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SMART GRID IN INDIA

An Upcoming Technology in Power Generation

The Smart Grid Technology


The

Smart Grid combines the existing electrical infrastructure with digital technologies and advanced applications to provide an efficient, reliable and cost effective way to distribute energy. It is essentially built atop an intelligent communication system. The flow of electricity from utility to consumer becomes a two-way conversation, saving consumers money, energy, reducing carbon emissions and better management during an energy crisis.

The Smart Grid Technology


Modernization

of the electricity delivery system so that it monitors, protects and automatically optimizes the operation of its interconnected elementsfrom the central and distributed generator through the highvoltage network and distribution system to energy storage installations and to end-use consumers.

Objective of Smart Grid Initiative


Self-Healing: Rapid detection, analysis, response and restoration Consumer Empowerment: Incorporation of consumer equipment in grid management

Tolerant attacks

of Attack: Grid mitigates and is resilient to

Improved Power Quality: Power quality consistent with consumer and industry needs.

Objectives of Smart Grid Initiative


Accommodate

a Wide Variety of Supply

and Demand: The grid accommodates a variety of


resources, including demand response, combined heat and power, wind, photovoltaic, and end-use efficiency.

Fully

enables and is supported by competitive electricity markets

Need for Smart Grid in India


India

suffers from grave power shortage 15-20% power transmitted is lost in the transmission and distribution network 10 to 20 % is lost to theft across the utilities in India India has been missing its generation infrastructure expansion plans for the last several decades

Limitations of The Existing Grid


Power Quality Disturbances: Caused due to insulation failure, tree falling, bird contact, lighting or fault on adjacent feeder. Lack of Storage Systems: Large-scale energy storage enables energy producers to send excess energy to temporary storage sites, for use when demand is greater. Such sites are inadequate Electricity Thefts: Electricity thefts are widespread in developing nations such as India

Limitations of The Existing Grid


The

total installed capacity in India as on August 31, 2012 is 207006.04 MW. The breakup is as follows:

Fuel
Total Thermal Coal Gas Oil Hydro (renewable) Nuclear RES (MNRE)

MW
137936.18 117833.38 18903.05 1199.75 39,291.40 4,780.00 24,998.46

Technology Requirements
Advanced

Control Methods- There is a need

to incorporate advanced control methods to enable operators to collect and analyze data: Substation Automation- Microprocessor based
intelligent devices provide low cost monitoring analysis and diagnosis of faults

Distribution Automation- SCADA and power


distribution management for monitoring the status of distributed instruments and generating alarms.

Technology Requirements
Advanced

Components- Need for flexible

transmission system devices, HVDC wire, distributed energy generation and storage sites, composite conductors
Sensing

and Measurement- Builds up dual-

communication between customers and power companies

Technology Requirements
Improved

Interface and Decision ControlCommunications- Required for real

Allow customers to reduce or shift their power use


Integrated

time control, data acquisition for optimizing system performance


Wireless Sensor Network Power Line Communication

Smart Grid Prospective: India


Many

agencies are operating under MoP, aiming to demonstrate commercially viable distributed monitoring systems:

R-APDRP DRUM Smart Grid Task Force & Forum

Survey Analysis
The

survey is based on assessment of various parameters of the smart grid It consists of scientists from DRDO, engineers from CHT, faculty members from BVCOE Analysis of the data collected identifies the major parameters that have significantly high impact on the implementation of smart grid

Survey Analysis
Analysis Power Quality Disturbances 2.7083 Lack of Alternate Power Generation 3.4166 Electricity Theft Lack of proper storage system 3

Mean

3.0416

Mode

Variance

0.56

0.514

0.824

0.695

Major shortcomings of the existing grid system in India

Survey Analysis
Analysis Better Advanced Wide area SCADA Improved Communi switches/ monitoring tariff cation meters systems plans System and cable
3.0833 3.1739 3.25 3.4583 2.9583

Mean

Mode

Variance

0.7753

0.6956

0.5345

0.3460

0.5634

Requirements of technology for implementation of smart grid

Survey Analysis
Analysis Government Investment Lack of Smart Equipment Producing Industries 3.0416 3 0.5634 Improper research Lack of Skilled manpower Lack of Private sector investment

Mean Mode Variance

2.9583 3 0.7373

2.9166 4 0.8623

2.625 3 0.9402

2.875 3 0.9837

Possible barriers to the implementation of smart grid in India

Major Parameters from Survey


Analysis Lack of proper storage system Lack of Lack of Wide area SCADA alternate smart monitoring power equipment systems generation producing industries 3.4166 4 3.0416 3 3.25 3 3.4583 4

Mean Mode

3 3

Variance

0.695

0.5145

0.5634

0.5345

0.3460

Major parameters from survey with high impact on implantation