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# Electricity

## Eleanor Alma D. Jugueta, Ch. E.

Electricity
From the Greek word, elektron
Amber Effect Or Static Electricity

Amber

Electric Charge
It is an intrinsic property of matter

All matter is made up of atoms. Nucleus is the middle part of the atom made up of two particles --- proton and neutron. Electrons are the ones orbiting around the nucleus.

## Proton (+) charge Electron (-) charge Neutron No charge

1] Positively charged object - possesses more p+ than e2] Negatively charged object - possesses more ethan p+ 3] Electrically Neutral Object - equal number of p+ and e-

Identify the following particles as being charged or uncharged. If charged, indicate whether they are charged positively or negatively. (Legend: n = neutron, p = proton, e = electron)

- charged

uncharged

+ charged

Place the charged rod in a hanging stirrup and bring another similarly charged rod near it they repel.

## Like charges repel and unlike charges attract

Place the charged rod in a hanging stirrup and bring another oppositely charged rod near it they attract.

## Rules of Static Electricity

1] Like charges repel 2] Unlike charges attract 3] Only electrons are free to move or migrate in nature

Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790) named the two kinds of charges positive and negative.

The charge of one proton, +e, is equal in strength to the charge of one electron, -e, but opposite in charges.
where e is the fundamental unit of charge

All observable charges occur in integral amounts of the fundamental unit of charge, e.
Electric charge is said to be quantized.

## Any charge of magnitude q is an integer multiple of e.

=
Where: q, charge of particle N, any integer e, fundamental unit of charge SI Unit of the magnitude of a charged particle is Coulomb, C e = 1.60 x 10-19 C

## Law of Conservation of Electric Charges

During any process, the net electric charge of an isolated system remains constant (is conserved).

Conservation of Charge
The net charge is conserved - - the sum of the negative and positive charges in an isolated system does not change.

Conservation of Charge
Electrons are neither created nor destroyed but are simply transferred from one material to another.

Example No. 1
A charge of magnitude 50nC can be produced in the laboratory by simply rubbing two objects together. How many electrons must be transferred to produce this charge?

## Properties of Electric Charge

Two charges occurs in nature opposites signs attract same signs repel Total charge in an isolated system is conserved. Charge is quantized

Classification of Materials
1] Conductors - materials that allow electric charges to move easily - Examples: Cu, Al, Ag, Fe, C and H20

Classification of Materials
2] Insulators - materials through which electric charges will not move easily - Examples: Glass, Rubber, Silk, Plastic and air

Classification of Materials
3] Semiconductors - materials that are between insulators and conductors with only few electrons are free to move - Examples: Si (ICs in computers), solar cells and Ge 4] Superconductors - materials that are perfect conductors at very low temperatures - Example: ceramic copper oxide

If you rub an inflated balloon against your hair, the two materials attract each other. Is the amount of charge present in the system of the balloon and your hair after rubbing (a) less than, (b) the same as, or (c) more than the amount of charge before rubbing?

Three objects are brought close to each other, two at a time. When objects A and B are brought together, they repel. When objects B and C are brought together, they also repel. Which of the following are true? A. Object A and C possess charges of the same sign. B. Object A and C possess charges of the opposite sign. C. All three objects possess charges of the same sign. D. One of the object is neutral. E. We would need to perform additional experiments to determine the signs of the charges.

One of the isolated charged spheres below is copper and the other is rubber. The diagram shows the distribution of excess negative charge over the surface of two spheres. Which sphere is copper? Rubber?

## Ways to produce static charge

1] Charging by friction - transfer of e- between neutral objects when rubbed together or pulled apart

Nylon
Wool Fur Silk Paper Cotton Hard Rubber Polyester PVC Plastic Silicone Teflon

## Ways to produce static charge

2] Charging by conduction - transfer of e- from a charged object to another by direct contact

## Ways to produce static charge

3] Charging by induction - transfer of e- from a charged object to another without direct contact (electric force or electric field)

## Ways to produce static charge

3] Charging by induction

Polarization
- transfer of e- to one side of the object when a charged object is nearby

While there is a separation of charge, there is NO imbalance of charge. When neutral objects become polarized, they are still neutral objects.

Three objects are brought close to each other, two at a time. When objects A and B are brought together, they attract. When objects B and C are brought together, they repel. From this, we conclude that : A. Object A and C possess charges of the same sign. B. Object A and C possess charges of the opposite sign. C. All three objects possess charges of the same sign. D. One of the object is neutral. E. We would need to perform additional experiments to determine the signs of the charges.

GROUNDING
It is the process of removing the excess charge on an object by means of the transfer of electrons between it and another object. A ground is capable of transferring electrons to or receiving electrons from a charged object in order to neutralize that object.

Electroscope

## Benefits of Electrostatic Charging

1] Collecting soot in smokestacks by electrostatic dust precipitators 2] Automobile painting

Photocopier