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Overview of Construction Planning Techniques

Lecture No. 10

Introduction
A

Project is a planned undertaking which is a set of interrelated and coordinated activities designed to achieve certain specific objective, within a given budget and period of time. Need to
!

"learl# define the objectives

Basic Facts about Construction Planning


"onstruction

planning is an essential part of construction project management in that it forms the basis for determination of resources identification, mobili$ation and utili$ation Planning means deciding where #ou want to go and then how #ou will get there. e.g. when constructing a building

Steps in Planning for construction projects


Preparation

of work programmes Preparation of resource allocation programmes Preparation of cashflow diagrams Preparation of schedules
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PLANN(N% )NA*L)+ ,(-)L. P/&0)", "&-PL),(&N ! N& ')LA.+

Dela s in Construction Projects


1eather2 -aterials not being available2 -aterials being rejected2 *reakdown of e3uipment2 4nwillingness to cooperate2 (nade3uate detailing2 'ela# in obtaining relevant permits2 and Lack of cooperation of statutor# authorities.

!dvantages of planning to the Contractor


*etter

familiari$ation of the project Proper cashflow to prevent losses Proper suppl# of re3uired labour Assist coordination of subcontractors Provision of a standard against which actual work ma#be measured 5eeping of proper records of progress

!dvantages of planning to the Client


5nowing

e6actl# the duration of the project and the length of time his7her capital will be unproductive while tied up in construction work %uide for engaging staff or purchasing stock

!dvantages of planning to the !rchitect or "ngineer


5nowing

the anticipated rate of progress for all main operations 5nowing when each operation is to be carried out so that he7she knows when each drawing will be re3uired

!dvantages of planning to other parties connected with the Contract#


,hese

include ! subcontractors, specialists, suppliers 8 local authorities. Programme will help them to know in what stage and when the work is to be carried out and thus plan accordingl#.

Initial Considerations in preparing a progra$$e


,he

planning techni3ue to be used2 ,he number and t#pe of programmes re3uired2 and ,he purpose of the programme

The planning technique to be used


'epends
! ! ! ! ! !

on

)6pertise of the management team2 ,he comple6it# of the job2 'egree of managerial e6perience on similar jobs2 ,he si$e of the firm Attitude of management to planning techni3ues2 8 ,ime period allowed between award of contract 8 commencement of site operations.

The nu$ber and t pe of progra$$es required


Need

to know the specific purpose of the programme e.g take the stage at which the programme is being made pre9tender, pre9 contract, stage programmes2 short term plans2 and weekl# plans. 'egree of detail depends on whom will use the programme ! head office: +ite management: &r engineer:

The purpose of the progra$$e


(s
! ! !

the purpose to
;elp in preparation of an estimate2 ,o show the se3uence and ideall# the interdependence of operations2 or <or progressing purposes.

,he

answer to these will determine the t#pe of programme.

Planning %evel
-ajor,
!

strategic and 7or polic# plans ! at upper level of an organi$ation


,he attainment of one major plan re3uires the preparation and implementation of man# minor plans.

Planning %evel &contd##'


-aster
!

plan7pre9contract plan ! at operational level


,his will be underpinned b# short9term detailed plans such as monthl#, weekl# and stage programmes

,hrough

these progress can be monitored and if necessar# take earl# corrective action to ensure work is progressing as planned.

Scope of Planning
(dea

+tage *riefing +tage 'esign +tage (mplementation +tage "ommissioning +tage

The (eed for Planning Techniques


Planning

in projects is important because each individual project is uni3ue in terms of composition, environment, si$e, location etc. ,hus a plan for one project can be useless for another although e6perience obtained from one project will benefit the other project. 1h# plan when there are so man# uncertainties:

Construction Planning Techniques


,echni3ues
! ! ! ! ! ! !

which e6ist include

*ar "harts =%antt "harts> +9"urve Line of balance ,ime chainage "harts "ritical Path -ethod ="P-> Precedence 'iagramming -ethod =P'-> Program )valuation and /eview ,echni3ue =P)/,>

Bar Charts &)antt Charts'


A

bar chart is a graphical representation of activities versus time in carr#ing out a set of a set of activities for a project. *ars are usuall# drawn hori$ontall# against a description of an activit#. 4sed )6tensivel# for
! !

/elativel# simple projects2 <or short term and weekl# programming

!dvantages of *sing Bar charts


+implicit#2 )as#

to prepare and understand2 %ood for showing and recording progress2 )ase of rescheduling2 +uitable techni3ue for smaller contractor ?er# popular among site staff.

Disadvantages of *sing Bar charts


(nterrelations

of activities cannot be represented in the bar chart2 "annot be used for complicated jobs2 &perations can be easil# omitted b# mistake2 and +cheduling fle6ibilit# is often not represented.