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ICT for Development Awareness Lecture

SESSION 1: Understanding Development and ICTs Author: Prof. Usha Rani Vyasulu Reddi

Awareness Lecture on ICT for Development, Central Institute of Civil Service, Phaunggyi, Myanmar, March 07-08, 2011

United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

General Objectives
Argue the case for information and communications technologies (ICTs) in development; Describe the macro relationship between the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and ICTs; Foster a better understanding of the potential for using ICTs for social and economic progress; and Provide a development-oriented framework for ICT-based and ICT-supported projects and interventions in a range of social sectors

United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

Structure of the Lectures


Eight sessions
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Understanding development and the ICTs Linking Development to ICTs--Introducing ICTD Review of concepts, case study analysis Instructional design for 1-3 Applications in Basic SectorsAgriculture, Education, Health, Environment and Disaster Management 6. Applications in e governmentcase studies of success and failure 7. How to design, manage and ICTD project 8. Evaluating ICTD and Instructional Design for 5-7

United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

Session 1: Objectives and Outcomes


Objectives
Introduce the basic concepts of human development Introduce the global development goals

Outcomes
Understand the key concepts of human development Understand the eight MDGs Understand the importance of achieving development goals

United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

Perspectives on Development A historical perspective to approaches to Development


The capitalist model The Marxist-Socialist model Post World War II models As economic development and private sector led approaches Dependency model and import substitution The human development approach

United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

Perspectives on Development Understanding poverty, education, gender, health and related issues
Lack of income to meet needs of food, clothing, shelter Lack of education and access to education Low life expectancy, lack of access to health care Lack of information and awareness Gender discrimination Increased vulnerability to environment and natural disasters

United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

To Sum Up
Poverty is a multidimensional concept which means both lack the income to meet the basic needs to survive and also lack of access to assets, education, and health care. Poverty, lack of education and jobs, lack of health care are inextricably linked. Having an education means that an individual has the basic skills and knowledge to earn a living and to lift oneself and ones family out of poverty. Poor health impacts upon lower incomes and income generation capacity and therefore is closely linked to poverty A safe and sustainable environment, free of health hazards caused by pollution and environmental degradation is an important consideration because of extensive damage to the environment and climate change

United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

Global Development Goals as expressed in the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)

United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

The Millennium Development Goals

Table 1: MDGs Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education Goal 3: Promote gender equality and empower women Goal 4: Reduce child mortality Goal 5: Improve maternal health Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases Goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability Goal 8: Develop a global partnership for development

United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

MyanmarProgress Report on MDGs

United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

MyanmarProgress Report on MDGs

United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

Many reasons
Data are difficult to obtain, inaccurate and sometimes contradictory Lowest level of international aid more for political rather than development reasons Development of the country imperative to reduce internal stresses Managing development is a political and ethical processusing good governance to bring about change. Policy making, setting goals and priorities, legislation, provision of services are all part of this process

United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

End of Session 1

United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

ICT for Development Awareness Lecture


SESSION 2: Linking Development to ICT Introduction to ICTD Author: Prof. Usha Rani Vyasulu Reddi

Awareness Lecture on ICT for Development, Central Institute of Civil Service, Phaunggyi, Myanmar, March 07-08, 2011

United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

Session Objectives
Unit Objectives The learning objectives of this unit are To introduce learners to the definitions of ICTs To introduce learners to the strengths and weaknesses of ICTs To introduce learners to the link between human development, the MDGs and ICTs Unit Learning Outcomes After completing this unit, learners will be able to Define ICTs as currently understood Understand the strengths and weaknesses of different ICTs Understand ICTD

United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

ICTs and Development: ICTsScope and Definitions


ICTs are basically information handling toolsa varied set of goods,
applications and services that are used to produce, store, process, distribute and exchange information. They include the old ICTS of radio, television and telephone, and the new ICTs of computers, satellites and wireless technology and the Internet. These different tools are now able to work together, and combine to form our networked world, a massive infrastructure of interconnected telephone services, standardized computer hardware, the Internet, radio and television, which reaches into every corner of the globe.

Source: UNDP Evaluation Office, Information Communications Technology for Development, UNDP Essentials: Synthesis of Lessons Learned (New York: UNDP, 2001), 2.

United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

The Electromagnetic Spectrum

The range of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation from zero to infinity.


