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Measurement, Scales and Attitudes

Nominal

Ordinal?

Interval

Ratio

Types of Scales
Nominal - Identification only
Ex (players numbers, male=1 female=0)

Ordinal -Ranking
Ex (grades?) SEI score

Interval Ranks and distinguishes intervals


Ex (temperature)

Ratio absolute quantities


Ex (weight, degrees Kelvin)

You Try
Which college is your major housed in?
1. CLS 2. CBA 3. SAH

How much money did you spend on alcohol at the bars in the last 7 days?_____Dollars
Or answer categories
1. $0-10 2. $11-20 3. $21 +

Practice Problems

Appropriate Statistical Analysis


Scale matters.
Usually

Index Measures
Conglomerates of questions Mapping multiple responses to a single metric Consumer Sentiment Index

Good Measurement
Reliable Valid Sensitive

Wrong

Validity-reliability bulls eye

(Babbie, 1998)

Both valid & reliable

Reliable, but invalid

Reliability
Degree to which measures are free from error

Reliability
Repeatability
Test-Retest method- High correlation suggests stability/reliability

Reliability
Internal Consistency
Split-half method- take results form even questions and compare to odd number questions Equivalent form- asking different but equivalent questions of a group, and comparing their answers on the separate questions

Validity
the ability to measure that which you intend to measure Reliability is a necessary condition for validity, not sufficient
Example - if the scale always reads 5 pounds too much. It is reliable, but not a valid measure of weight.

Types of Validity
Content (Face) validity- agreement that a scale accurately measures that which it is intended to Criterion validity- the ability of a measure to correlate highly with another measure of the same construct
Concurrent validity- measures made concurrently Predictive validity- correlates with future measure

Construct validity- The ability of a measure to confirm a network of related hypothesis

Types of Validity
Content (Face) validity- agreement that a scale accurately measures that which it is intended to

Types of Validity
Criterion validity- the ability of a measure to correlate highly with another measure of the same construct
Concurrent validity- measures made concurrently Predictive validity- correlates with future measure

Types of Validity
Construct validity- The ability of a measure to confirm a network of related hypothesis

Sensitivity
a measurements ability to measure variability in stimuli Without variability in response we have nothing of interest.
We can classify but not understand or explain

Attitude Measurement
Attitude an enduring disposition which contains these components:
Affective (emotional) Cognitive (reason) Behavioral (action)
Example (sexual identity)

Hypothetical Construct

Male Sex Behavior and Identification


rs sexual identification heterosexual homosexual bisexual something else normal/straight Total gender of sex ps in the last year exclusive both male exclusive 5 22 4 1 1 33 5 0 3 2 0 10 1,142 2 1 4 64 1,213 Total 1,152 24 8 7 65 1,256

Col1 exclusively male Col 2 both Col 3 exclusively female

Female Sex Behavior and Identification


. tab sxident sexsex if gender==0 rs sexual identification heterosexual homosexual bisexual something else normal/straight Total gender of sex ps in the last year exclusive both male exclusive 1,432 1 4 7 87 1,531 4 0 2 0 1 7 4 8 2 5 0 19 Total 1,440 9 8 12 88 1,557

Col1 exclusively male Col 2 both Col 3 exclusively female

Male Sexual Attraction and Identification

rs sexual identification heterosexual homosexual bisexual something else normal/straight Total

is r attracted to males or females only wome mostly wo both wome mostly me only men 1,314 1 2 5 74 1,396 36 1 3 1 2 43 2 0 5 2 0 9 0 8 1 2 0 11 16 17 0 1 3 37

Total 1,368 27 11 11 79 1,496

Female Sexual Attraction and Identification


. tab sxident attract if gender==0 rs sexual identification heterosexual homosexual bisexual something else normal/straight Total is r attracted to males or females only wome mostly wo both wome mostly me only men 1 2 0 3 1 7 0 9 2 0 0 11 8 1 5 1 0 15 46 0 3 1 0 50 1,680 0 0 7 116 1,803 Total 1,735 12 10 12 117 1,886

Practice Problems
Drinking Alcohol Religion Music

Concept Measurement
Awareness: measure of knowledge; understanding; familiarity Behavior: measure of actions/choices that took place Motivation: measure of why people behave as they do Opinion: measure of belief or attitude Preference: measure of likes/dislikes Desire: measure of wants Interest: measure of concerns/curiosities Intention: measure of anticipated behavior Demographic: measure of respondents characteristics Perceptions of above?

What is Most Appropriate?

Methods of Measuring Attitudes


Rating
Likert Scale carefully constructed attitudinal measure which asks people for their agreement with a statement
Example: Please rate each of the following, on a scale from 1 to 10, with 1 being least important and 10 being most important

Methods of Measuring Attitudes


Ranking
Rank choices from most important to least important

Example: Of the following 10 items please rank them in order of importance, with 1 being least important and 10 being most important.

Source: http://blog.vovici.com/blog/bid/18228/Ranking-Questions-vs-Rating-Questions

Sorting
Asks respondents to sort items/names into groups

Multiple Choice
Provide alternative responses that R might choose.

Monadic
Q. How satisfied are you with your current job?
1. Very Satisfied 2. Somewhat Satisfied

3. Not Very Satisfied

Comparative
Q. Compared to your current job how much responsibility did you have at your last job? 1. More
2. About the Same 3. Less

How many categories are needed?

Balanced
Q. How satisfied are you with your current cable service?
1. Very Satisfied 2. Somewhat Satisfied 3. Somewhat unsatisfied 4. Very unsatisfied

Unbalanced
Q. How satisfied are you with your current cable service?
1. Very Satisfied 2. Somewhat Satisfied 3. Somewhat unsatisfied

Forced Choice
Does not allow the respondent to offer no opinion, which is different than a neutral opinion

Unforced Choice
Allows respondents to opt out of providing an opinion.

JOHN ALLEN PAULOS


Unless we know how things are counted, we dont know if its wise to count on the numbers.

Albert Einstein
Not everything that can be counted counts, and not everything that counts can be counted.