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CH 4202 COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN PROJECT

DESIGN OF A SOY BEAN BASED PRINTING INK MANUFACTURING PLANT

Contents

Introduction Process Environment,

Health and Safety Cost Analysis and Conclusion

INTRODUCTION

PRINTING INK MANUFACTURING PROCESS


1. Varnish production (mixture of solvent, resins and additives) - bind the pigment to the printed

surface and wet the pigment particles


2. Mix with pigment - pigment particles tend to

clump together which disperse using roll mills,


Bead mills or Cavitation mixer

COMPONENTS IN PRINTING INK

~80%
Solvent

Resins

Additives

Pigment

ALTERNATIVE VEGETABLE OILS FOR PETROLIUM

Linseed oil - A cool humid climate with temperature ranging from 10C to 27C. Castor oil North Parts of India and Russia China etc / A low temperature (less than 15C) in the seed bed prolongs the emergence of seedlings. Soy bean oil - (21C -32C) /warm and moist climate,(Soybean is cultivated in Matale, Anuradhapura, Kurunegala, NuwaraEliya, Monaragala, Badulla,and Polonnaruwa disrtcts)

IMPORTANT OF SOY BEAN INK


Replace Petroleum ink

Grown in

Sri Lanka

Lower the Production Costs by 20%-50%

Easy to De Ink Papers

Less VOCs

Sustainable
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SOY BEAN OIL EXTRACTION PROCESS


Expellers/press
Solvent Super

Mechanical process Diffusion of a solvent into oil bearing cells extraction of flavors and fragrances

extraction

Critical Oil

The

extraction
Enzymatic Osmotic

using supercritical CO2 Extrusions Enzyme is used to degrade cell walls

shock

Sudden reduction of osmotic pressure by osmotic shock, can rupture the cells, and

release oil off the surface


Ultra

sonic assisted

Ultrasonic assisted process can generally accelerate extraction


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extraction

COMPONENTS OF SOY BEAN OIL


Component Triacylglycerol Phospholipids Un-saponifable matter Sterols Tocopherols Hydrocarbons Free fatty acids Trace iron metals copper Percentage % 94.4 3.7 1.3-1.6 0.23 0.13 0.38 0.3-0.7 1-3 ppm

0.03-0.05 ppm
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SUGGESTED SOY BEAN INK PLANT


Parameter Annual demand of ink Target market share Amount 2160 MT 50%

Average Soybean oil in ink (60%w/w)


Oil yield(w/w)

648 MT
15%

Required Soybean
Soy bean yield Area required for cultivation Percentage of Cultivate Land required

4322 MT/Year
2 (MT/ha) 2161 (ha) 60% 1300 (ha)
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SITE SELECTION

Climate and cultivation Availability of labor Transportation Availability of utilities Galgamuwa In Kurunagala district

Local community and wild


life

Political and other aspects


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PROCESS
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OVERALL PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM


Soy bean seeds Oil extracting plant

Crude soy bean oil

Refining plant

Refined Bleached De-odorized Soy Bean Oil Ink manufacturing plant


MFD

Soy bean oil based printing ink


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OIL EXTRACTING PLANT

Soy Bean Seeds

Crusher

Cracked Soy Bean

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OIL EXTRACTION PLANT


Air Cyclone Separator Hulls

Air + Hulls
Cracked Soy Bean

Aspirator

Dehulled Cracked Soy Bean

Air

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OIL EXTRACTION PLANT

Steam

Dehulled Cracked Soy Bean

Conditioner

Cooked Soy Bean

Steam
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OIL EXTRACTION PLANT

Moisture

Cooked Soy Bean

Flaking

Roll mill

Drying

Dried Soy Bean Flakes

Removal of Moisture from 13% to 8%


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OIL EXTRACTION PLANT


Distillation
Make up hexane Dried Soy Bean Flakes

Water Solvent extractor Flash Distillation

Filtration Foots

Steam

Desolventizor

Cyclone Separator

Meal

Foots

Crude Soy Bean Oil


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REFINING PLANT
Phosphoric acid

Crude Soy Bean Oil

Hydrator

Neutralization Tank

NaOH

Water

Centrifuger

Primary Centrifuged Soy Bean Oil

Water
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REFINING PLANT
Primary centrifuged soy bean oil

