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By GAUtam janaRDHan(09A207) AhmadullaH M(10A202) Ashwin A(10A206) Jayanth R(10A215) Ramki A(10A238) Gowtham kumar(11A434)

While designing a component there are no factors which are complex to evaluate with accuracy.Some of these are magnitude of external force variation in properties of materials variation in changes of dimension during casting To overcome these factor of safety is used FoS decribes the structural capacity of system beyond the expected loads or actual loads

Type of load:: FoS low if the external force acting is static .if force actiing is impact load Degree of accuracy of Force analysis::if force acting is uncertain FoS is high .if the force acting determined precisely FoS is low Material of component::component made up of homogenous ductile material FoS is low.if material is non-homogenous FoS is high

FACTORS AFFECTING FOS


Quality of manufacture::variations in dimensions will be less so low FoS.converse high FoS if Manufacturing quality is less Service conditions::machine element operate in corosive atmosphere high FoS is needed Testing of machine element::low FoS for component that can be tested under actual conditions of service.High FoS if there is deviation between testing and actual service conditions

SELECTION OF FOS
The selection of FoS is one of the difficult tasks faced by the designer.Some guidelines for selection of FoS cast iron : for cast iron components ultimate tensile strength is considered to be the failure criterion.Cast iron is non-homogenous structure and there are residual stresses.A large FoS usually 3 to 5 is used ductile materials(like steel): yield strength is considered to be the failure criterion.These ductile components have a homogenous structure and residual stresses can be relieved by proper heat treatment process.The recommended FoS is 1.5 to 2

SELECTION OF FOS
For components subjected to fluctuating forces endurance limit is considerde to be the failure criterion.These components fail due to fatigue.A number of factors like stress concentration,surface finish and size affect the endurance limit. The recommended FoS is 1.3 to 1.5 For components like cams and followers,gears,rolling contact bearings FoS is calculated based on endurance limit. The recommended FoS is 1.8 to 2.5

For components like piston rods,power srews or studs ,are designed on basis of buckling considerations. The recommended FoS is 3 to 6

CALCULATION OF FOS
General formula FoS=failure stress/allowable stress For ductile materials FoS=Syt/allowable stress For brittle materials FoS=Sut/allowable stress where Sytyield strength Sutultimate strength

DESIGN FOR AXIAL STRESS


Procedure Selection of material Selection of FoS Calculation of permissible stress Calculation of dimensions Problem It is required to design a cotter joint to connect two steel rods of equal diametre.Each rod is subjected to an axial tensile force of 50kN.Design the joint and specify its main dimensions.

DESIGN FOR AXIAL STRESS


STEP 1: Selection of material on basis of strength the material of the two rods and the cotter is selected as plain carbon steel of Grade 30C8(Syt=400N/mm) STEP 2: Selection of component:: FoS is taken 4 for cotter joint for following reasons no stress concentration in cotter cost of cotter is less

DESIGN FOR AXIAL STRESS


STEP 3: Calculation of permissible stress
t=Syt/FoS

=400/4=100N/mm

STEP 4: calculation of dimensions d= (4*p/) 0.5 =(4*50*10/*66.67) 0.5 =30.90mm

DESIGN FOR BENDING STRESS


PROCEDURE Step 1:Calculation of stresses b=Mb/Z STEP 2: SHEAR STRESS=T/Zp STEP 3: Calculation of dimension y/FoS=(+(4*))0.5 d=___

DESIGN FOR TORSIONAL STRESS


Step 1: =P/A Step 2: =T/Zp Step 3: ( +(3*))0.5=y/FoS d=__