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# Review (2

nd
order tensors):
Tensor Linear mapping of a vector onto another vector
d d = u G x

e
1
e
2
e
3
a
1
a
2
a
3
Tensor components in a Cartesian basis (3x3 matrix):
11 12 13
21 22 23
31 32 33
U U U
U U U
U U U
(
(
(
(

( ) ( )
ik jl ij i j
ij
kl
S Q S Q Q = =
m e
m e
Basis change formula for tensor components

e
1
e
2
e
3
m
1
m
2
m
3
c
O
P r
p
|
ij i j
S a b = = S a b
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
ij j i k k i k k
S u a b u a b u = = = = S u a b u a b u
3 3
1 1
ij i j
j i
S
= =
=

S e e
Routine tensor operations
11 12 13 11 11 12 12 13 13
21 22 23 21 21 22 22 23 23
31 32 33 31 31 32 32 33 33
U U U S T S T S T
U U U S T S T S T
U U U S T S T S T
+ + +
( (
( (
= + + +
( (
( (
+ + +

Addition = + U S T
Vector/Tensor product
= v S u
1 11 12 13 1 11 1 12 2 13 3
2 21 22 23 2 21 1 22 2 23 3
3 31 32 33 3 31 1 32 2 33 3
v S S S u S u S u S u
v S S S u S u S u S u
v S S S u S u S u S u
+ + ( ( ( (
( ( ( (
= = + +
( ( ( (
( ( ( ( + +

= v u S
| | | |
11 12 13 1 11 2 21 3 31
1 2 3 1 2 3 21 22 23 1 12 2 22 3 32
31 32 33 1 13 2 23 3 33
S S S u S u S u S
v v v u u u S S S u S u S u S
S S S u S u S u S
+ + ( (
( (
= = + +
( (
( ( + +

11 12 13 11 12 13 11 12 13
21 22 23 21 22 23 21 22 23
31 32 33 31 32 33 31 32 33
11 11 12 21 13 31 11 12 12 22 13 32 11 13 12 23 13 33
21 11 22 21 23 31 21 12
U U U T T T S S S
U U U T T T S S S
U U U T T T S S S
T S T S T S T S T S T S T S T S T S
T S T S T S T S
( ( (
( ( (
=
( ( (
( ( (

+ + + + + +
= + + +
22 22 23 32 21 12 22 22 23 32
31 11 32 21 33 31 31 12 32 22 33 32 31 13 32 23 33 33
T S T S T S T S T S
T S T S T S T S T S T S T S T S T S
(
(
+ + +
(
( + + + + + +

Tensor product = U T S
Routine tensor operations
Transpose
11 21 31
12 22 32
13 23 33
T
S S S
S S S
S S S
(
(

(
(

S
T
= u S S u
( )
T
T T
= A B B A
T
S
Trace
Inner product
Outer product
Determinant

Inverse

Invariants (remain constant under basis change)

Eigenvalues, Eigenvectors (Characteristic Equation Cayley-Hamilton
Theorem)

( )
11 22 33
trace S S S = + + S
:
ij ij
S T S T
ij ji
S T S T
1
det( )
6
ijk lmn li mj nk
S S S = e e S
1
1
2det( )
ji ipq jkl pk ql
S S S

= e e
S
1
= S S I
2
1 2 3
1 1 1
trace( ) (trace( ) ) ( ) det( )
2 2 6
kk ii jj ij ji ijk pqr ip jq kr
I S I S S S S I S S S = = = = = = e e S S S S S
= S m m
3 2 2
1 2 3 1 2 1 3
0 ( ), ( ) / 2 det( ) I I I I trace I I I + = = = = S S S S
3 2
1 2 3
I I I + = S S S 0
Recipe for computing eigenvalues of symmetric tensor
( )
1
1
3
2 1 1 2 3
2 1
2
1 2 1 3
1 3 3 2( 1)
2 cos cos 1, 2, 3
3 3 3 2 3
2 9 27 1
3 27
1
( ) : det( )
2
k
I p q k
k
p p
I I I I
p I I q
I trace I I I
t

| |

= + =
| `
|

\ .
)
+
= =
= = = S S S S
Special Tensors
Symmetric tensors
T
= S S
Have real eigenvalues, and orthogonal eigenvectors
Skew tensors
T
= S S
= S u w u Have dual vectors satisfying
Proper orthogonal tensors
1
T T
T
= =
=
R R R R I
R R
det( ) 1 = + R
Represent rotations have Rodriguez
representation
cos (1 cos ) sin
ij ij i j ijk k
R n n n uo u u = + e
Polar decomposition theorem
T T T
= = = = = A R U V R RR I U U V V
Polar Coordinates

