Sie sind auf Seite 1von 26

Review (2

nd
order tensors):
Tensor Linear mapping of a vector onto another vector
d d = u G x

e
1
e
2
e
3
a
1
a
2
a
3
Tensor components in a Cartesian basis (3x3 matrix):
11 12 13
21 22 23
31 32 33
U U U
U U U
U U U
(
(
(
(

( ) ( )
ik jl ij i j
ij
kl
S Q S Q Q = =
m e
m e
Basis change formula for tensor components

e
1
e
2
e
3
m
1
m
2
m
3
c
O
P r
p
|
Dyadic vector product
ij i j
S a b = = S a b
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
ij j i k k i k k
S u a b u a b u = = = = S u a b u a b u
3 3
1 1
ij i j
j i
S
= =
=

S e e
General dyadic expansion
Routine tensor operations
11 12 13 11 11 12 12 13 13
21 22 23 21 21 22 22 23 23
31 32 33 31 31 32 32 33 33
U U U S T S T S T
U U U S T S T S T
U U U S T S T S T
+ + +
( (
( (
= + + +
( (
( (
+ + +

Addition = + U S T
Vector/Tensor product
= v S u
1 11 12 13 1 11 1 12 2 13 3
2 21 22 23 2 21 1 22 2 23 3
3 31 32 33 3 31 1 32 2 33 3
v S S S u S u S u S u
v S S S u S u S u S u
v S S S u S u S u S u
+ + ( ( ( (
( ( ( (
= = + +
( ( ( (
( ( ( ( + +

= v u S
| | | |
11 12 13 1 11 2 21 3 31
1 2 3 1 2 3 21 22 23 1 12 2 22 3 32
31 32 33 1 13 2 23 3 33
S S S u S u S u S
v v v u u u S S S u S u S u S
S S S u S u S u S
+ + ( (
( (
= = + +
( (
( ( + +

11 12 13 11 12 13 11 12 13
21 22 23 21 22 23 21 22 23
31 32 33 31 32 33 31 32 33
11 11 12 21 13 31 11 12 12 22 13 32 11 13 12 23 13 33
21 11 22 21 23 31 21 12
U U U T T T S S S
U U U T T T S S S
U U U T T T S S S
T S T S T S T S T S T S T S T S T S
T S T S T S T S
( ( (
( ( (
=
( ( (
( ( (

+ + + + + +
= + + +
22 22 23 32 21 12 22 22 23 32
31 11 32 21 33 31 31 12 32 22 33 32 31 13 32 23 33 33
T S T S T S T S T S
T S T S T S T S T S T S T S T S T S
(
(
+ + +
(
( + + + + + +

Tensor product = U T S
Routine tensor operations
Transpose
11 21 31
12 22 32
13 23 33
T
S S S
S S S
S S S
(
(

(
(

S
T
= u S S u
( )
T
T T
= A B B A
T
S
Trace
Inner product
Outer product
Determinant

Inverse

Invariants (remain constant under basis change)


Eigenvalues, Eigenvectors (Characteristic Equation Cayley-Hamilton
Theorem)

( )
11 22 33
trace S S S = + + S
:
ij ij
S T S T
ij ji
S T S T
1
det( )
6
ijk lmn li mj nk
S S S = e e S
1
1
2det( )
ji ipq jkl pk ql
S S S

= e e
S
1
= S S I
2
1 2 3
1 1 1
trace( ) (trace( ) ) ( ) det( )
2 2 6
kk ii jj ij ji ijk pqr ip jq kr
I S I S S S S I S S S = = = = = = e e S S S S S
= S m m
3 2 2
1 2 3 1 2 1 3
0 ( ), ( ) / 2 det( ) I I I I trace I I I + = = = = S S S S
3 2
1 2 3
I I I + = S S S 0
Recipe for computing eigenvalues of symmetric tensor
( )
1
1
3
2 1 1 2 3
2 1
2
1 2 1 3
1 3 3 2( 1)
2 cos cos 1, 2, 3
3 3 3 2 3
2 9 27 1
3 27
1
( ) : det( )
2
k
I p q k
k
p p
I I I I
p I I q
I trace I I I
t



| |


= + =
| `
|

\ .
)
+
= =
= = = S S S S
Special Tensors
Symmetric tensors
T
= S S
Have real eigenvalues, and orthogonal eigenvectors
Skew tensors
T
= S S
= S u w u Have dual vectors satisfying
Proper orthogonal tensors
1
T T
T
= =
=
R R R R I
R R
det( ) 1 = + R
Represent rotations have Rodriguez
representation
cos (1 cos ) sin
ij ij i j ijk k
R n n n uo u u = + e
Polar decomposition theorem
T T T
= = = = = A R U V R RR I U U V V
Polar Coordinates

