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Besterfield: Quality Control, 8

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ed.. 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
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Quality Control
Chapter 4- Fundamentals
of Statistics
PowerPoint presentation to accompany
Besterfield
Quality Control, 8e

PowerPoints created by Rosida Coowar
Besterfield: Quality Control, 8
th
ed.. 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
All rights reserved
Outline
Introduction
Frequency Distribution
Measures of Central Tendency
Measures of Dispersion
Besterfield: Quality Control, 8
th
ed.. 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
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Outline-Continued
Other Measures
Concept of a Population and Sample
The Normal Curve
Tests for Normality
Besterfield: Quality Control, 8
th
ed.. 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
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Learning Objectives
When you have completed this chapter you should
be able to:
Know the difference between a variable and an
attribute.
Perform mathematical calculations to the correct
number of significant figures.
Construct histograms for simple and complex data.

Besterfield: Quality Control, 8
th
ed.. 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
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Learning Objectives-contd.
When you have completed this chapter you should
be able to:
Calculate and effectively use the different measures
of central tendency, dispersion, and
interrelationship.
Understand the concept of a universe and a sample.
Understand the concept of a normal curve and the
relationship to the mean and standard deviation.

Besterfield: Quality Control, 8
th
ed.. 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
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Learning Objectives-contd.
When you have completed this chapter you
should be able to:
Calculate the percent of items below a value,
above a value, or between two values for data
that are normally distributed.
Calculate the process center given the percent of
items below a value
Perform the different tests of normality
Construct a scatter diagram and perform the
necessary related calculations.

Besterfield: Quality Control, 8
th
ed.. 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
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Definition of Statistics:
1. A collection of quantitative data pertaining to
a subject or group. Examples are blood
pressure statistics etc.
2. The science that deals with the collection,
tabulation, analysis, interpretation, and
presentation of quantitative data
Introduction
Besterfield: Quality Control, 8
th
ed.. 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
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Two phases of statistics:
Descriptive Statistics:
Describes the characteristics of a product or
process using information collected on it.
Inferential Statistics (Inductive):
Draws conclusions on unknown process
parameters based on information contained
in a sample.
Uses probability
Introduction
Besterfield: Quality Control, 8
th
ed.. 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
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Types of Data:
Attribute:
Discrete data. Data values can only be
integers. Counted data or attribute data.
Examples include:
How many of the products are defective?
How often are the machines repaired?
How many people are absent each day?
Collection of Data
Besterfield: Quality Control, 8
th
ed.. 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
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Types of Data:
Attribute:
Discrete data. Data values can only be
integers. Counted data or attribute data.
Examples include:
How many days did it rain last month?
What kind of performance was achieved?
Number of defects, defectives
Collection of Data Contd.
Besterfield: Quality Control, 8
th
ed.. 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
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Types of Data:
Variable:
Continuous data. Data values can be any
real number. Measured data.
Examples include:
How long is each item?
How long did it take to complete the task?
What is the weight of the product?
Length, volume, time
Collection of Data
Besterfield: Quality Control, 8
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ed.. 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
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Collection of Data
Significant Figures
Rounding
Besterfield: Quality Control, 8
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ed.. 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
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Significant Figures = Measured numbers
When you measure something there is always
room for a little bit of error
How tall are you 5 ft 9 inches or 5 ft 9.1 inches?
Counted numbers and defined numbers ( 12 ins.
= 1 ft, there are 6 people in my family)
Significant Figures
Besterfield: Quality Control, 8
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ed.. 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
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Significant figures are used to indicate the amount
of variation which is allowed in a number.
It is believed to be closer to the actual value than
any other digit.
Significant figures:
3.69 3 significant digits.
36.900 5 significant digits.
Significant Figures
Besterfield: Quality Control, 8
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ed.. 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
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Use Scientific Notation
3x10^2 (1 significant digit)
3.0x10^2 (2 significant digits)
Significant Figures Contd.
Besterfield: Quality Control, 8
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ed.. 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
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Rules for Multiplying and Dividing
Number of sig. = the same as the number with
the least number of significant digits.
6.59 x 2.3 = 15
32.65/24 = 1.4 (where 24 is not a counting
number)
32.64/24=1.360(24 is a counting number i.e.
24.00)
Significant Figures
Besterfield: Quality Control, 8
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ed.. 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
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Rules for Adding and Subtracting
Result can have no more sig. fig. after the
decimal point than the number with the fewest
sig. fig. after the decimal point.
38.26 6 = 32 (6 is not a counting number)
38.2 -6 = 32.2 (6 is a counting number)
38.26 6.1 = 32.2 (rounded from 32.16)
If the last digit >=5 then round up, else
round down
Significant Figures
Besterfield: Quality Control, 8
th
ed.. 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
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Precision
The precision of a measurement is determined
by how reproducible that measurement value is.
For example if a sample is weighed by a student
to be 42.58 g, and then measured by another
student five different times with the resulting
data: 42.09 g, 42.15 g, 42.1 g, 42.16 g, 42.12 g
Then the original measurement is not very
precise since it cannot be reproduced.
Precision and Accuracy
Besterfield: Quality Control, 8
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ed.. 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
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Accuracy
The accuracy of a measurement is determined by
how close a measured value is to its true value.
For example, if a sample is known to weigh 3.182
g, then weighed five different times by a student
with the resulting data: 3.200 g, 3.180 g, 3.152 g,
3.168 g, 3.189 g
The most accurate measurement would be 3.180 g,
because it is closest to the true weight of the
sample.