u
|
R
P
i
k
j
sin cos cos cos sin
sin sin cos sin cos
cos sin 0
x R
y
z
a a
a a
a
a
u
|
u | u | |
u | u | |
u u
( (
(
( (
(
=
( (
(
( (
(

sin cos sin sin cos
cos cos cos sin sin
sin cos 0
R x
y
z
a a
a a
a
a
u
|
u | u | u
u | u | u
| |
( (
(
( (
(
=
( (
(
( (
(

Basis change formulas
0 0
sin cos sin cos
R R
R
R
R
R R R
| |
u u
u
|
u
| | u
u u u
u u u u
| | |
c c
c c c c
= = = = = =
c c c c c c
c
c c
= = =
c c c
e e
e e e e
e e
e
e e
e e e e
1 1
sin
R
R R R
u |
u u |
| | c c c
V + +
|
c c c
\ .
e e e
( )
1 1
sin
R R R
v v v
R R R
u u | | u |
u u |
| | c c c
V = + + + +
|
c c c
\ .
v e e e e e e
1 1
sin
1 1
cot
sin
1 1
cot
sin
R R R
R
R
v
v v v v
R R R R R
v
v v v v
R R R R R
v v v
v v
R R R R R
|
u
|
u u u
| | |
u
u u |
u
u u |
u
u u |
( c c c

(
c c c
(
(
c c c
V + (
c c c
(
(
c c c
(
+ +
( c c c

v

u
|
R
P
i
k
j
Review:
Deformation Mapping
Eulerian/Lagrangian descriptions of motion

x
u(x)
e
3
e
1
e
2
Original
Configuration
Deformed
Configuration
y
1 2 3
( , , , )
i i i
y x u x x x t = +
const
( , ) ( , )
i
i i
i i i j i j
x
y u
y x u x t v x t
t t
=
c c
= + = =
c c
2
2
const
const
( , ) ( , ) ( , )
i
i
i i
i i i j i j i j
x
x
y y
y x u y t v y t a y t
t
t
=
=
c c
= + = =
c
c
2
2
const const
const
const
( , ) ( , )
i i
i
i
i k i i i i
ik i j k j
k k y y
x
x
u y u y v v
a y t v y t
y t t t y
t
o
= =
=
=
| | c c c c c c
= = = +
|
c c c c c
c
\ .
( )
( )
( )
or
i i
i i ij ij
j j j
y u
x u F
x x x
o
V = V + =
c c c
= + = + =
c c c
y x u x F

x
u(x)
e
3
e
1
e
2
dx
dy
u(x+dx)
Original
Configuration
Deformed
Configuration
i ik k
d d
dy F dx
=
=
y F x
Review
Sequence of deformations

x
u
(1)
(x)
e
3
e
1
e
2
dx
dy
Original
Configuration
After first
deformation
dz
u
(2)
(y)
y z
After second
deformation
(2) (1) (2) (1)
with or
i ij j ij
ik kj
d d dz F dx F F F = = = = z F x F F F
Lagrange Strain

e
3
e
1
e
2
l
0
Original
Configuration
Deformed
Configuration
m
l
1 1
( ) or ( )
2 2
T
ij ki kj ij
E F F o = = E F F I
( )
2
2 2
0
2 2
0
0 0
2 2
ij i j
l l l l
E m m
l
l l
o
o
= = = + m E m
Review
( )
0
det
dV
J
dV
= = F
Volume Changes

dx
dy
dz
dr
dv
dw
e
3
e
1
e
2
Undeformed
Deformed
dV
dV
0

e
3
e
1
e
2
Original
Configuration
Deformed
Configuration
t
dA
0
dA
n
n
0
x
u(x)
dP
(n)
dP
(n)
0
Area Elements
1 0
0 0 0
T
i ki k
dA J dA dAn JF n dA