Note: The electromagnetic spectrum was, by custom and practice, formerly divided into 26 alphabetically designated bands. This usage still prevails to some degree. However, the ITU formally recognizes 12 bands, from 30 Hz to 3000 GHz.

United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

The Electromagnetic Spectrum

United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

ICTs and Development Features and Limitations of different ICTs


ICT
Print technologies

Strengths
Familiarity Reusable Can provide depth Allow economies of scale Allow uniform content and standards

Weaknesses
Limited by literacy Static in time Updating difficult Passive, one way technology with little or no interactivity

Broadcast Analogue Technologie s (Radio and TV)

Familiarity Speed of delivery Provides vicarious experience Allow Economies of scale Uniform content and standards possible Rugged, ease of use

Limited access Static in time, Synchronous Updating difficult Not problem or location specific Passive, little or no interactivity One size fits all content High start up, production & distribution costs

United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

ICTs and Development: Features and Limitations of different ICTs (Con.)


ICT
Digital (Computer and Internet Based Technologies)

Strengths
Interactive, user friendly Low per unit cost Allow Economies of scale Uniform content and standards possible Can be updated easily Problem and location specific Interactive Low per unit cost Allow Economies of scale Uniform content and standards possible Can be updated easily Problem and location specific User friendly Unbundling of content possible

Weaknesses
Limited access still High development costs Capacity of providers Computer literacy essential for use Local content The real issues of human resources; inadequate understanding of how and why Impeded by physical constraints such as signal strength Limited by social factor inhibiting access to and ownership of instrument

Mobile Technologies

United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

ICTs and Development: Classification of ICTs in Current Use


Synchronous: same time different places Audio-conferencing VOIP Chats, Radio Satellites Tele-classrooms Tele-conferencing Television Broadcast Radio Cable Telephony Asynchronous: different times and different places Computer based learning Computer Conferencing Computer file transfer Electronic bulletin boards multimedia websites, e-learning Social networking SMS, MMS

United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

Stakeholders in the ICTD space Policy Makers Service Providers Citizens

United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

ICTs and Development : What ICTs can do


Linkages for complex planning processes Coordination across sectors Enable increased information sharing Outreach and monitoring of services Scaling up access to education Linking communities to markets

Creating disaster warning systems

United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

End of Session 2

United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

ICT for Development Awareness Lecture


SESSION 3: Review of Concepts, Case Study Analysis Author: Prof. Usha Rani Vyasulu Reddi

Awareness Lecture on ICT for Development, Central Institute of Civil Service, Phaunggyi, Myanmar, March 07-08, 2011

United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

Reviewing ICT concepts New can be defined as what is new in technology or It can be defined as what is new in a society Within a developing country context, what is new for the Western world is not necessarily new for the rest of the world By placing too much emphasis on the new technologies, there is a risk of thinking that these are the cause rather than a result of change.

United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

Reviewing ICT concepts Distinguish between technologies, applications, services, and content Technologies as tools or carriers of services and content are channels. SERVICES AND CONTENT ARE THE MOST IMPORTANT Technologies can be old such as radio and television or new such as Internet and mobile telephony All are useful tools, each in its own way
United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

Reviewing ICT concepts Before the year 2000, older ICTsprint, radio, and televisionwere extensively used. Some cases of use in Asia include
Chinas barefoot journalists, radio and CCTV University Indonesias Palapa satellite Indias Krishi Darshan and SITE experiments Mexicos Telesecundaria

United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

Reviewing ICT concepts


Chinas Radio and Television University

CCRTVU, 44 provincial Radio and TV Universities (PRTVUs), 841 branch


schools at prefecture and city level, 1, 768 work stations make up a nationwide open and distance educational system which operates on the basis of overall planning and management at different levels. CRTVU has offered over 350 unified courses in 59 specialities of 22 subject areas,, which cover 6 fields: natural sciences, engineering, the humanities, economics and management, agriculture and medical science. CCRTVU has written more than 1,000 kinds of textbooks, and produced more than 400 kinds of audiovisual courses. And it has been speeding up the development of computer-based and network-based courseware. Up to 1999, Radio and TV Universities of China (RTVUs) have seen over 2.60 million college graduates and more than 1 million secondary vocational school graduates. The non-degree graduates of continuing education and in-service training are over 35 million and tens of thousands of farmers have received training through various practical agricultural courses. 710,000 teachers of primary schools and 550,000 teachers of secondary schools have graduated from CTVTC. 2 million teachers and 1 million principles of primary and secondary schools have been trained.
United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

