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Developing Higher Test Questions (Using Blooms Taxonomy and 6 Facets of Understanding

Mrs. Celia R. Lacanlale EPS- Filipino, (Sec.)

!hy do "e assess#


To get information a$out "hat students have learned To get information to improve teaching and learning !hat sort of assessment

strategies do "e use#


Tests% tests% tests% more tests%

!hy do "e assess#


To get information a$out "hat students have learned To get information to improve teaching and learning !hat sort of assessment

strategies do "e use#


&ssays% posters% demonstrations% role plays% intervie"s% movies% 'o"er points% etc( ))

Benjamin Bloom
Taxonomy of &ducational *$+ectives (,-.6
Various types o learnin! outcomes "it#in t#e co!niti$e %omain
&'jecti$es coul% 'e classi ie% accor%in! to type o learner 'e#a$ior %escri'e% ( #ierarc#ical relations#ip e)ists amon! t#e $arious types o outcomes
Evaluation Synthesis Analysis Application Comprehension Knowledge

Bloom*s Learnin! +omains


/ffective - eelin!s, emotions an% 'e#a$ior, ie., attitu%e, or , eel, -o" emotions a ect learnin! Emotions, eelin!s, $alues, li.es, %esires

Behavioral - Psyc#omotor an% Multisensory - manual an%


p#ysical s.ills, ie., s.ills, or ,%o, -o" t#e mo$ement o t#e 'o%y is in$ol$e% in learnin! (ctions, p#ysical, %oin!

0ognitive - intellectual capa'ility, ie., .no"le%!e, or ,t#in.,


Learnin! actual in ormation +e$elopin! #i!#er-le$el t#in.in! an% analytical s.ills /#ou!#ts, un%erstan%in!, conceptual .no"le%!e

Bloom*s /a)onomy0 Co!niti$e +omain in (ction


12*!3&D4&5 %e ine, list, name, memori1e 0*6'7&H&289*25 i%enti y, %escri'e, e)plain /''390/T9*25 %emonstrate, use, s#o", teac# /2/3:8985 cate!ori1e, compare, calculate 8:2TH&8985 %esi!n, create, prepare, pre%ict &;/3U/T9*25 ju%!e, assess, rate, re$ise

/#in.in! Le$els
(s. stu%ents to %emonstrate0 1no"ledge - recall in ormation in ori!inal orm 0omprehension - s#o" un%erstan%in! /pplication - use learnin! in a ne" situation /nalysis - s#o" s2#e can see relations#ips 8ynthesis - com'ine an% inte!rate parts o prior .no"le%!e into a pro%uct, plan, or proposal t#at is ne" &valuation - assess an% critici1e on 'asis o stan%ar%s an% criteria

Bloom*s Re$ise% /a)onomy


Creatin! E$aluatin!

(naly1in!

(pplyin! 3n%erstan%in!

Remem'erin!

0reating 4 %esi!nin!, constructin!, plannin!, pro%ucin!, in$entin!, %e$isin!, ma.in! &valuating 4 c#ec.in!, #ypot#esi1in!, criti5uin!, e)perimentin!, ju%!in!, testin!, %etectin!, monitorin! /naly<ing 4 comparin!, or!ani1in!, %econstructin!, attri'utin!, outlinin!, in%in!, structurin!, inte!ratin! /pplying 4 implementin!, carryin! out, usin!, e)ecutin! Understanding 4 interpretin!, summari1in!, in errin!, parap#rasin!, classi yin!, comparin!, e)plainin!, e)empli yin! 7emem$ering 4 reco!ni1in!, listin!, %escri'in!, i%enti yin!, retrie$in!, namin!, locatin!, in%in! http://

u" .e%u2cutla2assessstu%ent.c m

Bloomin! 6uestions
1no"ledge or 7emem$ering 4 Recallin! 7n ormation
8#ere 4 8#at 4 8#o 4 -o" many 4

0omprehension or Understanding 4
/ell me in your o"n "or%s 4 8#at %oes it mean9 :i$e me an e)ample, %escri'e, illustrate

/pplication 4 3sin! learnin! in a ne" situation


8#at "oul% #appen i ;9 8oul% you #a$e %one t#e same;9 -o" "oul% you sol$e t#is pro'lem9 7n t#e li'rary, locate an% report in ormation a'out;.

Framin! Essential 6uestions


Essential 6uestions at t#e top o Bloom*s /a)onomy
0reate - inno$ate &valuate 4 ma.e a t#ou!#t ul c#oice 'et"een options, "it# t#e c#oice 'ase% on a clearly state% criteria 8ynthesi<e 4 in$ent a ne" or %i erent $ersion /naly<e 4 %e$elop a t#orou!# an% comple) un%erstan%in! t#rou!# s.ill ul 5uestionin!.