= = n F n
( )
( )
1 1
or
2 2
j T
i
ij
j i
u
u
x x
c
| | c
c
= V+ V = + |
|
c c
\ .
u u
Infinitesimal Strain

y
x x
y
l
0
l
0
(1+c )
t/2
xx
yy
l
0
l
0
e
1
e
2
xy
O A
B
C
O
A
B C
(1+c )
1 1
2 2
j j
i k k i
ij ij
j i j i j i
u u
u u u u
E
x x x x x x
c
| | | | c c
c c c c
= + + ~ + ~ | |
| |
c c c c c c
\ . \ .
Approximates L-strain
Related to Engineering Strains
11
22
12 21
/ 2 / 2
xx
yy
xy yx
c c
c c
c c
=
=
= = =
Review
Principal values/directions of
Infinitesimal Strain
e
3
e
1
e
2
Original
Configuration
n
(1)
n
(2)
n
(2)
n
(1)
I+c
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
or
i i
i
i i
kl i
l l
e
n e n c
=
=
n n
( )
( )
1 1
or
2 2
j T
i
ij
j i
u
u
w
x x
| | c
c
= V V = |
|
c c
\ .
w u u
Infinitesimal rotation

e
3
e
1
e
2
Original
Configuration
Deformed
Configuration
n
(1)
n
(2)
I+w
n
(2)
n
(1)
I+c
Decomposition of infinitesimal
motion
i
ij ij
j
u
w
x
c
c
= +
c
Left and Right stretch tensors, rotation tensor
= F R U
= F V R
(1) (1) (2) (2) (3) (3)
1 2 3
= + + U u u u u u u
(1) (1) (2) (2) (3) (3)
1 2 3
= + + V v v v v v v
U,V symmetric, so
i
principal stretches

e
3
e
1
e
2
Original
Configuration
Deformed
Configuration
u
(1)
u
(2)
v
(2)
v
(1)
U R
u
(2)
u
(1)

2
u
(2)
u
(1)
u
(3)
u
(1)
1
1
1
u
(2)
u
(3)
Review
Left and Right Cauchy-Green Tensors
2
2
T
T
= =
= =
C F F U
B F F V
Review
Generalized strain measures
3
( ) ( )
i=1
3
( ) ( )
i=1
Lagrangian Nominal strain: ( 1)
Lagrangian Logarithmic strain: log( )
i i
i
i i
i

u u
u u
3
( ) ( )
i=1
3
( ) ( )
i=1
Eulerian Nominal strain: ( 1)
Eulerian Logarithmic strain: log( )
i i
i
i i
i

v v
v v
* 1 * 1 1
1 1
( ) or ( )
2 2
T
ij ij ki kj
E F F o

= = E I F F
Eulerian strain
Review
i
ij
j
v
L
y
c
= V =
c
y
( ) ( )
i
i i i j
j
v
dv v d v dy
y
c
= + =
c
y y y

x
u(x)
e
3
e
1
e
2
Original
Configuration
Deformed
Configuration
y
1
i ij jk k
dv F F dy

= ( )
i i ij j ij j
d d
dv dy F dx F dx
dt dt
= = =
1
d
dt

=
F
L F
Stretch rate and spin tensors
1 1
( ) ( )
2 2
T T
= + = D L L W L L

e
3
e
1
e
2
l
0
Original
Configuration
Deformed
Configuration
n
l
1
i ij j
dl
n D n
l dt
= = n D n
Vorticity vector
( )
k
i ijk
j
v
curl w
y
c
= =e
c
w v
2 ( )
i ijk jk
dual W e = = e W
1
( ) 2
2
k k
i i
i k k ik k
i x const y const
v v
a v v W v
t t y
= =
c c c
= = + +
c c c
1
( )
2
k k
i i
i k k ijk j k
i x const y const
v v
a v v v
t t y
e
= =
c c c
= = + +e
c c c
k i k
ijk ij j i
j k const
a v
D
y t y
e
e e
=
c c c
e = +
c c c
x

Spin-acceleration-vorticity relations
Review

dA
dP
0
lim
dA
d
dA
=
P
t

dV
dP
0
lim
dV
d
dV

=
P
b

t
R
t
e
3
e
2
e
1
n
T(n)
T(-n)
-n
( )
0
( ) lim
dA
d
dA
=
n
P
T n

dA
dP
Review: Kinetics

e
3
e
1
e
2
Original
Configuration
Deformed
Configuration
S
R
R
0
S
0 b
t
Surface traction
Body Force
Internal Traction
( )
A V
dA dV = +
} }
P T n b

e
3
e
1
e
2
Original
Configuration
Deformed
Configuration
S
R
R
0
S
0
b
t
n
V
T(n)
Resultant force on a volume
Restrictions on internal traction vector