Reviewing ICT concepts


Indonesias Palapa satellite On 16 August 1976, the Domestic Satellite Communication
System (Sistem Komunikasi Satelit Domestik or SKSD) through Palapa A1 was inaugurated. This communication satellite was the first satellite owned by Indonesia and one of the first satellite operated by a developing country. Palapa was used for broadcasting content throughout Indonesia

United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

Reviewing ICT concepts


Indias Krishi Darshan and SITE
Following a famine in 1965, India used television extensively to broadcast agricultural information to farmers. The result was the green revolution in India after which there have been no famines in the country. The Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE) in 1975, has remained to this day as the major watershed in technology applications in education and development. A quantum leap from zero to satellite communications was the first and largest experiment in human communication. Divided into three categoriesnews, educational, and recreationalthe programs were targeted for three types of audiences; children of school going age but not in school, pupils in elementary schools in rural areas, and illiterate and semi literate adults who must be brought into the mainstream of Indian life.
United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

Reviewing ICT concepts Mexicos Telesecundaria


Running successfully since 1968. A system of distance education programmes for secondary and high school students available in rural areas of the country Used television as a primary medium of education Partnership between government, universities, content developers and users themselves

United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

Significance of three cases of older technology Use


All four were big projects, created nationwide by national governments. Context defined in terms of geography, the spread and numbers of students to be covered. China needed to fill a human resource gap at the secondary and university level. Indonesia had a spread across scattered islands All used the technology of the day, made major investments in technology, content development All were centrally run and managed. All have problems of transitioning to new technologies

United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

Some examples of ICTD after 2000 The Village Knowledge Centres of Tamil Nadu and Puducherry, India
Established by the M.S. Swaminathan Foundation, Chennai to provide weather and fisheries information to coastal villages in Puducherry. Each village has a small centre, with basic communications telephone, fax, a computer, Internet connectivity and a public address system During the Tsunami of 2004, information collected from the Internet and publicized widely through the public address system helped save all the lives in affected coastal villages.
United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

Some examples of ICTD after 2000 Education is the area, with the largest use of ICTs, after e commerce. A variety of efforts, global and local; targeting large and audience groups as also small groups can be found in the education scenario. Extensive use of ICTs in open and distance learning institutions throughout Asia

United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

Some examples of ICTD after 2000 Malaysias Smart Schools project


Schools are equipped with computers and internet connections through leased lines. The Smart School project was set up to support a centralized a data repository, to allow school principals, teachers, students, and parents to access school servers from their home computers via the Internet; to allow each pilot school to access on line information in other pilot schools and for transferring files between them; and to communicate with each other through e mail.

United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

Some examples of ICTD after 2000 Singapore


Singapore has perhaps the most clearly spelt out policy and implementation plan for the use of ICTs in school education. With computers in all classrooms and other learning areas such as libraries and special rooms, teachers and students have access to them at all times and can use them in the curriculum in an integrated way. The integrated programme also includes a significant sector of teacher training, pre service, induction, and in service to equip teachers to become computer literate on the one hand and to learn to integrate ICTs into day to day teaching on the other.
United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

Some examples of ICTD after 2000 Bangladesh


in Bangladesh, the Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC) is trying to put computers in 650 rural schools. Normally, a computer is placed in the school library under the supervision of the librarian, who works as an intermediary to help children to learn how to use it. In one of the schools managed by BRAC at Roverpally, students share a computer for 45 minutes a week. The computer is connected to the Internet through a wireless link to the BRAC headquarters in Dhaka, a method more reliable and cheaper than using the existing telephone network.
United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

Learnings from the experimentation


Using small media and a blend of different technologies, countries are taking strides in deploying the new ICTs especially computers and the Internet as they seek to advance, promote and to address their development agenda and needs. They may do so either to create networks to increase access to technology or to integrate technology into the teaching learning process. To a large extent, the cases described here are not using satellite-based delivery systems. What is clear is that there is a great deal of experimentation, not much documentation of success or failures

United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

End of Session 3

United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

ICT for Development Awareness Lecture


SESSION 4: Instructional Design for 1-3 Author: Prof. Usha Rani Vyasulu Reddi

Awareness Lecture on ICT for Development, Central Institute of Civil Service, Phaunggyi, Myanmar, March 07-08, 2011

United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

What is instructional design?


