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Introduction to Computers

•Definition:
Computer is an electronic machine devised for
performing calculations and controlling operations that
can be expressed either in a logical or numerical terms

COMPUTER = COMPUTE + TERMINAL


Characteristics of Computer
• Speed
The speed of computer is is calculated in MHz(megahertz) that is one million instructions per
second.

• Accuracy
Because of the error detecting techniques the probability of errors in computer is negligible.

• Reliability
It is the measurement of the performance of computer .

• Storage capability
Computers can store a large amount of data and it can recall the required information
whenever required.

• Versatility
Computer can perform various tasks like playing music ,printing a document at the same
time.

• Diligence
Computer being a machine does not suffer from human traits of tiredness and lack of
concentration. If four millions of calculations have to be performed then the computer will
perform the last four millionth calculation with the same accuracy and speed as the first
calculation.
Generation of computers
• First generation computers(1940-56)
Technology used: vacuum tubes
Charecteristics
• These computers were very large.
• They lack in versatility and speed.
• Machine language was used, hence difficult to program and use.
• Expensive and used a large amount of electricity.
Examples:ENIAC, EDVAC, UNIVAC
Generation of computers
• Second Generation Computers(1956-63)
• Technology used: Transistors
Charecteristics
1. Smaller in size as compared to first generation.
2. Faster than first generation.
3. More reliable and less prone to hardware failure.
4. Assembly language is used instead of machine language.
Examples
PDP-8, IBM1401 and IBM 7090
Generation of computers
• Third Generation Computers(1964-75)
Technology Used: IC’s
Characteristics
1. Smaller in size compared to second generation.
2. Portable and reliable than second generation.
3. Reduced computational time.
4. Commercial production became easier and cheaper.
Examples
NCR 395 and B6500.
Generation of computers
• Fourth Generation Computers(1975-89)
Technology Used : Microprocessor
Characteristics:
1. Small in size.
2. Cheapest among all generations.
3. Portable and reliable.
4. Graphical user interface.
5. Interconnections of computers leads to better communication.
Examples
Apple II, Altair 8800and CRAY-1
Generation of computers
• Fifth Generation Computers(1989-94)
Technology Used : Microprocessor
Characteristics:
1. Small in size.
2. Cheapest among all generations.
3. Graphical user interface.
4. Interconnections of computers leads to better
communication.
5. Use of standard high level languages.

Examples
Pentium Personal computers
Central Processing Unit

Memory Unit

Control Unit Arithmetic


Logic Unit

Input Unit Output Unit


Computer System Architecture
• A computer system consist of three important components
• CPU (central processing unit)
• Input Unit
• Output Unit

CPU (central processing unit)

• It performs processing of instruction and data


• Stores data as well as programs.
• Performs data processing operations and sends the result to
output unit.
• It has three parts
1. ALU (arithmetic logic unit)
2. CU (control unit)
3. MU (memory unit)
Input/output Unit
Input Unit
• It accepts data and instructions
• It converts instructions and data in computer acceptable
form
• It supplies information to processing unit.

Output Unit
• Accepts coded results produced by the computer.
• Converts these coded results to readable form.
• Supplies results to users.
Number system
Definition
A number system defines a set of values used to represent
quantity
Number system that are generally used
• Decimal system
• Binary system
• Octal system
• Hexadecimal system
Number System
Number Radix Set of Digits Example
system value s
Decimal R=10 (0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9) (25)10

Binary R=2 (0,1) (1101)2

Octal R=8 (0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7) (31)8

Hexadecimal R=16 (0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9, (19)16


A,B,C,D,E,F)
Decimal Number system
•Used in our day to day life.
•Base is equal to 10.
•As there are ten digits.
For eg:
Consider the number 2586
In 2586 the digit 6 signifies 6*100 =6

In 2568 the digit 6 signifies 6*101 =6

In 2658 the digit 6 signifies 6*102 =6

In 6258 the digit 6 signifies 6*103 =6


Binary number system
• The base is 2.
• There are only two symbols 0 and 1.
• In this system the rightmost position is 20.
• Second from right is 21 and so on.
• Therefore the decimal equivalent of the binary number
10101 is
• (1* 24 ) + (0* 23 ) + (1* 22) + (0* 21 ) + (1* 20 ) = 16 + 0 + 4 + 0 + 1 = 21

• In order to be specific about which number system we are referring, the


base is written as subscript

• 101012 = 2110
Octal Number System
• Base is 8.
• Hence there are only eight symbols :
0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7
• Therefore the decimal of the octal number 2057 is

(2*83)+ (0*82)+ (5*81)+ (7*80) =1024+0+40+7 = 1071

• Hence 20578 = 107110


Hexadecimal Number System
• Base is 16.
• The first 10 digits are 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9.
• The remaining six digits are symbols A,B,C,D,E,F representing
the decimal values 10,11,12,13,14,15.
• Therefore the decimal equivalent of the hexadecimal no
(1AF)16 is

(1*162) + (A*161) + (F*160) = 256+ (10*16) + (15*1) = 431

Hence (1AF)16 = (431)10


Converting to Decimal from another base
• Convert the following numbers to decimal
numbers.
• 110012
• 47068
• 1AC16
Answers
• 110012 =25 10

• 47068 = 2502 10

• 1AC16 = 428 10