e
1
e
3
e
2
T(n)
n
T(-e
1
)
-e
1
dA
1
dA
(n)
dA
1 dA
(n)
Review: Kinetics
n
-n
T(n)
T(-n)
( ) ( ) = T n T n
Newton II
( ) or ( )
i j ji
T n o = = T n n n
Newton II&III
Cauchy Stress Tensor

e
1
e
3
e
2
o
11
o
12
o
13
o
21
o
22
o
23
o
31
o
32
o
33
Other Stress Measures
ij ij
J Jo t = =

e
3
e
1
e
2
Original
Configuration
Deformed
Configuration
S
R
R
0
S
0 b
t
i
ij ij
j
u
F
x
o
c
= + V = +
c
F I u
det( ) J = F
Kirchhoff
Nominal/ 1
st
Piola-Kirchhoff
Material/2
nd
Piola-Kirchhoff
1 1
ij ik kj
J JF S o

= = S F
1 1 1 T
ij ik kl jl
J JF F o

= = F F E
( ) 0
0 i ij j
dP dA n S =
n

e
3
e
1
e
2
Original
Configuration
Deformed
Configuration
t
dA
0
dA
n
n
0
x
u(x)
dP
(n)
dP
(n)
0
( 0) ( )
ij j i
F dP dP =
n n ( 0) 0
0 j ji i
dP dA n = E
n
Review Reynolds Transport Relation

e
3
e
1
e
2
Original
Configuration
Deformed
Configuration
R
R
0
n
S
y
x
u(x)
S
0
C
0
C
i i
j j const const
V V V
v v d
dV dV dV
dt t y t y
| | |
| |
= =
| | | |
c c c c
| = + = + |
| |
c c c c
\ . \ .
} } }
x y
Review

e
3
e
1
e
2
Original
Configuration
Deformed
Configuration
S
R
R
0
S
0
b
t
n
V
T(n)
y
x
u(x)
or
ij
j j
i
b a
y
o

c
V + = + =
c
y
b a

e
3
e
1
e
2
Original
Configuration
Deformed
Configuration
S
R
R
0
S
0
n
V
y
x
u(x)
V
0
Mass Conservation
Linear Momentum Conservation
0 0
i i
i i const const
V
v v
dV
t y t y

= =
| |
c c c c
+ = + =
|
c c c c
\ .
}
x x
0 ( ) 0
i
i const const
v
t y t

= =
c c c
+ = + V =
c c c
y
y y
v
Angular Momentum Conservation
ij ji
o o =
( )
1
2
i i i ij ij i i i
A V V V
d
r T v dA b v dV D dV v v dV
dt
o

= + = +
`

)
} } } }
n
Rate of mechanical work done on
a material volume

e
3
e
1
e
2
Original
Configuration
Deformed
Configuration
S
R
R
0
S
0
b
t
n
V
T(n)
y
x
u(x)
Conservation laws in terms of other stresses
0 0 0 0
ij
j j
i
S
b a
x
V + = + =
c
S b a
( )
0 0 0 0
ik jk
j j
i
F
b a
x

c E
(
V + = + =

c
T
F b a E
Mechanical work in terms of other stresses
0 0
( )
0 0 0
1
2
i i i ij ji i i i
A V V V
d
r T v dA b v dV S F dV v v dV
dt

= + = +
`

)
} } } }
n
0 0
( )
0 0 0
1
2
i i i ij ij i i i
A V V V
d
r T v dA b v dV E dV v v dV
dt

= + = E +
`

)
} } } }
n
c
Review: Thermodynamics

e
3
e
1
e
2
Original
Configuration
Deformed
Configuration
S
R
R
0
S
0 b
t
Specific Internal Energy
Specific Helmholtz free energy s c u =
Temperature
u
Heat flux vector q
External heat flux
q
First Law of Thermodynamics ( )
d
KE Q W
dt
E+ = +
i
ij ij
i const
q
D q
t y
c
o
=
c c
= +
c c
x
Second Law of Thermodynamics
0
dS d
dt dt
H
>
Specific entropy s
( / )
0
i
i
q s q
t y
u

u
c c
+ >
c c
1
0
ij ij i
i
D q s
y t t
u u
o
u
c c c | |
+ >
|
c c c
\ .
Conservation Laws for a Control Volume
R is a fixed spatial region
material flows across boundary B