Instructional design (ID) is the systematic process of planning, developing, managing, and evaluating the teaching process to ensure that effective learning takes place.

United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

Analyze learners and learning context. Define learning outcomes.

Determine modes of assessment.

Structure course content.

Design learning activities. Select course materials/resources.

Instructional design is an iterative process.

United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

Questions to ask while doing instructional design


1. Who are our learners? What do they already know and how do they learn best? 2. What do we want our learners to learn? Why? 3. How do we structure the learning to achieve our learning objectives? 4. What learning resources are appropriate, effective, and available?

United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

Questions to ask while doing instructional design

5. What teaching strategies will we employ to ensure that effective learning takes place? What combination of activities will enable the learners to achieve the learning objectives? 6. How do we know whether the learners learning what they were supposed to learn? How do we assess learning?

United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

Who are our learners and how do they learn?


Who: students in undergraduate and graduate

programmes from IT, social sciences and humanities and mixed disciplines How do they learn:
They are adult learners They learn from textbooks and from your lectures They are self-directed. They are problem-oriented. They learn best by doing. They prefer participatory and collaborative learning. They need to have a sense of progress and achievement.
United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

What instructional approach (pedagogy) is appropriate and effective?


An instructional approach that
Encourages learners to share and reflect on their prior knowledge and professional practice Uses real-life examples and simulations of real-life activities Stimulates critical thinking (e, g. benchmarking, assessment and evaluation of national projects) Stimulates creative thinking (e.g. envisioning)

United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

What instructional approach (pedagogy) is appropriate and effective? (Continued)


An instructional approach that
Develops practice skills (i.e. decision-making and evaluation) Develops confidence and a constructive attitude (away with the not-done-here syndrome) Fosters dialogue and collaboration (group work) Provides a range of resources

United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

Something To Do
Pick a topic or section from any unit of the module and design a training activity or exercise for this topic or section that reflects the pedagogical principles discussed.
Challenge yourself (optional): Design the activity or exercise such it becomes the MAIN instructional strategy rather than the lecture/slide presentation by the training instruction.

(Those who have chosen the same topic or section may work together.)

United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

End of Session 4

United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

ICT for Development Awareness Lecture


SESSION 5: ICTD Applications in Basic Sectors Author: Prof. Usha Rani Vyasulu Reddi

Awareness Lecture on ICT for Development, Central Institute of Civil Service, Phaunggyi, Myanmar, March 07-08, 2011

United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

Session Objectives and Outcomes


Unit Objectives The learning objectives of this unit are To introduce learners to the concept of direct and indirect applications of ICTs To introduce learners case studies in the use of ICTs in various development sectors Unit Learning Outcomes After completing this unit, learners will be able to Understand the application of ICTs in specific cases Be able to identify cases of ICTD in their own country and context Be able to analyze such identified cases in terms of success and failure

United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

Kinds of ICT interventions

Direct interventions
Direct

interface between the services and the poor Indirect interventions support of development efforts and projects information and decision support systems

Indirect interventions
In Building

United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

A Direct Intervention--RML
Reuters Market Light (RML), the first mobile phone based, highly personalized, professional information service, specially designed for the Indian farmer community and includes:
Daily spot crop prices: From 1000+ Mandis (markets) across more than 250 crop varieties Localized-level Weather detail: More than 2000 Talukas (the lowest revenue unit) Crop Advisory: Updated and personalized information sourced from experts Commodity News: Timely and accurate
United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

An Indirect Intervention--MNREGA
Problems in programme implementation led to the use of ICTs to provide an end-to end ICT solution. The government placed computers in 659 intermediate villages, and used specially developed software which generates job cards, preparation of estimates, and preparation of shelf of projects, work commencement orders, work wise measurement sheets, pay orders, and wage slips to individual labour. Any poor person, can, with a little help, access the information and seek redressal for grievances, thereby encompassing social accountability of the government mandated under the programme.
United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

An Indirect Intervention--ENRAP to support scholars, researchers and decision makers


ENRAP (Knowledge Networking for Rural Development in Asia/Pacific Region), an IFAD-IDRC collaboration, leverages a growing body of useful information generated by development projects which is made available on the Internet. The program, now in its third phase and running until 2010, is designed to bring the benefits of accessing and sharing global information resources to IFAD-supported rural development projects in the Asia/Pacific region.
United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

An Indirect Intervention--ENRAP to support scholars, researchers and decision makers


The eSkwela Project, is a flagship project of the Commission on Information and Communications Technology (CICT), through its Human Capital Development Group (HCDG), The project is envisioned to provide ICT-enhanced educational opportunities for Filipino out-of-school youth and adults. It likewise aims to help reduce the digital divide and enhance the capacity of these individuals to be successful participants in a global and knowledge-based economy The initiative responds directly to a national development priority and will bring e learning opportunities and ICT for learning resources to mobile teachers / instructional managers and out-of-school learners in the Philippines in an exciting, innovative, and locally meaningful way. .