Precision and Accuracy
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ed.. 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
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Precision and Accuracy
Figure 4-1 Difference between accuracy and precision
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ed.. 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
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Frequency Distribution
Measures of Central Tendency
Measures of Dispersion
Describing Data
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ed.. 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
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Ungrouped Data
Grouped Data
Frequency Distribution
Besterfield: Quality Control, 8
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ed.. 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
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2-7
There are three types of frequency distributions
Categorical frequency distributions
Ungrouped frequency distributions
Grouped frequency distributions
Frequency Distribution
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ed.. 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
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2-7
Categorical frequency distributions
Can be used for data that can be placed in
specific categories, such as nominal- or
ordinal-level data.
Examples - political affiliation, religious
affiliation, blood type etc.
Categorical
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ed.. 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
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2-8 Example :Blood Type Frequency
Distribution
Class Frequency Percent
A 5 20
B 7 28
O 9 36
AB 4 16
Categorical
Besterfield: Quality Control, 8
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ed.. 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
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2-9
Ungrouped frequency distributions
Ungrouped frequency distributions - can be
used for data that can be enumerated and
when the range of values in the data set is not
large.
Examples - number of miles your instructors
have to travel from home to campus, number
of girls in a 4-child family etc.
Ungrouped
Besterfield: Quality Control, 8
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ed.. 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
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2-10
Example :Number of Miles Traveled
Class Frequency
5 24
10 16
15 10
Ungrouped
Besterfield: Quality Control, 8
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ed.. 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
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2-11
Grouped frequency distributions
Can be used when the range of values in the
data set is very large. The data must be
grouped into classes that are more than one
unit in width.
Examples - the life of boat batteries in hours.
Grouped
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ed.. 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
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2-12
Example: Lifetimes of Boat Batteries
Class
limits
Class
Boundaries
Cumulative
24 - 30 23.5 - 37.5 4 4
38 - 51 37.5 - 51.5 14 18
52 - 65 51.5 - 65.5 7 25
frequency
Frequency
Grouped
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ed.. 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
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Number non
conforming
Frequency Relative
Frequency
Cumulative
Frequency
Relative
Frequency
0 15 0.29 15 0.29
1 20 0.38 35 0.67
2 8 0.15 43 0.83
3 5 0.10 48 0.92
4 3 0.06 51 0.98
5 1 0.02 52 1.00
Table 4-3 Different Frequency Distributions of Data Given in Table 4-1
Frequency Distributions
Besterfield: Quality Control, 8
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ed.. 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
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Frequency Histogram
0
5
10
15
20
25
0 1 2 3 4 5
Number Nonconforming
F
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
Frequency Histogram
Besterfield: Quality Control, 8
th
ed.. 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
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Relative Frequency Histogram
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.25
0.30
0.35
0.40
0.45
0 1 2 3 4 5
Number Nonconforming
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e

F
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
Relative Frequency Histogram
Besterfield: Quality Control, 8
th
ed.. 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
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Cumulative Frequency Histogram
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
0 1 2 3 4 5
Number Nonconforming
C
u
m
u
l
a
t
i
v
e