Washing

Centrifuging

Secondary Centrifuged Soy Bean Oil

Water

Water

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REFINING PLANT
Secondary Centrifuged Soy Bean Oil

Steam

Bleaching by Activated Carbon

De-odorizing by Vacuum Distillation

Refined Bleached Deodorized Soy Bean Oil

Pigments

Low boiling compounds

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INK MANUFACTURING PLANT


Dibutilene Oxide Styrene Allyl Alcohol

RBD Soy Bean Oil

Alkyd Resin Reactor

Alkyd Resin

Purge Nitrogen

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INK MANUFACTURING PLANT

From this point onwards process is divided according

to the variation of the product.


Letter press black Letter press color

Lithography black
Gravure

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INK MANUFACTURING PLANT


Letter Press Black
Alkyd resin

Oil & resin reactor

3 role mill

Bead mill

Product

RBD soy bean oil

Inline Injection

1. Carbon black 2. Magnesium Carbonate

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INK MANUFACTURING PLANT


Letter Press Color
Alkyd resin

Oil & resin reactor

3 role mill

Bead mill

Product

RBD soy bean oil

Inline Injection

1. Pigments 2. Pigment extenders 3. Magnesium carbonate

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INK MANUFACTURING PLANT


Lithography Black
Alkyd resin

Oil & resin reactor

3 role mill

Bead mill

Product

RBD soy bean oil

Inline Injection

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Pigments Polyethylene wax paste Anti set off paints Manganese dries 2800C-3200C petroleum distillate
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INK MANUFACTURING PLANT


Gravure
Alkyd resin
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Pigments Alcohol Soluble Nitrocellulose Dioctyl Phthalate Polyethylene Wax Ethanol N- Propyl Acetate Magnesium Carbonate Ethoxy Propanol

Oil & resin reactor

3 role mill

Bead mill

Product

RBD soy bean oil

Inline Injection
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PLANT REQUIREMENTS

Steam Requirement
1bar steam 3bar steam 40bar steam - 1542.19 kg/hr - 1695.35 kg/hr - 140.82 kg/hr

Water Requirement for 1 MT soy oil is 20.83 m3 Staff Requirement


Managerial Staff Operational Staff 10 90

The average profit generated by 1 MT of soy oil based


printing ink is about 196,048 LKR
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ENVIRONMENT HEALTH & SAFETY


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ENVIRONMENT
Need to consider following four aspects Air

Water
Land Sound

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AIR
Possible Emissions How to Minimize
-VOCs -Use of Scrubbers -Use of Stack Emission

-NOx
-SOx

-Dust

-Controlling Systems

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WATER
Possible Emissions
-Fat

How to Minimize

-Suspended Solids
-BOD is High

-Pigments

-Primary Settling Tank with Poly Aluminum Chloride is a settling agent -Soy Bean Meals can be used as a adsorbent
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LAND
Possible Pollutions
-Soil Erosion (due to excessive use of fertilizers) -Solid waste emission

How to Minimize

-Use of organic fertilizers

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SOUND
Possible Pollutions
-Cracking machines
-Grinding machines

How to Minimize

-Machines with good quality


-Using sound proof materials for walls

-Good maintenance

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HEALTH
Medical checkup at recruiting workers
Continuous Annual medical checkups Medical checkup at dismissing workers
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SAFETY
1

Eliminate the hazard

Substitute the hazard with lower hazard

Isolate the hazard

Engineer/ Redesign the task

Administration (Implement policies, procedures and trainings)

Introduction of PPE (Personal Protective Equipment)

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ACCIDENTS
Possible Accidents
-Physical Accidents
-Chemical Accidents

How to Minimize

-Proper storage of raw materials


-Proper handling of raw materials

-Use of proper Personal Protective Equipment


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FIRE PROTECTION
Fire Prevention
-Proper storage of raw materials -Changing the attitude of the people

Fire Fighting

-Use of Fire Alarms


Automatic Manual Semi Automatic

-Use of Fire Extinguishers

-Practical Knowledge
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COST ANALYSIS & CONCLUSION


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PRINTING INK IMPORTS


Quantity (MT)
2500 2000 1500 1000 500 25,000,000 20,000,000 15,000,000 10,000,000 5,000,000 0