-i!#est Le$els o 6uestionin!


&valuation and 8ynthesis <u%!ment 'ase% on Criteria =. Literature
8oul% you recommen% t#is 'oo. 4 !H: or !H: not# Select t#e 'est 4 !H:# =( 8#ic# person in #istory "oul% you most li.e to meet 4 an% !H:# 7s t#e 5uality !oo% or 'a%9 !H:# Coul% t#is story #a$e #appene%9 !H:#

Creatin! at top o re$ise% Bloom*s /a)onomy - 9nnovation

More Bloomin! 6uestions


/nalysis 4 ('ility to see parts2relations#ips
8#at ot#er "ays;9 Similar2+i erent (Venn) 7nterpretation 4 8#at .in% o person;9 8#at cause% t#e person to react in t#is "ay;9 8#at part "as most e)citin!, sa%;9

8ynthesis 4 Parts o in ormation to create ori!inal "#ole


8#at "oul% it 'e li.e i ;9 +esi!n, preten%, use your ima!ination, "rite a ne"

en%in!;

Bloom*s &ri!inal /a)onomy "it# (ction Ver's an% Pro%ucts


Know Remember name memorize record list match write state repeat Comprehend Understand describe discuss give examples locate tell find report predict review recognize estimate Use Apply Analyze Take Apart sort classify distinguish experiment compare contrast diagram debate solve examine inventory Synthesize Create New design plan propose arrange assemble develop produce organize manage revise Evaluate Jud e rate value appraise decide choose score select assess debate recommend translate practice illustrate sketch solve show employ

!ehaviors" A#tion $erbs

%rodu#ts" &ut#omes Assi nments Assessments %resentations E'periments %er(orman#es

facts events models filmstrips books

puzzles stories games journals illustrations drawings

maps sculptures diorama scrapbook mobile collections diagrams

graphs surveys questionnaires reports objects

news polls articles panels poems recommendations machines discussions songs simulations plays evaluations hypotheses surveys

Virginia ech ! http://www"edtech"vt"edu/edtech/id/assess/behavior"html

Let us %o a s#ort test

Blooms Taxonomy

=. (lin sa m!a sumusuno% na 'ansa an! .a'ilan! sa /imo! Silan!an! (sya9 a. B#utan, >epal, 7n%ia '. <apan, ?orea, C#ina c. Malaysia, Vietnam, Cam'o%ia %. . Sau%i (ra'ia, E!ypt, 7srael

Blooms Taxonomy
@. 8#at is t#e "riter*s purpose in "ritin! t#is e)cerpt o t#e 5uotation 'elo"9 AE$ery success ul person #as a pain ul story an% a success ul en%in!. >o one can !o 'ac. an% c#an!e a 'a% 'e!innin!, 'ut anyone can start an% create success ully.B a. to console '. to in orm c. to narrate %. to persua%e

Blooms Taxonomy

C. Manan! Bec#ay can "ea$e D=E yar%s o

clot# e$ery =@ #ours. -o" many yar%s "ill s#e "ea$e in =E #ours9 a. E@F '. EGF c.EEF %. EHH

Blooms Taxonomy
G. ( "a$e tra$els rom t#e sur ace o a %eep "ater !oin! to

s#allo" "ater. 8#at "ill most li.ely to #appen to t#e "a$e9 a. its re5uency %ecreases '. its "a$elen!t# %ecreases, #ence t#e $elocity %ecreases c. its "a$elen!t# increases, #ence t#e $elocity %ecreases %. its "a$elen!t# %ecreases, #ence t#e $elocity increases

Blooms Taxonomy

D. Pa!.atapos ma'asa an! la!om n!

."enton! A(an#in >ino AIan sa i'a'a, 'umuo n! isan! 'alita 'atay sa m!a impormasyon! na.atala.

Blooms Taxonomy

E. (ns"er t#is 5uestion on t#e ot#er si%e o

t#e paper0 7 you "ere as.e% to compare 7n%onesia*s !o$ernment "it# C#ina*s, "#at criteria "oul% you use9 8#y9

J. 9salin sa grapi>ong orgnayser na ;enn Diagram ang talata sa i$a$a(


J. Si <ose P. Laurel ay #ali!i n! 'ansa, mapa!.alin!an! !uro, tini! n! 'atas at #u.uman, may ma.a'ayan! %i"a at !a'ay n! .atoto#anan para sa Pilipino at san!.atau#an. Samantala, si <ose Ri1al , an! pama'ansan! 'ayani ay .ini.ilan! +a.ilan! (syano, +a.ilan! Malayo at na!in! inspirasyon n! m!a Pilipino sa .anilan! pa!sisi.ap na ma!in! malaya. Ma!.ai'a man an! .anilan! pana#on, su'alit .ap"a sila may pa!mama#al sa 'ayan, may pananali! sa +iyos at sarili. J
=. @. C. . H . K . G. D. E.

