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Bernoulli's Equation
Total Head, m

water travels very slowly through soil as opposed to channel flow

Elevation Head, m

p v hz w 2g
Fluid Pressure Head, m

Velocity Head, m

Bernoulli's Equation For Seepage through soil:
Pore Water Pressure, kPa

u hz w

Total Head Hydraulic Loss, In terms h in Gradient of water Bernouli: seeping (Slope),from i: A to B:

h hA
uA w

h head loss i or L distance over which head loss occurs

hB zA

uB w



Say The The we path water The constructed of energy would the flow seep driving a tank would from the in be the the seepage, curved lab left like chamber, as h? this shown. one. through the soil and into the right chamber.

If Lines Line we ab stretch ca and is the cefd the upstream tank, are the we equipotential boundaries have a mainly of Line bd is the downstream equipotential horizontal boundarychannel this where flow the for channel the total seepage head isflow h boundary where the total head is 0 from the left chamber to the right

at In The If What bd ca order we water h divide would = to h 0would determine the the rise total seepage to the head the journey total be same at head into level theand half equally on pore the way water hydraulic spaced pressure drops grade mark at inline (at head anyfrom points point then each in x, we the yget of or mass these z)? a flow of points. soil net.we Each point the has flow equal potential and therefore the subdivide channel into smaller channels line through them is an equipotential.
half way mark


h = 0.5h x y z h=0

If we recompressed the tank the flow net would look something like this:

Upstream Equipotential Boundary

To construct a flow net, you must start Downstream Equipotential with a scale drawing of the hydraulic Boundary structure:

Construction of Flow Nets

1. Draw Flow Channel Boundaries

2. Draw Equipotential Boundaries

Construction of Flow Nets

Not all The elements first trial: are square The bottom flow channel intersects the It may take several iterations to finally impervious layer flow net. come up with a satisfactory

pore water pressure, z 5. Using the given scale, the elevation 4. 6. At The point P, the total head is u 10/12ths of P = (hp head, p)the w 3. Number equipotentials as shown: 1. free water surface ispoint, datum. To 2.Downstream determine Show =(3.33+5.2)x9.8 the And total the the total head, final head version h driving at any is: seepage. P = 83.3 kPa z is -5.2 m head driving the seepage P
h = 4.5-0.5 = 4.0m

Construction of Flow Nets

hP 4.0

10 3.33m 12

Heres some useful relationships:
1. Each channel carries an equal flow: 2. Each drop in head is equal to: 3. The total flow carried:
where Nf is the number of flow channel partitions

q = kh
h h Nd

where Nd is the number of partitions or drops in potential

q = Nfq

Nf q kh 4. Or, the total flow carried: Nd nd 5. And, the head at any point P: hp h Nd where nd is equipotential number (0 at downstream FWS)