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Extraoral Radiographic Anatomy

Mark Gil Q. Virtudes, DMD College of Dentistry Manila Central University

Lateral Oblique Projection

Lateral Oblique

Lateral Oblique Projection

The film is placed against the side of the patients face X-ray beam is directed posteroanteriorly from the opposite side

Lateral Oblique Projection

A. B. C. D.


Coronoid Process Condyle Sigmoid notch Zygomatic arch Mandibular foramen Hyoid bone

A. B.

C. D.

E. F.

Maxillary tuberosity Lower border of mandible (side away from film) Mental foramen Superior border of tongue Styloid process Mandibular canal


B. C.

D. E.

Zygomatic process of maxilla Vertrebral column Lower border of mandible (side closer to film) Zygoma Zygomatic arch

A. B. C. D.

Lower border of orbit Neck of condyle Vertebral column Hyoid bone

Lateral Head Projection

Lateral Head

Lateral Skull

Midsagittal plane of the patients head is parallel to the film X-ray beam is perpendicular to the film

Lateral Head

A= Frontal sinus B= Floor of the anterior cranial fossa C= Anterior clinoid process D= Posterior clinoid process E= Pituitary fossa

A= Nasal bone B= Zygomatic process of the maxilla closer to the film C= Ethmoid sinus D= Pterygomaxillary fissure

A= Orbital plates of frontal bone B= Orbit C= Sphenoid sinus D= Cross section of the greater wing of the sphenoid (ant. wall of middle cranial fossa)

A= Zygomatic process of the maxilla closer to the film B= Zygomatic process of the maxilla further to the film C= Dorsal border of tongue D= Pterygoid plate complex E= Soft palate

A= Hard palate B= Lingual cortical plate of mandible (anterior part) C= Nasopharynx

Postero-Anterior Projection

Postero-anterior (PA) Skull

PA Skull Projection

Midsagittal plane of the head is perpendicular to the film Forehead and the nose touch the film X-ray beam is perpendicular to the film

A= Orbital plate of frontal bone B= Frontal spine C= Sup. border of orbit D= Sphenoid sinus

A= Lesser wing of sphenoid B= Ethmoid sinus C= Middle nasal meatus D= Oblique orbital line E= Floor of posterior cranial fossa

A= Lacrimal canal B= Middle nasal concha C= Vomer D= Mastoid air cells E= Atlas-occipital condyle articulation

A= Zygomatic process of maxilla B= Anterior border of ascending ramus C= Coronoid process D= Odontoid process of axis E= Maxillary tuberosity

A= Inferior nasal concha B= Inferior nasal meatus C= Occipital condyle D= Maxillary sinus

A= Wall of nasal fossa B= Angle of the mandible C= Body of the mandible D= Maxillary sinus E= Nasal septum

Waters Projection

Waters Projection

Waters Projection

Midsagittal plane of the head is perpendicular to the film chin touches the film X-ray beam is perpendicular to the film

A= Frontal sinus B=Crista galli C=Supraorbital notch D=Lesser wing of sphenoid

A= Foramen rotundum B= Foramen ovale C= Nasal septum D= Floor of middle cranial fossa

A= Sphenoid sinus B= Infraorbital foramen and canal C= Superior orbital fissure

A= Inferior aspect of the base of skull B= Odontoid process of axis C= Inferior border of body of mandible


A= Infraorbital rim B= Zygomatic process of maxilla C= Condyle D= Coronoid process

A= Common nasal meatus B= Inferior nasal concha C= Hard palate D= Superior border of the tongue

A= Nasal septum B= Hyoid bone C= Zygomatic process of temporal bone D= Inferior nasal meatus

A= Posterior wall of maxillary sinus B= Hard palate C= Soft palate D= Maxillary tuberosity

A= Inferior border of mandibular canal B= Left maxillary sinus C= Ear lobe D= Mental foramen


C. D. E. F.

Articular eminence Sigmoid notch Shadow of contralateral mandible Glenoid fossa Posterior border of ramus Inferior border of mandible