e
3
e
1
e
2
Deformed
Configuration
B
b
n
R
T(n)
y
0
R B
d
dV dA
dt
+ =
} }
v n
Mass Conservation
Linear Momentum Conservation
( )
B R R B
d
dA dV dV dA
dt
+ = +
} } } }
n b v v v n
Angular Momentum Conservation
( ) ( ) ( )
B R R B
d
dA dA dV dA
dt
+ = +
} } } }
y n y b y v y v v n
1 1
( ) : ( ) ( )
2 2
B R R R B
d
dA dV dV dV dA
dt
+ = + +
} } } } }
n v b v D v v v v v n
Mechanical Power Balance
First Law
1 1
( )
2 2
B R B V R B
d
dA dV dA qdV dV dA
dt
c c
| | | |
+ + = + + +
| |
\ . \ .
} } } } } }
n v b v q n v v v v v n
Second Law
( ) 0
R B B R
d q
sdV s dA dA dV
dt

u u

+ + >
} } } }
q n
v n
Review: Transformations under observer changes
Transformation of space under
a change of observer

e
3
e
1
e
2
Deformed
Configuration
b
n
y
Deformed
Configuration
b
*
n
*
y*
e
2
*
e
3
*
e
2
*
Inertial frame
Observer frame
* *
0 0
( ) ( )( ) t t = + y y Q y y
All physically measurable vectors can be
regarded as connecting two points in the
inertial frame
These must therefore transform like
vectors connecting two points under a
change of observer
* * * *
= = = = b Qb n Qn v Qv a Qa
Note that time derivatives in the observers reference frame have to
account for rotation of the reference frame
* *
* * * * * 0
0 0
2 * * 2 2 2 * *
* * * 2 * * 0 0
0 0
2 2 2 2
( ( )) ( ( ))
( )
( ( )) ( ( )) 2 ( )
T
T
d d d d
t t
dt dt dt dt
d d t d d d d d
t t
dt dt dt
dt dt dt dt
= = = =
| |
= = = = +
|
\ .
y y y
v Qv Q Q Q y y y y
y y y y y
a Qa Q Q Q y y y y
T
d
dt
=
Q
Q
The deformation mapping transforms as
( )
* *
0 0
( , ) ( ) ( ) ( , ) t t t t = + y X y Q y X y
*
*
c c
= = =
c c
y y
F Q QF
X X

The right Cauchy Green strain Lagrange strain, the right stretch tensor are invariant
* * * * * T T T
= = = = = C F F F Q QF C E E U U
The left Cauchy Green strain, Eulerian strain, left stretch tensor are frame indifferent
* * * * T T T T T
= = = = B F F QFF Q QCQ V QVQ
The velocity gradient and spin tensor transform as
( )
* * * 1 1
* * *
( ) / 2
T T
T T

= = + = +
= = +
L F F QF QF F Q QLQ
W L L QWQ

The velocity and acceleration vectors transform as
* *
* * * * * 0
0 0
2 * * 2 2 2 * *
* * * 2 * * 0 0
0 0
2 2 2 2
( ( )) ( ( ))
( )
( ( )) ( ( )) 2 ( )
T
T
d d d d
t t
dt dt dt dt
d d t d d d d d
t t
dt dt dt
dt dt dt dt
= = = =
| |
= = = = +
|
\ .
y y y
v Qv Q Q Q y y y y
y y y y y
a Qa Q Q Q y y y y

(the additional terms in the acceleration can be interpreted as the centripetal and coriolis accelerations)
The Cauchy stress is frame indifferent
* T
= QQ (you can see this from the formal definition, or use
the fact that the virtual power must be invariant under a frame change)
The material stress is frame invariant
*
=
The nominal stress transforms as
* 1 1
( )
T T T
J J

= = = S QF Q Q F Q SQ (note that this
transformation rule will differ if the nominal stress is defined as the transpose of the measure used here)
Some Transformations under observer changes
Constitutive Laws
General Assumptions:
1. Local homogeneity of deformation
(a deformation gradient can always be calculated)
2. Principle of local action
(stress at a point depends on deformation in
a vanishingly small material element surrounding
the point)

Restrictions on constitutive relations:
1. Material Frame Indifference stress-strain relations must transform
consistently under a change of observer
2. Constitutive law must always satisfy the second law of
thermodynamics for any possible deformation/temperature history.

Equations relating internal force measures to deformation measures are known
as Constitutive Relations

e
3
e
1
e
2
Original
Configuration
Deformed
Configuration
1
0
ij ij i
i
D q s
y t t
u u
o
u
c c c
| |
+ >
|
c c c
\ .