?( Basahin ang mga sumusunod na pangyayari at ilagay sa >ahon ang mga ang>op na titi> upang ma$uo ang $uod ng 9$ong /darna(

a. 3nan! pa!tata.sil n! ma!.apati% .ay +on <uan


'.Pa!papanum'ali. n! alaala ni +on <uan .ay +ona Maria. c. Pa!papa.asal n! m!a tau#an at pa!#a#ari sa .ani.anilan! .a#arian %. Pa!tu.oy sa m!a tau#an at ta!puan n! .ori%o e. Pan!ala"an! pa!tata.sil nina +on Pe%ro .ay +on <uan . Pa!.asa.it n! #ari at pa!#a#anap sa 7'on! (%arna n! =. @. C. G. tatlon! ma!.apati% !. Pa.i.ipa!sapalaran ni +on <uan sa Reino +elos Cristales
J. E. D.

K. 8#at comes ne)t9 =, G, @, H, C, =@, G, =E, D, @F, ELLLLLLLLLLL a. J '. H c.@G %. @H

,@( 6itochondria are called the po"erhouses of the cell $ecause they ma>e energy availa$le for cellular meta$olism( !hich of the follo"ing o$servations is most cogent in supporting this concept of mitochondrial function#
a. (%enosine triposp#ate ((/P) occurs in t#e mitoc#on%ria. '. Mitoc#on%ria #a$e a %ou'le mem'rane. c. Mitoc#on%ria are oun% in almost all .in%s o plants an% animal cells. %. Mitoc#on%ria a'oun% in muscle tissue. e. /#e en1ymes o t#e ?re's cycle, an% molecules re5uire% or terminal respiration, are oun% in mitoc#on%ria.

- fr. Dr. Michael Tansey (Indiana Univ., Bloomington)

!hat did "e notice#


- 7n your !roup - S#are

2ext /ctivity

Si) Facets o 3n%erstan%in!


9n your group la$el the follo"ing AuestionsBitems if they are5 =. E)planation @. 7nterpretation C. (pplication G. Perspecti$e D. Empat#y E. Sel -.no"le%!e

Facets o 3n%erstan%in!
,( *ne difference $et"een a $ean seed and a corn >ernel is thatCCCCCCCCCC( a. ( 'ean see% #as a see% coat 'ut a .ernel o corn %oes not. '. ( 'ean see% #as t"o cotyle%onsM a corn .ernel #as one. c. /#e 'ean contains store% oo%M t#e corn %oes not. %. /#e 'ean em'ryo #as lea$es, "#ile t#e corn em'ryo lac.s lea$es.

Facets o 3n%erstan%in!
=( / university consists of three colleges5 $usiness% engineering and fine arts( There are =-@@ students in the $usiness college% ,.@@ students in engineering college% and ,,@@ students in the fine arts college( !hat percent of the total num$er of students in the university are in the fine arts college# a. =F N '. @FN c. @D N %. DFN

7ead the selection and ans"er the Auestions that follo"( 0hoose the letter of the $est option that "ill ans"er or complete the passage(

Facets o 3n%erstan%in!

+on*t 'e oole% 'y me. +on*t 'e oole% 'y t#e ace 7 "ear or 7 "ear a t#ousan% mas.s, mas.s t#at 7 am a rai% to ta.e o an% none o t#em are me. Preten%in! is an art t#at is secon% nature to me. 7 !i$e t#e impression t#at 7 am secure, t#at e$eryt#in! is ine "it# me, t#at con i%ence is my name an% coolness is my !ame. (n% t#at 7 nee% no one. But %on*t 'e oole% 'y me. My sur ace seems smoot#, 'ut my sur ace is my mas.. Beneat# t#e mas. is t#e real me- con use%, ri!#tene% an% alone. But 7 #i%e t#is. 7 %on*t "ant anyone to .no" it. 7 panic at t#e t#ou!#t o my "ea.ness an% ear 'ein! e)pose%. /#at is "#y 7 create a mas. to #i%e 'e#in%- a nonc#alant, sop#isticate% aOa%e to #elp me preten%, to s#iel% me rom t#e !lance t#at .no"s. - C#arles C. Finn (+on*t Be Foole% By Me)

D( 9n "riting the article% "hat does the author "ant the readers to do# a. Copy #is calm %emeanor '. (ppreciate #is calm %emeanor c. Loo. 'eyon% #is calm %emeanor %. Be impresse% 'y #is calm %emeanor E( !ith "hich of the follo"ing statements "ould the author most li>ely agree# e. 8ear your #eart out on slee$e. . Sop#isticate% people are success ul. !. +o not 'e %ecei$e% 'y sur ace appearances. #. 8e nee% mas.s to loo. sop#isticate% an% con i%ent.

