Sie sind auf Seite 1von 42

SYSTEMIC MICROBIOLOGY

BACTERIOLOGY

Dr. Ashish V. Jawarkar M.D.

GRAM POSITIVE BACTERIA

STAPHYLOCOCCUS

Dr. Ashish Jawarkar

Introduction

Bacteria consist of only a single cell Bacteria fall into a category of life called the Prokaryotes There are thousands of species of bacteria, but all of them are basically one of three different shapes.

Dr. Ashish Jawarkar

Classification of Bacteria

Until recently classification has done on the basis of such traits as:

shape

bacilli: rod-shaped cocci: spherical spirilla: curved walls In clusters : actinomyces

Dr. Ashish Jawarkar

Dr. Ashish Jawarkar

Dr. Ashish Jawarkar

Dr. Ashish Jawarkar

Classification of Bacteria

The Gram stain is named after the 19th century Danish bacteriologist who developed it.

The bacterial cells are first stained with a purple dye called crystal violet. Then the preparation is treated with alcohol or acetone. This washes the stain out of gram-negative cells. To see them now requires the use of a counterstain of a different color (e.g., the pink of safranin). Bacteria that are not decolorized by the alcohol/acetone wash are gram-positive
Dr. Ashish Jawarkar 8

Gram Positive bacteria


Staphylococci and streptococci constitute the main group of medically important gram positive bacteria There are also bacilli that are pathogenic such as Anthrax and the Clostridia group. These are also spore forming organisms There are also some other gram positive rods such as Listeria, Lactobacillus,and Cornybacterium Dr. Ashish Jawarkar diptheria

Staphylococci
Staphylococcus was first identified in 1880 in Aberdeen, United Kingdom, by the surgeon Sir Alexander Ogston in pus from a surgical abscess in a knee joint.[1] This name was later appended to Staphylococcus aureus by Rosenbach Main types
Staph aureus coagulase positive Staph epidermidis, staph hemolyticus, staph saphrophyticus coagulase negative
Dr. Ashish Jawarkar 10

Description headings for each bacteria

Morphology Growth characteristics Biochemical reactions Resistance Pathogenicity and virulence Epidemiology Diseases caused Laboratory diagnosis Treatment
Dr. Ashish Jawarkar 11

Staphylococci Morphology
Staphylococci stain dark purple with the gram stain. Staphylococci are arranged in grape like clusters Because they divide in three planes with daughter cells remaining in close proximity

Dr. Ashish Jawarkar

12

Dr. Ashish Jawarkar

13

Dr. Ashish Jawarkar

14

Description headings for each bacteria


Morphology Growth characteristics Biochemical reactions Resistance Pathogenicity and virulence Epidemiology Diseases caused Laboratory diagnosis Treatment

Dr. Ashish Jawarkar

15

Growth characteristics
Grow on ordinary media like nutrient agar Temperature 10-42 degree Produce golden yellow pigment

Dr. Ashish Jawarkar

16

Dr. Ashish Jawarkar

17

Description headings for each bacteria


Morphology Growth characteristics Biochemical reactions Resistance Pathogenicity and virulence Epidemiology Diseases caused Laboratory diagnosis Treatment

Dr. Ashish Jawarkar

18

Staphylococci biochemical reactions


The most virulent form of staphylococcus, SA also secretes coagulase, that causes citrated plasma to clot. These are referred to as coagulase positive There are other staph that do not have this ability and are labeled coagulase negative
Dr. Ashish Jawarkar 19

Coagulase test
Slide method or tube method In tube method we add culture of staphylococci and rabbit plasma Look for clot formation

Dr. Ashish Jawarkar

20

Dr. Ashish Jawarkar

21

Description headings for each bacteria


Morphology Growth characteristics Biochemical reactions Resistance Pathogenicity and virulence Epidemiology Diseases caused Laboratory diagnosis Treatment

Dr. Ashish Jawarkar

22

Resistance
Resistant to drying can remain in dried pus for 3-6 months resistant forms to penicillin have emerged

Produce penicillinase which inactivates penicillin Change surface receptors for penicillin Develop tolerance to penicillin bacteria inactivated, not killed
Dr. Ashish Jawarkar 23

Description headings for each bacteria


Morphology Growth characteristics Biochemical reactions Resistance Pathogenicity and virulence Epidemiology Diseases caused Laboratory diagnosis Treatment

Dr. Ashish Jawarkar

24

Pathogenicity
Cell surface protein protein A antiphagocytic property Clumping factor surface protein responsible for slide coagulase test Produce enzyme coagulase Produce toxins
Hemolytic toxins (leucocidins) Enterotoxin causes food poisoning vomitting, diarrhoea etc Toxic shock syndrome toxin produces hypotension and rash Epidermolytic toxin causes STAPHYLOCOCCAL SCALDED SKIN SYNDROME (ssss)
Dr. Ashish Jawarkar

25

Description headings for each bacteria


Morphology Growth characteristics Biochemical reactions Resistance Pathogenicity and virulence Epidemiology Diseases caused Laboratory diagnosis Treatment

Dr. Ashish Jawarkar

26

Staphylococcus aureus epidemiology


Carried by 20-40 % of healthy individuals in their mouth or on their skin It also found in their nasal mucosa Vagina increased risk of TSS during menstruation Umbilical stump infected during birth Fomites carry staphylococci for months Nosocomial infections by MRSA
Dr. Ashish Jawarkar 27

Description headings for each bacteria


Morphology Growth characteristics Biochemical reactions Resistance Pathogenicity and virulence Epidemiology Diseases caused Laboratory diagnosis Treatment

Dr. Ashish Jawarkar

28

Diseases caused by staphylococci

Dr. Ashish Jawarkar

29

Dr. Ashish Jawarkar

30

cellulitis

Dr. Ashish Jawarkar

31

boils

Dr. Ashish Jawarkar

32

boils

Dr. Ashish Jawarkar

33

Description headings for each bacteria


Morphology Growth characteristics Biochemical reactions Resistance Pathogenicity and virulence Epidemiology Diseases caused Laboratory diagnosis Treatment

Dr. Ashish Jawarkar

34

Lab diagnosis
Specimen to be collected
Skin pus Respiratory inf sputum Food poisoning stool For detection of carriers nasal swab

Dr. Ashish Jawarkar

35

Staining and microsocopy


Gram stained smears
Gram positive cocci in grape like clusters

Dr. Ashish Jawarkar

36

Culture
Nutrient agar/blood agar
Colonies with golden yellow pigment

Coagulase test

Dr. Ashish Jawarkar

37

Antibiotic susceptibility testing


In case of suspected hospital acquired infection

Dr. Ashish Jawarkar

38

Description headings for each bacteria


Morphology Growth characteristics Biochemical reactions Resistance Pathogenicity and virulence Epidemiology Diseases caused Laboratory diagnosis Treatment

Dr. Ashish Jawarkar

39

Treatment
Penicillin In resistant cases cloxacillin For MRSA - vancomycin

Dr. Ashish Jawarkar

40

Coagulase negative staph

S. epidermidis stitch abcess, grows on implants S. saprophyticus causes UTI

Dr. Ashish Jawarkar

41

THANK YOU

Dr. Ashish Jawarkar

42