United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

ICTs and GenderThe Info-lady in Bangladesh


An Info lady is a trained rural young woman who visits households in the villages with a set of ICTs (small portable laptop, digital camera, mobile phone, GPRS Internet Connectivity, headphone, webcam, and some other light equipment like weight measurement machine, blood pressure machine, pregnancy test kit, sugar test kit etc.). Info lady provides communication services as well; she connects the rural people with their relatives at abroad using messengers like Skype.
United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

ICTs and Health--HINARI

The HINARI program, set up by WHO together with major publishers, enables developing countries to gain access to one of the world's largest collections of biomedical and health literature. Over 3750 journal titles are now available to health institutions in 113 countries, benefiting many thousands of health workers and researchers, and in turn, contributing to improved world health.

United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

To sum up
The three basic sectorspoverty reduction; education; gender; and health are very closely linked. There are two ways in which ICTs have been frequently used when applied to development programmesICT driven, and ICT supported Applications in agriculture and rural development have often been to provide direct access to market and weather information for the poor and to provide knowledge support to research and extension services Management information Systems for government in project implementation
United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

To sum up
In education, the use of ICTs has been to enhance access and maintaining quality standards while ensuring the best use of resources for formal, non formal and teacher education For women and girls, ICTs offer opportunities for communication to the outside world, home based e commerce opportunities; and for networking with other women and forming support groups online. ICTs are also a sector where a large number of women in developing countries have found income generating activities through call centres, etc. Telemedicine is the most frequent application of ICTs in the health sector, followed by continuing medical education and improving the quality of research networks.
United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

End of Session 5

United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

ICT for Development Awareness Lecture


SESSION 6: Applications in E Government Case studies Author: Prof. Usha Rani Vyasulu Reddi

Awareness Lecture on ICT for Development, Central Institute of Civil Service, Phaunggyi, Myanmar, March 07-08, 2011

United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

The Concepts: E Government and E Governance


The two terms, e government and e-governance are often used interchangeably in discussions of how governments are managing their relationships with the citizenry through the different applications of ICTs. Governance is a broader topic dealing with a wide range of relationships between government and the citizenry, while government deals with the day to day functioning of government in the provision of services to the public, in areas such as education, health, taxation, land records, etc. If government is the formal apparatus for administering the system effectively, governance is the outcome as experienced by those on the receiving end. E-government can be a more effective application of government in general, if well implemented and managed, while e-governance can evolve into participatory governance if it is well supported with the appropriate principles, objectives, programs and architectures.
.

United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

Case study in e government--Mongolia


Mongolian Government uses the website www.mta.mn to provide information and services to citizens. Download forms, fill them up and bring them to a common service centre to submit the forms.

United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

Case study in e governmentE Seva, India


E-Sevaintegrates all departments and services -electricity, phone, water, property tax, etc. Citizens can go to any e Seva centre near their home and pay all their bills at one place Citizens can also get birth and death certificates; renew trade licenses, etc.

United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

Case study in e governmentSWAGAT, India


SWAGAT (Statewide Attention on Grievances by Application of Technology (SWAGAT) is an online grievance redressal mechanism in Gujarat On one day in a month, citizens go to the nearest SWAGAT centre to file their complaint and get a solution

United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

The Philippines E Procurement System (PhilGePs)


Nearly 30 per cent of government activities are dependent upon procurements of goods and services from the private sector E Procurement is a killer application which improves efficiency and effectiveness of the procurement system, reduces corruption, improves transparency and service delivery PhilGePs started in 2000, was upscaled in 2006, and now is being rolled out at local levels also Both money saved and money for government, improvement in services which are now socially accountable

United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

To Sum Up
Because governments are charged with the primary responsibility of governance, there are many ways and many sectors, other than those relating to basic services in which governments are engaged in the use of ICTs for development These include, but are not limited to, disaster risk mitigation; climate change, e government; preservation of cultural heritage and diversity; and the promotion of peace. Governments try to reach out to citizens directly through portals to provide services; they also use technologies such as Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for weather and environment protection. In times of disasters, ICTs have a critical role to play in disaster awareness, mitigation, relief and rehabilitation activities. As Management information Systems for government in project implementation, ICTs have been demonstrated time and again, to reduce corruption, improve service delivery and ensure transparency and accountability of government services.