Facets o 3n%erstan%in!
.( Develop a script simulating the different vie"s of people a$out the 7eproductive Health Bill(

0riteria5 credi$le% revealing% insightful% plausi$le% unusual

Facets o 3n%erstan%in!
E . +apat 'an! turuan an! ma!-aaral sa 'aitan! J n! Arepro%ucti$e #ealt#B 9 7pali"ana! .un! 'a.it naii'a2 pare#o an! iyon! opinyon sa posisyon n! Sim'a#an! ?atoli.o. Criteria0 sel a"are, meta-co!niti$e, sel a%justin!, re lecti$e, "ise

+i erentiatin! Bet"een t#e E Facets


Facet
E'planation: sophisticated explanations and theories

E'planation
#ffers an explicit theory or sound reasons $%why% and &because% behind facts' claims or actions"

)nterpretation: interpretations' narratives' #ffers meaning and insight to explanation and translations" through metaphors' stories' analogies"

Appli#ation: uses knowledge in new situations and contexts

(emonstration and utilization of understandings

+i erentiatin! Bet"een t#e E Facets


*a#et E'planation
%erspe#tive: critical and insightful points (istancing of self to critically examine of view strengths' weaknesses' and assumptions behind actions and ideas" )bility to recognize and coordinate multiple points of view in situations *without necessarily showing empathy

Empathy: ability to get inside another person+s feelings Sel(+Knowled e: to know one+s ignorance' prejudice' and understanding

(eliberate projection of self into a person+s life or author+s text ,uccess at the behavior called &reflection% and to recognize ones own mental &filters'% biases' and values

The Six acets of Understanding (Bro!n)


&xplanation5 Bac>ing up claims and assertions "ith evidence( 9nterpretation5 Dra"ing inferences and generating something ne" from them( /pplication5 Using >no"ledge and s>ills in a ne" or unanticipated setting or situation( 'erspective5 /naly<ing differing points of vie" a$out a topic or issue( &mpathy5 Demonstrating the a$ility to "al> in anothers shoes( 8elfF1no"ledge5 /ssessing and evaluating ones o"n thin>ing and learning5 revising% rethin>ing% revisiting% refining(

"ssessing #o$r "ssessments (% . &'()


Do yo$ ma)e $se of

Tests and Aui<<es that include constructedFresponse items# 7eflective assessments (reflective +ournals% thin> logs% peer response groups% intervie"s # /cademic prompts "ith a F/TF' ( format% audience topic% purpose clearly stated# 0ulminating performance assessment tas>s and pro+ects#

/ssessing Understanding5 8ome 8tarting 'oints


(ssessment an% instruction are ine)trica'ly lin.e%. /#e nature o your %esire% result(s) "ill %etermine t#e type(s) o assessment tas. you use to monitor stu%ent ac#ie$ement. 8#en assessin! or un%erstan%in!, more t#an selecte%-response test items (truealse, ill in t#e 'lan., multiple c#oice) are re5uire%.

8ample 0onstructedF 7esponse Test 9tems


=. +e en% or ne!ate t#e ollo"in! statement0 /#ose "#o ail to learn rom t#e past are con%emne% to repeat it. @. E)amine t#e solution to t#e mat# "or% pro'lem presente% 'elo". +escri'e an alternati$ean% more e icient"ay o sol$in! it. C. &'ser$e t#e ollo"in! $i%eotape, "#ic# #i!#li!#ts elements o a local eco-system. +escri'e your o'ser$ations an% conclusions a'out t#e #ealt# o t#at system.

Constructe%-Response /est 7tems


Re5uire some orm o per ormance 'y t#e stu%ent "it#in t#e testin! situation. 7n$ol$e stu%ents in %emonstrations o un%erstan%in!, not just .no"le%!e-recall learnin!. (re o ten "ritten, 'ut can 'e %i erentiate% to allo" or alternati$e approac#es. Can in$ol$e some orm o c#oice 'y t#e learner.

