotope hydrology and geochemistry in geothermal fields Quality control and inspection of pipelines by NDT

Energy & Contributions of Nuclear Technology


RCA Projects:
Process Diagnostics and Optimization in Petrochemical Industry Role of Nuclear Power and other Energy Options in Competitive Electricity Market

Health
Good health is vital for eradicating poverty and achieving sustainable development.
Some key issues: Reduce mortality rates in 2015: by 66.7% for children & infants under 5; by 75% for maternal mortality rates Control & eradicate communicable diseases, reduce HIV prevalence, combat malaria, tuberculosis Ensure that chemicals are not used and produced in ways that harm human health Reduce air pollution Improve developing countries access to environmentally sound alternatives to ozone depleting chemicals

Health & Contributions of Nuclear Techniques


Some IAEA-supported projects worldwide: Use of radioisotopes in the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of diseases
Upgrading of radiotherapy services Production of Tc-99m Gel Generators for Nuclear Medicine Early diagnosis and treatment of cervical cancer Screening of newborns for neonatal hypothyroidism Nuclear medical techniques in preventive nephrology

Health & Contributions of Nuclear Techniques


Isotopes for control of human communicable diseases (SIT for Tsetse eradication & control of malaria) Molecular biology techniques using radionuclide methods (e.g. Polymerase chain reaction or PCR) for diagnosis of infectious diseases such as hepatitis B & C, tuberculosis Rapid diagnosis of dengue fever infection Early detection of congenital diseases in children

Health & Contributions of Nuclear Techniques


Applications of radiation technology
Radiation sterilization of health care products Cyclotron for short lived medical radioisotopes Radiation sterilization of human tissue grafts for transplantation (bone, skin & other tissues)

Nutrition
Nuclear techniques to address problems of malnutrition such as micro-nutrient deficiencies, energy expenditure, nutrient absorption & utilization

Health & Nuclear Techniques


RCA Projects: Strengthening Medical Physics in Asia and the Pacific region Brachytherapy in Treating Cervical Cancer Distance-assisted Training (DAT) in Radiation Oncology Distance-assisted Training (DAT) for Nuclear Medicine Technicians Management of Liver Cancer using Transarterial Radioconjugate Therapy Treatment with Unsealed Radioactive Source: Radiosynovectomy Osteoporosis and Serum Turn Over by RIA and DEXA Improved Information of Urban Air Quality Mgt.

Agriculture
Agriculture is central to sustainable development. About 70% of the poor in developing countries live in rural areas and depend in one way or another on agriculture for their survival.
Some key issues: Address serious soil fertility problems Diversification of crops Increase water-use productivity Apply R&D to increase productivity in crops and livestock

SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE
Sustainable agriculture uses ecological principles to farm . It has been defined as "an integrated system of plant and animal production practices having a sitespecific application that will, over the long term: 1. Satisfy human food and fiber needs 2. Make the most efficient use of nonrenewable resources and on-farm resources and integrate, where appropriate, natural biological cycles and controls 3. Sustainanable 4. Sustain the economic viability of farm operations 5. Enhance the quality of life for farmers and society as a whole

Farmers' Empowerment to Sustainable Agro- Ecosystem Management

Organic farming
is the form of agriculture that relies on techniques such as crop rotation, green manure, compost, and biological pest control, to maintain soil productivity and control pests on a farm. Organic farming excludes or strictly limits the use of synthetic fertilizers and synthetic pesticides, plant growth regulators, livestock antibiotics, food additives, and genetically modified organisms

Industrial agriculture
is a form of modern farming that refers to the industrialized production of livestock, poultry, fish, and crops. The methods of industrial agriculture are technoscientific, economic, and political. They include innovation in agricultural machinery and farming methods, genetic technology, techniques for achieving economies of scale in production, the creation of new markets for consumption, the application of patent protection to genetic information, and global trade. Most of the meat, dairy, eggs, fruits, and vegetables available in supermarkets are produced using these methods of industrial agriculture.

Nuclear Techniques in Agriculture


Mutation breeding to produce new varieties in different crops and ornamental plants

Nuclear Techniques in Agriculture


Crop productivity
Control of insect pests by Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) Biofertilizers to increase crop production Optimization of water and fertilizer use for crops Saline groundwater and wastelands for crop production

Nuclear Techniques in Agriculture

Increasing food security


Food irradiation for food preservation

Livestock development
Sustainable animal production Improving productivity of goats Feed supplementation for increasing livestock production Improving cattle fertility and disease diagnosis Eradicating rinderpest, screwworm

Agriculture & Nuclear Techniques


RCA Projects:
Restoration of Soil Fertility and Sustenance of Agriculture Productivity Production of Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) Antigen and Antibody ELISA Reagent Kit Enhancement of Genetic Diversity in Food, Pulses and Oil Crops & Establishment of Mutant Germplasm Network Better Management of Feeding and Reproduction of Cattle Application of Food Irradiation for Food Security, Safety and Trade

Biodiversitas & Pengelolaan Ekosistem Biodiversity and the ecosystems they support are the living basis of sustainable development.

