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# THEORIES OF FAILURE AND THICK PRESSURE VESSELS

Prepared By :Sanket Chaudhari (12BME151) Shailesh Kshatriya (12BME152) Anand Mistry Jigar Patel (12BME153) (12BME154)

THEORIES OF FAILURES

Maximum principal stress theory Maximum principal strain theory Maximum strain energy theory Distortion energy theory Maximum shear stress theory

## FACTORS DEPENDS FOR FAILURE

Failure occurs when material starts exhibiting inelastic behavior

1.
2. 3. 4. 5.

Properties of Material

## FACTORS DEPENDS FOR FAILURE

1.

PROPERTIES OF MATERIAL :-

M/c element either Ductile or Brittle, Brittle material fails by Fracture while

2.

3. 4.

Fixed end condition takes more load then simply supported condition.
TEMPERATURE :If temperature is more stress induced are more, therefore it immediately fails.

5.

## Max. principal stress theory

This theory states that a material in complete state of stress fails when the

## maximum principal stress in it reaches the value of stress at elastic limit in

simple tension.

It is also known as Rankin's Theory. It is mostly used for designing of Brittle Material. The yield Locus is a SQUARE (in 2D) on

1 2 as shown in Fig.1

## Yield surface is a CUBE (in 3D)

as shown in Fig.2 with sides 2 0 with the origin at central of the cube.

## state of stress fails when the maximum

shearing stress in it reaches the value of shearing stress at elastic limit in axial tension test.

Failure occurs when 1 2 /2= 0 /2 Yield locus is commonly called TRESCA HEXAGON

Yield surface is a hexagonal prism with open ends with each sides of hexagon equal to (2/3) 0.

## Max. Strain Theory

According to this theory failure in a complex stress system occurs when a maximum strain in it reaches the value of the strain in uniaxial stress at elastic

## This theory is also known as St.Venant theory.

The failure occurs when 1 - 2 = 0

Yields locus is as shown in Fig. The section of the yield surface normal to the axis are equilateral triangle.

## Max. Strain Energy theory

According to this theory complex stress system fails when the maximum strain energy per unit volume at a point reaches the value of strain energy per unit volume at elastic limit in simple tension. 2 0

If 1 and 2 are principal stresses then total strain energy, U = 1/2E [12 + 22- 2 1 2]

0
0

135 to 1 axis.

## only changes in volume of the material and rest of it

causes DISTORTION.

## volume is equal to the distortion energy per unit

volume in uniaxial state of stress at elastic limit.

## Max. Distortion Energy Theory

The yield surface is an open right circular cylinder equally inclined to the 1, 2, 3 axis.

The cross section of the cylinder are circles of the radius equal to (2/3) 0.

## Design Of Thick Cylinder

Introduction
When diameter to thickness ratio is < 10 then it is called thick cylinder.

Assumptions Material is homogeneous and isotropic. Limit of proportionality is not exceeded. The longitudinal strain is uniform across the cross section of the cylinder.

Introduction

It is loaded by internal pressure Pi and external pressure Po as seen below. It has inner radius Ri and outer radius Ro.

Lames equation for thick cylinder :1. 2. Radial Pressure =Px=[b/x2] - a Hoop Stress=fx=[b/x2] + a

## Where a and b are arbitrary constants.

Introduction
Hoop Stress distribution diagram : 1. 2. Hoop stress is maximum at x=Ri Hoop stress is minimum at outer radius i.e. At x=Ro