United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

ICT for Development Awareness Lecture


SESSION 7: How to Design, Manage, and ICTD Project Author: Prof. Usha Rani Vyasulu Reddi

Awareness Lecture on ICT for Development, Central Institute of Civil Service, Phaunggyi, Myanmar, March 07-08, 2011

United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

Session Objectives and Outcomes


Unit Objectives The learning objectives of this unit are To introduce learners to basic concepts in planning and managing ICTD programmes and projects Show the basics of PM Introduce the disciplines and the essential elements of ICTD PM Briefly discuss the value of Change Management in ICTD PM Unit Learning Outcomes After completing this unit, learners will be able to Understand the importance of planning as a process Understand elements of managing time and people Understand costing of ICTD

United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

Key Decision Points


ICT Policy Review ICTs in the Project Cycle ICT interventions are different What makes planning so critical

United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

ICT Policy Review

ICTD policy is the domain of IT and telecom departments


Development departments tend not to have a good ICTD orientation, they are not able to significantly influence ICTD policy partly because they are not able to engage with IT departments

United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

Planning ICTD InterventionsICTs in the Project Cycle


First decisionwhether intervention is to be ICT-driven or ICT-supported ICT driven assumes that timely and relevant information through ICTs will of itself promote economic growth through increased income ICT supported clarifies the development goal, works out the ICT needs, then looks at cost effective ways of deploying ICTS to address project needs

United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

Key Components of Good Practice

United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

Some key factors impacting on success/failure


Clarity about development goals and outcomes Demand rather than supply driven Sensitive to local conditions and limitations, including those of infrastructure, access, relevance and language, robust and sustainable Process oriented, rather than duration or merely target driven Organizational, attitudinal and systematic changes are key factors

United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

Key features of a project plan must include


Clear goals and objectives directed to meet strategic needs Show specific end results Has ownership support Defined and documented scope Has specific start and end dates Has Finite budget Timely deliverables Quality constrained Assigned resources.
United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

International Standards for Project Management


Logical Framework Approach (LFA) used by many donor organizations Project Management Book of Knowledge (PMBOK) of the Project Management Institute Incorporated (PMI) of the United States of America Projects in Controlled Environment (Prince 2) of the Office of the Government of Commerce of Her Majestys Treasury Office (OGC) of the United Kingdom. Others: Microsoft Solutions Framework and the IBM Rational Unified Process (RUP)

United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

Project Management Cycle

United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

ICT Interventions are different


Not merely hardware, but a set of management principles and practices Conventionalism vs. flexibility Mismatch between technology and social objectives Investment in hardware vs. investment in human resources The challenge of scaleeconomies of scale vs. local solutions

United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

ICTD Projects are Different so A decision to use ICTs should not be based on wishful thinking or incomplete information ICTs should be used because they will be an effective input. Four major issues have to be taken into account in determining the effective use of ICTs:
accessibility, costs, functions, and interactivity.

United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

Implementing and ICTD Project--Convergence A Convergence of Leadership, Stakeholders Participation and Change Management

United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

Convergence

The coming together, in a seamless process, of telecommunications and Internet technology with all media, text, audio, video, graphics, animation, and video so that all are delivered on a common platform and yet, the user can choose any combination together or separately as s/he desires

United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

Convergence

A mix and merger of many disciplines convergence of engineering sciences with social and behavioural sciences. Introduction of ICTs requires significant social and cultural changes within organizations which have been structured to separate functions and responsibilities

United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

Convergence

Convergence or national alliance that includes government, private sector, civil society with each contributing resources becomes the foundation for maximizing the opportunities enabled by the new ICT driven environment for national development.

United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

Convergence

A Multi-stakeholder partnership where


Government can create favourable policy, regulation, funding, capacity building.