F
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
Cumulative Frequency Histogram
Besterfield: Quality Control, 8
th
ed.. 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
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The histogram is the most important graphical tool
for exploring the shape of data distributions.
Check:
http://quarknet.fnal.gov/toolkits/ati/histograms.html
for the construction ,analysis and understanding of
histograms
The Histogram
Besterfield: Quality Control, 8
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ed.. 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
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The Fast Way
Step 1: Find range of distribution, largest -
smallest values
Step 2: Choose number of classes, 5 to 20
Step 3: Determine width of classes, one
decimal place more than the data, class width =
range/number of classes
Step 4: Determine class boundaries
Step 5: Draw frequency histogram
#classes n =
Constructing a Histogram
Besterfield: Quality Control, 8
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ed.. 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
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Number of groups or cells
If no. of observations < 100 5 to 9 cells
Between 100-500 8 to 17 cells
Greater than 500 15 to 20 cells
Constructing a Histogram
Besterfield: Quality Control, 8
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ed.. 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
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For a more accurate way of drawing a
histogram see the section on grouped data
in your textbook
Constructing a Histogram
Besterfield: Quality Control, 8
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ed.. 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
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Bar Graph
Polygon of Data
Cumulative Frequency Distribution or Ogive
Other Types of
Frequency Distribution Graphs
Besterfield: Quality Control, 8
th
ed.. 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
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Bar Graph and Polygon of Data
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Cumulative Frequency
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Figure 4-6 Characteristics of frequency distributions
Characteristics of Frequency
Distribution Graphs
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Analysis of Histograms
Figure 4-7 Differences due to location, spread, and shape
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Analysis of Histograms
Figure 4-8 Histogram of Wash Concentration
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The three measures in common use are the:
Average
Median
Mode
Measures of Central Tendency
Besterfield: Quality Control, 8
th
ed.. 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
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There are three different techniques available
for calculating the average three measures in
common use are the:
Ungrouped data
Grouped data
Weighted average
Average
Besterfield: Quality Control, 8
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ed.. 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
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1
n
i
i
X
X
n
=
=

Average-Ungrouped Data
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ed.. 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
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1
1 1 2 2
1 2
... .
...
h
i i
i
h h
h
f X
X
n
f X f X f X
f f f
=
=

+ +
=
+ +

h = number of cells fi=frequency


Xi=midpoint
Average-Grouped Data
Besterfield: Quality Control, 8
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ed.. 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
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1
1
n
i i
i
w
n
i
i
w X
X
w
=
=
=

Used when a number of averages are


combined with different frequencies
Average-Weighted Average
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ed.. 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
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2
m
d m
m
n
cf
M L i
f
(

(
= +
(
(

Lm=lower boundary of the cell with the median
N=total number of observations
Cfm=cumulative frequency of all cells below m
Fm=frequency of median cell
i=cell interval
Median-Grouped Data
Besterfield: Quality Control, 8
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Boundaries Midpoint Frequency Computation
23.6-26.5 25.0 4 100
26.6-29.5 28.0 36 1008
29.6-32.5 31.0 51 1581
32.6-35.5 34.0 63 2142
35.6-38.5 37.0 58 2146
38.6-41.5 40.0 52 2080
41.6-44.5 43.0 34 1462
44.6-47.5 46.0 16 736
47.6-50.5 49.0 6 294
Total 320 11549
Table 4-7 Frequency Distribution of the Life of 320 tires in 1000 km
Example Problem
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ed.. 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
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2
m
d m
m
n
cf
M L i
f
(

(
= +
(
(

320
154
2
35.6 3 35.9
58
Md
(

(
= + =
(
(

Median-Grouped Data
Using data from Table 4-7
Besterfield: Quality Control, 8
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ed.. 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
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Mode
The Mode is the value that occurs with the
greatest frequency.

It is possible to have no modes in a series or
numbers or to have more than one mode.
Besterfield: Quality Control, 8
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ed.. 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
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Figure 4-9 Relationship among average, median and mode
Relationship Among the
Measures of Central Tendency
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Range
Standard Deviation
Variance
Measures of Dispersion
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ed.. 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
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The range is the simplest and easiest to
calculate of the measures of dispersion.
Range = R = Xh - Xl
Largest value - Smallest value in data
set
Measures of Dispersion-Range
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ed.. 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
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Sample Standard Deviation:
2
1
( )
1
n
i
Xi X
S
n
=

=

2
2
1
1
/
1
n
n
i
i
Xi Xi n
S
n
=
=
| |

|
\ .
=


Measures of Dispersion-Standard
Deviation
Besterfield: Quality Control, 8
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ed.. 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
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Ungrouped Technique
2 2
1 1
( )
( 1)
n n
i i
n Xi Xi
S
n n
= =


Standard Deviation
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2 2
1
1
( ) ( )
( 1)
h
h
i i i i
i
i
n f X f X
s
n n
=
=


Standard Deviation
Grouped Technique
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ed.. 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
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Relationship Between the
Measures of Dispersion
As n increases, accuracy of R decreases
Use R when there is small amount of data or data
is too scattered
If n> 10 use standard deviation
A smaller standard deviation means better quality