u
|
R
P
i
k
j
sin cos cos cos sin
sin sin cos sin cos
cos sin 0
x R
y
z
a a
a a
a
a
u
|
u | u | |
u | u | |
u u
( (
(
( (
(
=
( (
(
( (
(


sin cos sin sin cos
cos cos cos sin sin
sin cos 0
R x
y
z
a a
a a
a
a
u
|
u | u | u
u | u | u
| |
( (
(
( (
(
=
( (
(
( (
(


Basis change formulas
0 0
sin cos sin cos
R R
R
R
R
R R R
| |
u u
u
|
u
| | u
u u u
u u u u
| | |
c c
c c c c
= = = = = =
c c c c c c
c
c c
= = =
c c c
e e
e e e e
e e
e
e e
e e e e
1 1
sin
R
R R R
u |
u u |
| | c c c
V + +
|
c c c
\ .
e e e
( )
1 1
sin
R R R
v v v
R R R
u u | | u |
u u |
| | c c c
V = + + + +
|
c c c
\ .
v e e e e e e
1 1
sin
1 1
cot
sin
1 1
cot
sin
R R R
R
R
v
v v v v
R R R R R
v
v v v v
R R R R R
v v v
v v
R R R R R
|
u
|
u u u
| | |
u
u u |
u
u u |
u
u u |
( c c c

(
c c c
(
(
c c c
V + (
c c c
(
(
c c c
(
+ +
( c c c

v

u
|
R
P
i
k
j
Gradient operator
Review:
Deformation Mapping
Eulerian/Lagrangian descriptions of motion
Deformation Gradient

x
u(x)
e
3
e
1
e
2
Original
Configuration
Deformed
Configuration
y
1 2 3
( , , , )
i i i
y x u x x x t = +
const
( , ) ( , )
i
i i
i i i j i j
x
y u
y x u x t v x t
t t
=
c c
= + = =
c c
2
2
const
const
( , ) ( , ) ( , )
i
i
i i
i i i j i j i j
x
x
y y
y x u y t v y t a y t
t
t
=
=
c c
= + = =
c
c
2
2
const const
const
const
( , ) ( , )
i i
i
i
i k i i i i
ik i j k j
k k y y
x
x
u y u y v v
a y t v y t
y t t t y
t
o
= =
=
=
| | c c c c c c
= = = +
|
c c c c c
c
\ .
( )
( )
( )
or
i i
i i ij ij
j j j
y u
x u F
x x x
o
V = V + =
c c c
= + = + =
c c c
y x u x F

x
u(x)
e
3
e
1
e
2
dx
dy
u(x+dx)
Original
Configuration
Deformed
Configuration
i ik k
d d
dy F dx
=
=
y F x
Review
Sequence of deformations

x
u
(1)
(x)
e
3
e
1
e
2
dx
dy
Original
Configuration
After first
deformation
dz
u
(2)
(y)
y z
After second
deformation
(2) (1) (2) (1)
with or
i ij j ij
ik kj
d d dz F dx F F F = = = = z F x F F F
Lagrange Strain

e
3
e
1
e
2
l
0
Original
Configuration
Deformed
Configuration
m
l
1 1
( ) or ( )
2 2
T
ij ki kj ij
E F F o = = E F F I
( )
2
2 2
0
2 2
0
0 0
2 2
ij i j
l l l l
E m m
l
l l
o
o
= = = + m E m
Review
( )
0
det
dV
J
dV
= = F
Volume Changes

dx
dy
dz
dr
dv
dw
e
3
e
1
e
2
Undeformed
Deformed
dV
dV
0

e
3
e
1
e
2
Original
Configuration
Deformed
Configuration
t
dA
0
dA
n
n
0
x
u(x)
dP
(n)
dP
(n)
0
Area Elements
1 0
0 0 0
T
i ki k
dA J dA dAn JF n dA