Private sector can open up infrastructure and invest in services


Civil society can work with communities Community can own and drive initiatives

United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

To Sum Up
Managing ICTD projects is very much like managing other types of development projects. The same project management processes and project management cycle are involved, although some terminologies differ. ICTD projects must pay particular attention to managing change. In particular, the viewpoints of the stakeholders must be taken into account and their full participation in the process of project development and implementation must be encouraged. Users of the project deliverables in particular should ideally be involved from day one of the project. Any ICT project requiring the efficient and effective delivery of services to its citizens must consider the disciplines, and resource constraints considerations people, scope, time and cost and the business process re-engineering. A careful review of the unit or the organizations system must be undertaken and the system should be modified to meet the objectives of the project.
United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

To Sum Up
Any ICT project requiring the efficient and effective delivery of services to its citizens must consider the disciplines, and resource constraints considerations people, scope, time and cost and the business process re-engineering. A careful review of the unit or the organizations system must be undertaken and the system should be modified to meet the objectives of the project. ICTs are not a quick fix for development. (Hudson, 2006) Peoples needs, not technology, should dictate the project design. Ownership of the project by the target users must be emphasised because in the final analysis the users will be responsible for meaningful integration and sustainability of the products or systems developed by the project. For the outcomes of ICT4D and e-governance projects to be sustainable, ICT projects must be anchored on national development goals and linked with the projects external environment.
United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

ICT for Development Awareness Lecture


SESSION 8: Evaluating ICTD and Instructional Design Author: Prof. Usha Rani Vyasulu Reddi

Awareness Lecture on ICT for Development, Central Institute of Civil Service, Phaunggyi, Myanmar, March 07-08, 2011

United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

Session Objectives and Outcomes


Unit Objectives The learning objectives of this unit are To introduce learners to basic concepts in evaluation of ICTD programmes and projects To introduce learners to ways and means of reporting ICT programmes and projects and advocating for ICTD. Unit Learning Outcomes After completing this unit, learners will be able to Understand the difference between social science research and evaluation. Gain basic knowledge of various approaches/frameworks; methodologies and tools used in evaluating ICTD programmes and projects Be able to design simple advocacy initiatives in ICTD

United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

Concepts
Effects can be defined as any change or reinforcement produced in the psychological framework of the individual. When this change or reinforcement occurs among a sufficiently large number of individuals, it is manifest as change at the societal level. Effect is best understood as a long term change in societies as a result of exposure to and the use of ICTs on an ongoing basis. For example, changes in societal values (such as a small family norm) are often attributed to long term sustained public health campaigns in public media. Effectiveness is the extent to which a given programme or project has achieved the intended aims and objectives. Impact is the long term result of the effectiveness of a given programme or project. Impact is of four kinds: efficiency, effectiveness, innovation, and risk.

United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

Why evaluation is important To know whether we succeeded or failed. Whether the ICTD solution is likely to meet the needs of all stakeholders, Evaluation is necessary to establish that an ICTD solution is financially and socially sustainable in the long run. Whether it is value for moneycost-benefit analysis

United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

Stages of Evaluation
Formative
Feed forward Pilot or prototype testing Resource Mapping

Process
Assess performance Monitor to make changes Assess organization Because it is mandated

Summative
Final--to determine long term success or failure; As a planning tool for future programmes/projects

United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

Approaches to evaluation Quantitative


Measure numbers Explain broadly Predict

Qualitative
Meaning Understand Interpret Analyze

United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

Methodologies Quantitative
Surveys Experiments Attitude scales

Qualitative
Observation Case studies Diaries

United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

To Sum Up
Evaluation is an ongoing process and a very important part of all development projects, including those that have ICTs as part of the project Evaluation can take place at a formative (before); process (during) and summative (after) the project. Two major dominant approaches to evaluation of development projects: quantitative and qualitative Each has different methodologies and tools The two approaches can be used independently or combined together for a more comprehensive assessment ICTD projects are different because they introduce a new factor, because they take place in the public view; and because huge investments of time and money are required. Documentation of all internal and external project activities is an important part of evaluation exercises as these processes some times explain success and failure.

United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

Instructional Design for 5-7


Use local case studies in ICTD wherever possible In each case study, analyze
The Context Who the major stakeholders were How the project was designed and implemented Results Strengths and Weaknesses How to upscale the project What evaluation, if any was conducted and what the results say What changes could be brought in to improve the project

United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)

THANK YOU

United Nation Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (UN-APCICT)