Cost ($)

0 2008 2009
2005 2006 2007 2010 2011

2009

2005

2006

2007

2008

2010

2011
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TARGET PRODUCTS AND THEIR ANNUAL QUANTITIES


1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0

1630

2%

Sales

12% 631 303 65 24% 62%

Lithography

Gravure Letterpress- Black

Sales

Letterpress Color

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ECONOMIC BENEFITS
Agricultural Sector and Soy Bean Cultivation Reducing the Imported Ink Job Creation

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WASTE TO ENERGY (WTE)


Saving 26.6% of the HFO cost Solid waste disposal Sustainability

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ANNUAL COST VARIATION OF HFO

Figure .: Possible Annual Saving on Steam using WTE Concept

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CAPITAL INVESTMENT COSTS


Capital Cost Element Billion LKR

Cost for 3300 acres to cultivate soy bean


Plant for manufacturing printing ink Plant for refined soy oil from soy seeds

2.640
0.185 0.313

Total capital investment

3.138

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CAPITAL INVESTMENT COST BREAK DOWN


6%
10%

84%

Cost of plant for manufacturing printing ink Cost of the plant for refined soy oil from soy seeds Cost for 3300 acres for agriculture

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OPERATIONAL COSTS
Fixed costs Cost of maintenances (labor and Variable costs Cost of purchasing soy bean

materials)
Cost of operating labor Laboratory costs Cost of purchasing other Additives Miscellaneous operating material cost Supervision cost Cost of plant overheads Cost of capital charges Local Tax Insurance Cost of building, equipment, materials and employees etc. Cost of Utilities (Services) Heating Cost Electricity Cost Packing and Shipping Cost Process water cost

Water treatment cost

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COMMISSIONING

Commissioning year (2015) design capacity 38%

Maximum operating capacity 81% reach 2035


Excessive 19% design for case of excessive demand increase

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INVESTMENT SUMMARY
Capital investment cost Payback period Discount factor 3.1 Billion LKR 8 years 8%

IRR (Internal Rate of Return)


NPV (Net Present Value)

9.83%
4.5 Billion LKR

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AKNOWLEDGEMENT

Head of the Department Dr. P.G. Rathnasiri Group Supervisor Dr. B.A.J.K. Premachandra Project Coordinator Dr. Marliya Ismail All members in lecture panel Mrs. N. Candappa - technical director of Sithara Ink

Industries, Rathmalana

ITI Staff (Industrial Technology Institute) Library Staff, University of Moratuwa


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THANK YOU
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APPENDICES

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COMPOSITION OF TRIACYLGLYCEROL
Component Weigh
percentage -linolenic acid 08.4%

Boiling point
(oC) 230

Linoleic acid
Oleic acid Stearic acid

53.2%
23.4% 04.0%

230-232
360 232

Palmtic acid

11.0%

351
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SEASONAL SOYBEAN CULTIVATION IN SRI LANKA


YEAR Extent (ha) Yala Production (MT) 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 380 470 380 360 1,080 2,190 1,120 2,720 2,640 2,570 1,010 1,230 410 520 410 180 1,010 2,670 1,650 4,380 4,460 4,310 2,720 2,990 Yield (MT/ha) 1.08 1.11 1.08 0.50 0.94 1.22 1.47 1.61 1.69 1.68 2.69 2.43 350 310 280 180 360 180 360 430 290 220 430 710 Extent (ha) Maha Production (MT) 280 230 220 150 290 240 610 720 490 310 800 1,350 Yield (MT/ha) 0.80 0.74 0.79 0.83 0.81 1.33 1.69 1.67 1.69 1.41 1.86 1.90
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5000 4500 4000 3500 3000

SEASONAL CULTIVATION OF SOYBEAN IN SRI LANKA

Yala - Extent (ha)

2500 2000 1500 1000


500 0 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

Yala - Production (MT) Maha - Extent (ha)

Maha - Production (MT)

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Annual Cultivation of Soybean in Sri Lanka


YEAR Extent (ha) Annual Production (MT) Yield (MT/ha)

