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2
Structure of nuclei.
Nucleus
Electrons The charge of nucleus is
proportional to the elementary
charge (q
n
= Ze), e=1,60210
-19
C;
The mass of nucleus
approximately proportional to the
mass of proton m
p
(=1,67310
-27

kg, m
n
~ Am
p
);
Nucleus consists of Z protons
and N = A Z neutrons;
; X
A
Z
O C
16
8
12
6
,
m
P
=1,67310
-27
kg
m
N
=1,67510
-27
kg
kg m
e
31
10 1 , 9

=
3
equal Z, and different N (accordingly, A):
,
12
6
C ,
13
6
C
;
14
6
C
H
2
1
- deuterium, D
H
3
1
- tritium, T
Isotopes
4
Stability of nuclei
Natural elements: with Z s 92, (uranium);
Transuranium elements (Z > 92) artificially obtained all are
unstable.
Stable nuclei (net number 276) have atoms with raw number Z s
83 (Bi).
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Nuclear (strong) forces.
nuclear forces do not depend on elefctric charge of the particle
(are equal between proton and proton, neutron and neutron and
proton and neutron);
action distance very short, about ;
) 10 2 (
15
m

~
nuclear forces can be saturated, each particle can
interact with restricted number of other particles.
6
Types of radiation
Particle fluxes:
Alfa () particles = nuclei of helium atoms
Beta (
-
) particles = electrons
Beta+ (
+
) particles = positrons
Neutron flux
5.37
7
()-decay
4
2
o
++
alfa particle

primary nucleus
Uranium-238
Thorium-232
Radium-226
product
Thorium-234
Radium-228
Radon-222
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()-decay
beta particle

primary nucleus
Rhenium-187
Potassium-40
product
Osmium-187
Calcium-40
0
0
v
0
1
|

Antineutrino
9
(
+
)-decay
primary nucleus
Carbon-11
Nitrogen-13
product
Boron-11
Carbon-13
0
0
v
0
1
|
+
positron
Neutrino
5.35; 5.36; 5.32
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Gamma () decay
gamma quant
primary nucleus
Cesium-137
Molibdenum-99
product
Barium-137
Technecium-99
0
1
|

Kinetics of decay
t
e N N

=

0

693 . 0
2 / 1
= t - half-lifetime
5.48; 5.52
12
Nuclear fission mechanism
n
n
n
U
235
92 Rb
97
37
Cs
140
55
( ) n Cs Rb n U
1
0
139
55
94
37
1
0
235
92
2 + + +
( ) n Xe Sr n U
1
0
138
54
95
38
1
0
235
92
2 + + +
+ 200 MeV
+ 200 MeV
1 eV=1,60210
-19
J
1 TNT tonne = 4,184 10
9
J
13
Chain reaction critical mass ir necessary
14
15
Chain reaction realisation in weapons:
1. gun-type
16
Little Boy, 15 kt,
6.08.1945, Hirosima
80 000 140 000 people killed during the explosion, about 100
000 wounded.
17
2. implosion type
18
19
Fat Man, 21 kt, 9.08.1945,
Nagasaki
74 000 killed during the explosion, 75 000 wounded (50% of
inhabitants).
20
Controlled chain reactions atomic plants.
Fissible materials:
1) natural uranium,
2) enriched uranium, ( amount of U
235
is about 10%)
3) pure U
235
,
4) Pu
239
:
,
239
94
239
93
239 238
+ + + e Pu e Np U n U
5) U
233
, obtained from
90
Th
232
:
,
233 233
91
233
90
232
90

+ + + e U e Pa Th n Th
6) Th
232
, Th
233
, and their combinations.
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Nuclear fusion reactions
H

2
1
H

3
1
n

(14.1 MeV)

He

4
2
(3.5
MeV)

n He H H
1
0
4
2
2
1
3
1
+ +
n He D T
1
0
4
2
+ +
Example:
17,6 MeV are released
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Other possible reactions
D + D + n + 3.2 MeV He

3
2
D + D T + p + 4.0 MeV
D + He

3
2
p + + 18.3 MeV He

4
2
T + T + 2n + 11.3 MeV He

4
2
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24
Thermonuclear weapons
25
Thermonuclear
weapons
First explosion (1952. g.
1.11, 10,4 Mt), called
Mike completely
evaporates island
Elugelab, (atoll Eniwetok,
Pacific ocean).
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Power about 61 kt
4.06.1953.


Power >1Mt
18.10.1962.