Formal an% 7n ormal Re lecti$e (ssessments


Encoura!e stu%ents to internali1e an% apply to t#emsel$es an% peers si!ni icant e$aluation stan%ar%s an% criteria. En!a!e stu%ents in sel -e$aluation an% metaco!niti$e processin!. Ensure t#at all learners are 'ecomin! sel monitorin! an% are o"nin! t#e e$aluation criteria. Encoura!e acti$e ee%'ac. an% a%justment.

The /cademic 'rompt


( structure% per ormance tas. t#at elicits t#e stu%ents creation o a controlle% per ormance or pro%uct. /#ese per ormances an% pro%ucts s#oul% ali!n "it# criteria e)presse% in a scorin! !ui%e or ru'ric. Success ul prompts articulate a ormat, au%ience, topic2content ocus, an% purpose.

/ 8ample /cademic 'rompt "ith a F/TF'


Thin> a$out a time "hen you "ere surprised (to*ic). !rite a letter (format) to a friend (a$dience) in "hich you descri$e that experience( Use a logical narrative seAuence "ith concrete sensory details to help your friend understand "hat this event "as li>e and ho" you experienced it (*$r*ose).

+lements of an +ffective %erformance Tas) and ,$lminating %ro-ect

4GrealF"orld goals 7GrealF"orld role(s /GrealF"orld audience 8GrealF"orld situation 'GrealF"orld products and performances 8Gstandards for accepta$le performance

" Sam*le ../.".S.%.S.


Iou are a mem$er of a team of scientists investigating deforestation of the /ma<on rain forest( Iou are responsi'le or gathering scientific data (inclu%in! suc# $isual e$i%ence as p#oto!rap#s) an% producing a scientific report in "#ic# you summari1e current con%itions, possi'le uture tren%s, an% t#eir implications or 'ot# t#e (ma1on itsel an% its 'roa%er in luence on our planet. Iour report, "#ic# you "ill present to a United 2ations su$Fcommittee, s#oul% inclu%e detailed and fullyFsupported recommendations or an action plan "hich are clear and complete.

:oure a !innerH
7emem$er that lottery tic>et you and your team purchased at the $eginning of the summer# 9t turns out you are all "innersH :ou and your team have "on a vacation dream house "orth '=%@@@%@@@( /s is true for anything in life% your dream house comes "ith a fe" small print issues you "ill have to address

The 8mallF'rint 9ssues


:ou and your team can $uild your house any"here in the 'hilippines( :ou are allo"ed to $uild only one structure (not multiple d"ellings % $ut you can design that structure any "ay you li>e( :ou must use your '=%@@@%@@@ (tax free to $uy $oth the land and the house you put on it( /ny remaining funds can $e used to maintain the house( *nce it is $uilt% you cannot sell the property for five years( :ou must all >eep possession of it for that period( :our +o$ no" is to determine "here it "ill $e $uilt% "hat its design features "ill $e% and ho" you all "ill manage it( Be prepared to share your plan "ith the 3ottery /dvisory Board so that they approve it( :ou "ill $e evaluated on5 (a ho" "ell you fulfill the terms of the agreementI ($ positive group dynamics and pro$lemFsolvingI and (c Auality of your final presentation(

(ssessment0 -o" %o you measure "#at stu%ents #a$e learne%9


/ra%itional 5ui11es an% tests
Paper2pencil
Selecte% response Constructe% response
-orth being familiar with

Per ormance tas.s an% projects


&pen-en%e% Comple) (ut#entic

.mportant to know and do

/nduring 0nderstanding

0nderstanding by (esign

6 Thin>ing Hats
(t your ta'le, %eci%e on a topic t#at one o you is teac#in!

- +e$elop E 5uestions2test item or t#e topic (o'jecti$e), appropriate to t#e class. &ne 5uestion or eac# #at. - S#are

E)planatio E)planation n 7nterpretatio 7nterpretan tion Perspecti$e

Empat#y (nalysis Sel .no"le%!e

REFERE>CES
(n%erson, Loren 8. @FFC. Classroom (ssessment. En#ancin! t#e 6uality o /eac#er +ecision Ma.in!, >e" <ersey0 La"rence Erl'aum (ssociate, 7nc. Mc /i!#e0 (rant 8i!!ins. @FFG. 3n%erstan%in! 'y +esi!n. Pro essional +e$*t 8or.'oo., (le)an%ria, V(0 (SC+. """.sli%ess#are.net2carlapiper2essential-5uestionsECK@H@=

Unless assessment improves the teachingF learning process% it does not serve any purpose at allH
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