Biodiversitas & Pengelolaan Ekosistem


Beberapa isu kunci: Significantly reduce the rate of biodiversity loss by 2010 Reverse the trend in natural resource degradation Restore fisheries to their maximum sustainable yields Protection of the marine environment from land based sources of pollution

Biodiversitas & Kontribusi Teknik Nuklir


Nuclear techniques are used: To trace the fate of pollutants, and study sedimentation rates in pollution studies To identify pathways of pesticides & agrochemicals in the environment
RCA Projects: Enhancing the Marine Coastal Environment Applications of nuclear and modeling techniques to sustainable development in the coastal zone Investigating Environmental and Water Resources in Geothermal Areas

Pengelolaan Hutan Lestari


Sustainable Forest Management (SFM)
is the management of forests according to the principles of sustainable development. Sustainable forest management uses very broad social, economic and environmental goals. A range of forestry institutions now practice various forms of sustainable forest management and a broad range of methods and tools are available that have been tested over time.

Pengelolaan Hutan Lestari Menurut FAO :


The stewardship and use of forests and forest lands in a way, and at a rate, that maintains their biodiversity, productivity, regeneration capacity, vitality and their potential to fulfill, now and in the future, relevant ecological, economic and social functions, at local, national, and global levels, and that does not cause damage to other ecosystems.

Tujuh bidang kajian Pengelolaan Hutan Lestari:

1. Extent of forest resources 2. Biological diversity 3. Forest health and vitality 4. Productive functions and forest resources 5. Protective functions of forest resources 6. Socio-economic functions 7. Legal, policy and institutional framework

PEMBANGUNAN BERKELANJUTAN
Sustainable Development is the process by which we move towards sustainability development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs
(World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987)

This was endorsed in 1992 at the Earth Summit in Rio

Model Konseptual Pengelolaan Hutan Lestari

LANDSKAPING RAMAH LINGKUNGAN


Encompasses a variety of practices that have developed in response to environmental issues. These practices are used in every phase of landscaping, including design, construction, implementation and management of residential and commercial landscapes. Sustainability Issues for Landscaping include: Carbon Sequestration by Plants; Global Climate Change; Air Pollution; Water Pollution; Pesticide Toxicity; Non-Renewable Resources; Energy Usage. Non-sustainable practices encompass: Contamination of soil, air and water; persistence of toxic compounds in the environment; nonsustainable consumption of natural resources; Greenhouse gas emissions.

Effects of non-sustainable practices


Some of the effects of non-sustainable practices are: 1. Threats to health, well-being and even survival of humans and other life forms and their habitats; 2. Sedimentation of surface waters caused by stormwater runoff; 3. Chemical pollutants in drinking water caused by pesticide runoff; 4. Health problems caused by toxic fertilizers, toxic pesticides, improper use, handling, storage and disposal of pesticides; 5. Air and noise pollution caused by landscape equipment; 6. Over-use of limited natural resources.

MENUJU LANDSKAPING RAMAH LINGKUNGAN


1. Reduction of stormwater run-off through the use of bio-swales, rain gardens and green roofs and walls. 2. Reduction of water use in landscapes through design of water-wise garden techniques (sometimes known as xeriscaping 3. Bio-filtering of wastes through constructed wetlands 4. Landscape irrigation using water from showers and sinks, known as gray water 5. Integrated Pest Management techniques for pest control 6. Creating and enhancing wildlife habitat in urban environments 7. Energy-efficient landscape design in the form of proper placement and selection of shade trees and creation of wind breaks 8. Permeable paving materials to reduce stormwater run-off and allow rain water to infiltrate into the ground and replenish groundwater rather than run into surface water 9. Use of sustainably harvested wood, composite wood products for decking and other landscape projects, as well as use of plastic lumber 10. Recycling of products, such as glass, rubber from tires and other materials to create landscape products such as paving stones, mulch and other materials 11. Soil management techniques, including composting kitchen and yard wastes, to maintain and enhance healthy soil that supports a diversity of soil life Integration and adoption of renewable energy, including solar-powered landscape lighting.