1998
1999 2000 2001

730
780 660 540

690
750 630 330

0.95
0.96 0.95 0.61

2002
2003 2004 2005

1440
2370 1480 3150

1300
2910 2260 5100

0.90
1.23 1.53 1.62

2006
2007 2008 2009

2930
2790 1440 1940

4950
4620 3520 4340

1.69
1.66 2.44 2.24
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ANNUAL CULTIVATION OF SOYBEAN IN SRI LANKA


6000 5000

4000

3000

Annual Extent (ha) Annual Production (MT)

2000

1000

0 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
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ANNUAL YIELD OF SOYBEAN (MT/ha)


3.00 2.50

Annual Yieald (MT/ha)

2.00

1.50

1.00

0.50

0.00 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008


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VARIETIES OF SOYBEAN IN SRI LANKAN CONTEXT

Soybean Variety PB-01 PM-13 PM-25

Oil Content (w/w%) 20% 18% 18%

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Projected Ink Demand (MT)


6,000
y = 139.47x - 278565

5,000

4,000

3,000

2,000

1,000

0 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040

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Year

2015 LKR

Revenue Fixed Costs Maintenance (labor and materials). Operating labor. Laboratory costs. Supervision cost Cost of Plant overheads. Cost of capital charges.

1,989,709,886

156,899,992 58,600,000 11,720,000 11,720,000 11,720,000 313,799,985

Cost of local Tax


Insurance Cost Waste water treatment cost (Less)Total Fixed Costs Variable Costs Cost of soybean seeds Cost of other Additives Miscellaneous operating materials.

31,379,998
31,379,998 6,000,000 (633,219,974)

484,877,551 283,737,305 47,069,998

Heating Cost
Electricity cost Process water cost Transporting and packaging cost (Less)Total Variable Costs Operating Profit (Less) Corporate tax 28%

12,815,851
4,186,771 3,931,232 99,485,494 (936,104,201) 439,201,562 (122,976,437)
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Alkyd Resin

Crude Soybean Oil Composition

Component Myristic acid Palmitic acid Stearic acid Oleic acid Linoleic acid (LA) Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) FFA Water Hexane

kg/hr 0.8080 39.6517 13.0476 68.0812 157.9484 19.7211 0.0350 5.7373 38.3706

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Pay Back time reduction


If the investment is only made for the Soy bean oil extraction and ink manufacturing plant only, the pay back period will be 2 years. Provided that the continuous supply of the soy bean from local suppliers is guaranteed.

Profit

With Land

With out Land

NPV 4.5 B LKR

IRR 9.83%

Pay back 8 years

NPV 7.2 B LKR

IRR 64.8%

Pay back 2 years

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Oil Extraction Capacity Overall Plant Capacity Thermal Energy Requirement Electricity Requirement

1400 MT/ Year 2600 MT/ Year 7600 MJ/ Ton 2067 MWh

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Hulls content in soybeans Material waste in crushing De-hulling efficiency (removal of hulls) Loss of cracked bean while de-hulling Efficiency of cyclone separator 01 Moisture content in soybeans & hulls Heat transfer efficiency of conditioner Percentage condensation of steam in conditioner

5.51% w/w 2.00% 100.00% 5.00% 98.00% 10.00% w/w 75.00% 25.00%

Material waste in flacking


Moisture removal in dryer Oil content in soybeans Solvent : soybean meal ratio Percentage of Foots transferred to miscella Hexane : Dried soybean flakes ratio

2.00%
13.73% to 8% w/w 19.00% w/w 1 w/w 5% w/w 1.00

Removal of foots by filtration


Operating temperature for flash chamber Operating pressure for flash chamber Recovery of hexane in hexane water distillation Recovery of water in hexane water distillation Residual oil in desolventized cake Hexane in desolventized cake Percentage condensation of steam in de-solventizer Gum percentage in crude soybean oil Hydratable gum percentage in crude soybean oil Non-hydratable gum percentage in crude soybean oil Water used when hydration as a percentage to oil Phosphoric acid used as a percentage to oil

100%
115 oC 30 kPa 99% 2% 1.20% w/w 1.00% w/w 25.00% 3.00% w/w 2.70% w/w 0.30% w/w 5.00% w/w 0.34% w/w
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Conversion

Extraction Plant Refining Plant

16.04 % 83.28 %

To produce 1MT of Printing Ink 4MT of Soybean seeds are needed

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