= = n F n
( )
( )
1 1
or
2 2
j T
i
ij
j i
u
u
x x
c
| | c
c
= V+ V = + |
|
c c
\ .
u u
Infinitesimal Strain

y
x x
y
l
0
l
0
(1+c )
t/2
xx
yy
l
0
l
0
e
1
e
2
xy
O A
B
C
O
A
B C
(1+c )
1 1
2 2
j j
i k k i
ij ij
j i j i j i
u u
u u u u
E
x x x x x x
c
| | | | c c
c c c c
= + + ~ + ~ | |
| |
c c c c c c
\ . \ .
Approximates L-strain
Related to Engineering Strains
11
22
12 21
/ 2 / 2
xx
yy
xy yx
c c
c c
c c
=
=
= = =
Review
Principal values/directions of
Infinitesimal Strain
e
3
e
1
e
2
Original
Configuration
n
(1)
n
(2)
n
(2)
n
(1)
I+c
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
or
i i
i
i i
kl i
l l
e
n e n c
=
=
n n
( )
( )
1 1
or
2 2
j T
i
ij
j i
u
u
w
x x
| | c
c
= V V = |
|
c c
\ .
w u u
Infinitesimal rotation

e
3
e
1
e
2
Original
Configuration
Deformed
Configuration
n
(1)
n
(2)
I+w
n
(2)
n
(1)
I+c
Decomposition of infinitesimal
motion
i
ij ij
j
u
w
x
c
c
= +
c
Left and Right stretch tensors, rotation tensor
= F R U
= F V R
(1) (1) (2) (2) (3) (3)
1 2 3
= + + U u u u u u u
(1) (1) (2) (2) (3) (3)
1 2 3
= + + V v v v v v v
U,V symmetric, so
i
principal stretches

e
3
e
1
e
2
Original
Configuration
Deformed
Configuration
u
(1)
u
(2)
v
(2)
v
(1)
U R
u
(2)
u
(1)

2
u
(2)
u
(1)
u
(3)
u
(1)
1
1
1
u
(2)
u
(3)
Review
Left and Right Cauchy-Green Tensors
2
2
T
T
= =
= =
C F F U
B F F V
Review
Generalized strain measures
3
( ) ( )
i=1
3
( ) ( )
i=1
Lagrangian Nominal strain: ( 1)
Lagrangian Logarithmic strain: log( )
i i
i
i i
i

u u
u u
3
( ) ( )
i=1
3
( ) ( )
i=1
Eulerian Nominal strain: ( 1)
Eulerian Logarithmic strain: log( )
i i
i
i i
i

v v
v v
* 1 * 1 1
1 1
( ) or ( )
2 2
T
ij ij ki kj
E F F o

= = E I F F
Eulerian strain
Review
i
ij
j
v
L
y
c
= V =
c
y
L v Velocity Gradient
( ) ( )
i
i i i j
j
v
dv v d v dy
y
c
= + =
c
y y y

x
u(x)
e
3
e
1
e
2
Original
Configuration
Deformed
Configuration
y
1
i ij jk k
dv F F dy

= ( )
i i ij j ij j
d d
dv dy F dx F dx
dt dt
= = =
1
d
dt

=
F
L F
Stretch rate and spin tensors
1 1
( ) ( )
2 2
T T
= + = D L L W L L

e
3
e
1
e
2
l
0
Original
Configuration
Deformed
Configuration
n
l
1
i ij j
dl
n D n
l dt
= = n D n
Vorticity vector
( )
k
i ijk
j
v
curl w
y
c
= =e
c
w v
2 ( )
i ijk jk
dual W e = = e W
1
( ) 2
2
k k
i i
i k k ik k
i x const y const
v v
a v v W v
t t y
= =
c c c
= = + +
c c c
1
( )
2
k k
i i
i k k ijk j k
i x const y const
v v
a v v v
t t y
e
= =
c c c
= = + +e
c c c
k i k
ijk ij j i
j k const
a v
D
y t y
e
e e
=
c c c
e = +
c c c
x


Spin-acceleration-vorticity relations
Review

dA
dP
0
lim
dA
d
dA
=
P
t

dV
dP
0
lim
dV
d
dV

=
P
b

t
R
t
e
3
e
2
e
1
n
T(n)
T(-n)
-n
( )
0
( ) lim
dA
d
dA
=
n
P
T n

dA
dP
Review: Kinetics

e
3
e
1
e
2
Original
Configuration
Deformed
Configuration
S
R
R
0
S
0 b
t
Surface traction
Body Force
Internal Traction
( )
A V
dA dV = +
} }
P T n b

e
3
e
1
e
2
Original
Configuration
Deformed
Configuration
S
R
R
0
S
0
b
t
n
V
T(n)
Resultant force on a volume
Restrictions on internal traction vector