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ed.. 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
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Relationship Between the
Measures of Dispersion
Figure 4-10 Comparison of two distributions with equal average and range
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Other Measures
There are three other measures that are
frequently used to analyze a collection of data:
Skewness
Kurtosis
Coefficient of Variation

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ed.. 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
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Skewness is the lack of symmetry of the data.
For grouped data:
3
1
3
3
( ) /
h
i i
i
f X X n
a
s
=

=

Skewness
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Skewness
Figure 4-11 Left (negative) and right (positive) skewness distributions
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Kurtosis provides information regrading the shape
of the population distribution (the peakedness or
heaviness of the tails of a distribution).
For grouped data:
4
1
4
4
( ) /
h
i i
i
f X X n
a
s
=

=

Kurtosis
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Kurtosis
Figure 4-11 Leptokurtic and Platykurtic distributions
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Correlation variation (CV) is a measure of how
much variation exists in relation to the mean.

Coefficient of Variation
(100%) s
CV
X
=
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Population
Set of all items that possess a
characteristic of interest

Sample
Subset of a population
Population and Sample
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Parameter is a characteristic of a population, i.o.w. it
describes a population
Example: average weight of the population, e.g.
50,000 cans made in a month.
Statistic is a characteristic of a sample, used to
make inferences on the population parameters that
are typically unknown, called an estimator
Example: average weight of a sample of 500 cans
from that months output, an estimate of the average
weight of the 50,000 cans.
Parameter and Statistic
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Characteristics of the normal curve:
It is symmetrical -- Half the cases are to one
side of the center; the other half is on the
other side.
The distribution is single peaked, not bimodal
or multi-modal
Also known as the Gaussian distribution
The Normal Curve
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Characteristics:
Most of the cases will fall in the center portion of
the curve and as values of the variable become
more extreme they become less frequent, with
"outliers" at the "tail" of the distribution few in
number. It is one of many frequency distributions.


The Normal Curve
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The standard normal distribution is a normal
distribution with a mean of 0 and a standard deviation
of 1. Normal distributions can be transformed to
standard normal distributions by the formula:

i
X
Z

o

=
Standard Normal Distribution
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Relationship between the Mean
and Standard Deviation
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Mean and Standard Deviation
Same mean but different standard deviation
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Mean and Standard Deviation
Same mean but different standard deviation
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IF THE DISTRIBUTION IS NORMAL
Then the mean is the best measure of
central tendency
Most scores bunched up in middle
Extreme scores are less frequent,
therefore less probable

Normal Distribution
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Percent of items included between certain values of the std. deviation
Normal Distribution
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Histogram
Skewness
Kurtosis
Tests for Normality
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Histogram:
Shape
Symmetrical
The larger the sampler size, the better the
judgment of normality. A minimum sample size of
50 is recommended
Tests for Normality
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Skewness (a3) and Kurtosis (a4)
Skewed to the left or to the right (a3=0 for a
normal distribution)
The data are peaked as the normal
distribution (a4=3 for a normal distribution)
The larger the sample size, the better the
judgment of normality (sample size of 100 is
recommended)
Tests for Normality
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ed.. 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
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Probability Plots
Order the data from the smallest to the largest
Rank the observations (starting from 1 for the
lowest observation)
Calculate the plotting position
100( 0.5) i
PP
n

=
Where i = rank PP=plotting position n=sample size
Tests for Normality
Besterfield: Quality Control, 8
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ed.. 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
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Procedure:
Order the data
Rank the observations
Calculate the plotting position

Probability Plots
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ed.. 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
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Procedure contd:
Label the data scale
Plot the points
Attempt to fit by eye a best line
Determine normality

Probability Plots
Besterfield: Quality Control, 8
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ed.. 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
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Procedure contd:
Order the data
Rank the observations
Calculate the plotting position
Label the data scale
Plot the points
Attempt to fit by eye a best line
Determine normality

Probability Plots
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th
ed.. 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
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Chi-Square Test
2
Chi-squared
Observed value in a cell
Expected value for a cell
i
i
O
E
_ =
=
=
Where
2
2
1
( ) i
k
i
i i
O E
E
_
=

=

Chi-Square Goodness of Fit Test
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The simplest way to determine if a cause
and-effect relationship exists between two
variables
Scatter Diagram
Figure 4-19 Scatter Diagram
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Supplies the data to confirm a hypothesis that
two variables are related
Provides both a visual and statistical means
to test the strength of a relationship
Provides a good follow-up to cause and effect
diagrams
Scatter Diagram
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th
ed.. 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
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Straight Line Fit
2 2
[( )( ) /
[( ) / ]
/ ( / )
xy x y n
m
x x n
a y n m x n
y a mx

=
= +



Where m=slope of the line and a is the intercept on the y axis