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Submitted bySidharth sharma Uday pratap Vaibhav kaushal Vikashdeep sagar

Introduction Related theory Objective Important terms Formula used Description of apparatus Procedures Measurements Observations Results Precautions

Sodium lights actually energize the sodium gas trapped inside the bulb to produce the light. Wavelength is the distance between peaks (high points). This is similar to Youngs experiment.

The wave nature of light was established in the early part of the 19th century.

Fresnels experiment with the Biprism was one of the earliest

experiments to yield values for the wavelength of light. To make two coherent source for interference .Biprism make two sources. It is similar to Youngs Double slit experiment .


Fresnels Biprism


Double Slit

Interference of light


Fresnel used a biprism to show the phenomenon of interference.

A biprism is essentially a
combination of two acute prism placed base to base. A prism whose refracting angle is very nearly 180 degrees.

to determine wavelengths and

interference fringes

Youngs Double Slit Experiment

In the early 1800's (1801 to 1805), Thomas

Young conducted an experiment. He allowed

light to pass through a slit in a barrier so it expanded out in wave fronts from that slit as a light source. That light, in turn, passed through a pair of slits in another barrier (carefully placed the right distance from the original slit). Each slit, in turn, diffracted the light as if they were also individual sources of light. The light impacted an observation screen.

When a single slit was open, it merely impacted the observation screen with greater intensity at the center and then faded as you moved away from the center. There are two possible results of this experiment: Particle interpretation: If light exists as particles, the intensity of both slits will be the sum of the intensity from the individual slits. Wave interpretation: If light exists as waves, the light waves will have interference under the principle of superposition, creating bands of light (constructive interference) and dark (destructive interference).

Interference of light
Lamps, flashlights, etc all produce light. But this light is released in many directions, and the light is very weak and diffuse. In coherent light the wavelength and frequency of the photons emitted are the same. The amplitude may vary. Such things as lasers and holograms are composed of coherent light.

When two light waves from different coherent sources meet together, then the distribution of energy due to one wave is disturbed by the other. This modification in the distribution of light energy due to super position of two light waves is called "Interference of light". Two types----- constructive interference destructive interference ----The point at which intensity of light is maximum is called constructive interference. -----The point at which intensity of light is minimum is called destructive interference. INTERFERENCE CONDITIONS----Light must be monochromatic, i.e., involve just


Diffraction is a phenomenon done by visible light when it passes through a prism it is seen that it spreads into seven different colored lights. When it rains a rainbow is visible because a drop of rain acts as the prism and 7 different bright lights are seen as per the difference in their wavelengths. More examples can be light falling on CD or a DVD which enables us to see different colors. When we blow soap bubbles against the light, it is not seen as white but as blue, pink, red, etc.

Used formula
- The wavelength of the sodium light is given by the formula in case of biprism experiment.

= 2d / D Where = fringe width, 2d = distance between the two virtual sources, D = distance between the slit and screen. Again 2d = d1d2 Where d1 = distance between the two images formed by the convex lens in one position. d2 = distance between the two images formed by the convex lens in the second position.

Description of apparatus







1. Mount the gadgets on the optical bench. 2. Study all the movements on each stand. 3. Ensure that all the pieces are aligned at roughly the same height 4. Remove the stand with the convex lens from the optical bench. 5. Bring the eyepiece close to the biprism. 6. Looking through the eyepiece you will see a bright vertical patch of light. A slight rotation of the biprism in its own plane will break up this patch into vertical equidistance fringes. 7. Adjust the slit width to get the best compromise between brightness and sharpness of the fringe pattern. 8. Move the eyepiece slowly away from the biprism along the optical bench to a distance of about 100 cms. Keeping the fringe pattern all the time in the field of view. 9. Keeping eyepiece at a distance of 100 cm from the biprism, measure the fringe width by measuring the distance traversed by the eyepiece in crossing about 10 fringes using the main and circular scales on the eye-piece. 10. Interpose the convex lens between the biprism and the eyepiece making sure that D>4f. 11. Move the lens along the optical bench till you locate two conjugate positions of the lens at which you can see real images of the double slit in the field of view of the eyepiece. 12. Without disturbing the positions of the slit, biprism and the eyepiece measure the double-slit image separations d1 and d2.

Measurement of : (Fringe width) 1. The eyepiece is fixed about 100cm away from the slit. 2. The vertical crosswire is set on one of the bright fringes and the reading on the eyepiece scale is noted. 3. The crosswire is moved on the next bright fringe and the reading is noted. In this way observation are taken for about 20 fringes. Measurement of D: (distance between source and screen) 1. The distance between the slit and eyepiece gives D. Measurement of 2d: (distance between the two sources on screen) 1. For this part the distance between the eyepiece and slit should be kept slightly more than four times the focal length of lens. If necessary the position of the slit and the biprism should not be altered. 2. The convex lens is introduced the biprism and eyepiece and is placed near to the eyepiece. The lens is moved towards the biprism till two sharp images of the slit are seen. The distance d1 is measured by the micrometer eyepiece. 3. The lens is moved towards the biprism till two images are again seen the distance between these two images give d2. 4. At least two sets of observation for d1 and d2 are taken.

For fringe width--No. of division on the vernire scaleLeast count of vernireNo. of fringe
Micrometer reading(a) MS VS Total (mm) No. fringe of Micrometer reading(a) MS VS Total (mm) Difference For 10 fringe Mean for 10 fringe Fringe width (mm) [Mean 10]

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

Measurement of D:

Position of the slit Position of the eyepiece Observation value of D

(a) =cm (b) (b-a)

Measurement of 2d-

Micrometer Reading Observation of d2 Position of I Image Position of II Image Mean 2d

Observation of d1 sition of Image Position of II Image

VS Total MS VS Total MS VS Total MS VS Total


Wavelength of Sodium light= Standard Value of wavelength=5893A0

i) The setting of uprights at the same level is essential ii) The Slit should be vertical and narrow. iii) Fringe shift should be removed iv) Bench error should be taken into account. v) Crosswire should be fixed in the center of the fringe while taking observations for fringe width. vi) The micrometer screw should be rotated only in one direction to avoid backlash error. vii) The fringe width should be measured at a fairly large distance. viii) Convex lens of shorter focal length should be used (f=25 cms. Approx) ix) Motion of eyepiece should be perpendicular to the lengths of the bench.