e
1
e
3
e
2
T(n)
n
T(-e
1
)
-e
1
dA
1
dA
(n)
dA
1 dA
(n)
Review: Kinetics
n
-n
T(n)
T(-n)
( ) ( ) = T n T n
Newton II
( ) or ( )
i j ji
T n o = = T n n n
Newton II&III
Cauchy Stress Tensor

e
1
e
3
e
2
o
11
o
12
o
13
o
21
o
22
o
23
o
31
o
32
o
33
Other Stress Measures
ij ij
J Jo t = =

e
3
e
1
e
2
Original
Configuration
Deformed
Configuration
S
R
R
0
S
0 b
t
i
ij ij
j
u
F
x
o
c
= + V = +
c
F I u
det( ) J = F
Kirchhoff
Nominal/ 1
st
Piola-Kirchhoff
Material/2
nd
Piola-Kirchhoff
1 1
ij ik kj
J JF S o

= = S F
1 1 1 T
ij ik kl jl
J JF F o

= = F F E
( ) 0
0 i ij j
dP dA n S =
n

e
3
e
1
e
2
Original
Configuration
Deformed
Configuration
t
dA
0
dA
n
n
0
x
u(x)
dP
(n)
dP
(n)
0
( 0) ( )
ij j i
F dP dP =
n n ( 0) 0
0 j ji i
dP dA n = E
n
Review Reynolds Transport Relation

e
3
e
1
e
2
Original
Configuration
Deformed
Configuration
R
R
0
n
S
y
x
u(x)
S
0
C
0
C
i i
j j const const
V V V
v v d
dV dV dV
dt t y t y
| | |
| |
= =
| | | |
c c c c
| = + = + |
| |
c c c c
\ . \ .
} } }
x y
Review

e
3
e
1
e
2
Original
Configuration
Deformed
Configuration
S
R
R
0
S
0
b
t
n
V
T(n)
y
x
u(x)
or
ij
j j
i
b a
y
o

c
V + = + =
c
y
b a

e
3
e
1
e
2
Original
Configuration
Deformed
Configuration
S
R
R
0
S
0
n
V
y
x
u(x)
V
0
Mass Conservation
Linear Momentum Conservation
0 0
i i
i i const const
V
v v
dV
t y t y


= =
| |
c c c c
+ = + =
|
c c c c
\ .
}
x x
0 ( ) 0
i
i const const
v
t y t


= =
c c c
+ = + V =
c c c
y
y y
v
Angular Momentum Conservation
ij ji
o o =
( )
1
2
i i i ij ij i i i
A V V V
d
r T v dA b v dV D dV v v dV
dt
o


= + = +
`

)
} } } }
n
Rate of mechanical work done on
a material volume

e
3
e
1
e
2
Original
Configuration
Deformed
Configuration
S
R
R
0
S
0
b
t
n
V
T(n)
y
x
u(x)
Conservation laws in terms of other stresses
0 0 0 0
ij
j j
i
S
b a
x
V + = + =
c
S b a
( )
0 0 0 0
ik jk
j j
i
F
b a
x

c E
(
V + = + =

c
T
F b a E
Mechanical work in terms of other stresses
0 0
( )
0 0 0
1
2
i i i ij ji i i i
A V V V
d
r T v dA b v dV S F dV v v dV
dt



= + = +
`

)
} } } }
n
0 0
( )
0 0 0
1
2
i i i ij ij i i i
A V V V
d
r T v dA b v dV E dV v v dV
dt



= + = E +
`

)
} } } }
n
c
Review: Thermodynamics

e
3
e
1
e
2
Original
Configuration
Deformed
Configuration
S
R
R
0
S
0 b
t
Specific Internal Energy
Specific Helmholtz free energy s c u =
Temperature
u
Heat flux vector q
External heat flux
q
First Law of Thermodynamics ( )
d
KE Q W
dt
E+ = +
i
ij ij
i const
q
D q
t y
c
o
=
c c
= +
c c
x
Second Law of Thermodynamics
0
dS d
dt dt
H
>
Specific entropy s
( / )
0
i
i
q s q
t y
u

u
c c
+ >
c c
1
0
ij ij i
i
D q s
y t t
u u
o
u
c c c | |
+ >
|
c c c
\ .
Conservation Laws for a Control Volume
R is a fixed spatial region
material flows across boundary B

e
3
e
1
e
2
Deformed
Configuration
B
b
n
R
T(n)
y
0
R B
d
dV dA
dt
+ =
} }
v n
Mass Conservation
Linear Momentum Conservation
( )
B R R B
d
dA dV dV dA
dt
+ = +
} } } }
n b v v v n
Angular Momentum Conservation
( ) ( ) ( )
B R R B
d
dA dA dV dA
dt
+ = +
} } } }
y n y b y v y v v n
1 1
( ) : ( ) ( )
2 2
B R R R B
d
dA dV dV dV dA
dt
+ = + +
} } } } }
n v b v D v v v v v n
Mechanical Power Balance
First Law
1 1
( )
2 2
B R B V R B
d
dA dV dA qdV dV dA
dt
c c
| | | |
+ + = + + +
| |
\ . \ .
} } } } } }
n v b v q n v v v v v n
Second Law
( ) 0
R B B R
d q
sdV s dA dA dV
dt

u u

+ + >
} } } }
q n
v n
Review: Transformations under observer changes
Transformation of space under
a change of observer

e
3
e
1
e
2
Deformed
Configuration
b
n
y
Deformed
Configuration
b
*
n
*
y*
e
2
*
e
3
*
e
2
*
Inertial frame
Observer frame
* *
0 0
( ) ( )( ) t t = + y y Q y y
All physically measurable vectors can be
regarded as connecting two points in the
inertial frame
These must therefore transform like
vectors connecting two points under a
change of observer
* * * *
= = = = b Qb n Qn v Qv a Qa
Note that time derivatives in the observers reference frame have to
account for rotation of the reference frame
* *
* * * * * 0
0 0
2 * * 2 2 2 * *
* * * 2 * * 0 0
0 0
2 2 2 2
( ( )) ( ( ))
( )
( ( )) ( ( )) 2 ( )
T
T
d d d d
t t
dt dt dt dt
d d t d d d d d
t t
dt dt dt
dt dt dt dt
= = = =
| |
= = = = +
|
\ .
y y y
v Qv Q Q Q y y y y
y y y y y
a Qa Q Q Q y y y y
T
d
dt
=
Q
Q
The deformation mapping transforms as
( )
* *
0 0
( , ) ( ) ( ) ( , ) t t t t = + y X y Q y X y
The deformation gradient transforms as
*
*
c c
= = =
c c
y y
F Q QF
X X

The right Cauchy Green strain Lagrange strain, the right stretch tensor are invariant
* * * * * T T T
= = = = = C F F F Q QF C E E U U
The left Cauchy Green strain, Eulerian strain, left stretch tensor are frame indifferent
* * * * T T T T T
= = = = B F F QFF Q QCQ V QVQ
The velocity gradient and spin tensor transform as
( )
* * * 1 1
* * *
( ) / 2
T T
T T

= = + = +
= = +
L F F QF QF F Q QLQ
W L L QWQ

The velocity and acceleration vectors transform as
* *
* * * * * 0
0 0
2 * * 2 2 2 * *
* * * 2 * * 0 0
0 0
2 2 2 2
( ( )) ( ( ))
( )
( ( )) ( ( )) 2 ( )
T
T
d d d d
t t
dt dt dt dt
d d t d d d d d
t t
dt dt dt
dt dt dt dt
= = = =
| |
= = = = +
|
\ .
y y y
v Qv Q Q Q y y y y
y y y y y
a Qa Q Q Q y y y y

(the additional terms in the acceleration can be interpreted as the centripetal and coriolis accelerations)
The Cauchy stress is frame indifferent
* T
= QQ (you can see this from the formal definition, or use
the fact that the virtual power must be invariant under a frame change)
The material stress is frame invariant
*
=
The nominal stress transforms as
* 1 1
( )
T T T
J J

= = = S QF Q Q F Q SQ (note that this
transformation rule will differ if the nominal stress is defined as the transpose of the measure used here)
Some Transformations under observer changes
Constitutive Laws
General Assumptions:
1. Local homogeneity of deformation
(a deformation gradient can always be calculated)
2. Principle of local action
(stress at a point depends on deformation in
a vanishingly small material element surrounding
the point)

Restrictions on constitutive relations:
1. Material Frame Indifference stress-strain relations must transform
consistently under a change of observer
2. Constitutive law must always satisfy the second law of
thermodynamics for any possible deformation/temperature history.


Equations relating internal force measures to deformation measures are known
as Constitutive Relations

e
3
e
1
e
2
Original
Configuration
Deformed
Configuration
1
0
ij ij i
i
D q s
y t t
u u
o
u
c c c
| |
+ >
|
c c c
\ .