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THEORIES OF FAILURE AND THICK PRESSURE VESSELS

Prepared By :Sanket Chaudhari (12BME151) Shailesh Kshatriya (12BME152) Anand Mistry Jigar Patel (12BME153) (12BME154)

THEORIES OF FAILURES

Maximum principal stress theory Maximum principal strain theory Maximum strain energy theory Distortion energy theory Maximum shear stress theory

Octahedral stress theory

FACTORS DEPENDS FOR FAILURE


Failure occurs when material starts exhibiting inelastic behavior

1.
2. 3. 4. 5.

Properties of Material
Type of Loading Size and Shape End Condition Temperature

FACTORS DEPENDS FOR FAILURE


1.

PROPERTIES OF MATERIAL :-

M/c element either Ductile or Brittle, Brittle material fails by Fracture while
Ductile material fails by yielding and shows deformation. TYPE OF LOADING :M/c element fails at less load under repeated loading, while m/c element takes more load under direct loading. SIZE & SHAPE :END CONDITION :-

2.

3. 4.

Fixed end condition takes more load then simply supported condition.
TEMPERATURE :If temperature is more stress induced are more, therefore it immediately fails.

5.

Max. principal stress theory


This theory states that a material in complete state of stress fails when the

maximum principal stress in it reaches the value of stress at elastic limit in


simple tension.

It is also known as Rankin's Theory. It is mostly used for designing of Brittle Material. The yield Locus is a SQUARE (in 2D) on

1 2 as shown in Fig.1

Yield surface is a CUBE (in 3D)

as shown in Fig.2 with sides 2 0 with the origin at central of the cube.

Max. Shear Stress Theory

According to this theory a material in complex

state of stress fails when the maximum


shearing stress in it reaches the value of shearing stress at elastic limit in axial tension test.

Failure occurs when 1 2 /2= 0 /2 Yield locus is commonly called TRESCA HEXAGON

Yield surface is a hexagonal prism with open ends with each sides of hexagon equal to (2/3) 0.

Max. Strain Theory

According to this theory failure in a complex stress system occurs when a maximum strain in it reaches the value of the strain in uniaxial stress at elastic

This theory is also known as St.Venant theory.


The failure occurs when 1 - 2 = 0

Yields locus is as shown in Fig. The section of the yield surface normal to the axis are equilateral triangle.

Max. Strain Energy theory

According to this theory complex stress system fails when the maximum strain energy per unit volume at a point reaches the value of strain energy per unit volume at elastic limit in simple tension. 2 0

If 1 and 2 are principal stresses then total strain energy, U = 1/2E [12 + 22- 2 1 2]

0
0

The yield locus is ellipse.

The major and minor axis of ellipse are at 45 and


135 to 1 axis.

Max. Distortion Energy Theory

According to this theory part of strain energy causes

only changes in volume of the material and rest of it


causes DISTORTION.

At failure the energy causing distortion per unit

volume is equal to the distortion energy per unit


volume in uniaxial state of stress at elastic limit.

The failure occur when

This theory is also called OCTAHEDRAL shear stress theory .

Max. Distortion Energy Theory

The yield surface is an open right circular cylinder equally inclined to the 1, 2, 3 axis.

The cross section of the cylinder are circles of the radius equal to (2/3) 0.

Design Of Thick Cylinder

Introduction
When diameter to thickness ratio is < 10 then it is called thick cylinder.

Assumptions Material is homogeneous and isotropic. Limit of proportionality is not exceeded. The longitudinal strain is uniform across the cross section of the cylinder.

Introduction

It is loaded by internal pressure Pi and external pressure Po as seen below. It has inner radius Ri and outer radius Ro.

Lames equation for thick cylinder :1. 2. Radial Pressure =Px=[b/x2] - a Hoop Stress=fx=[b/x2] + a

Where a and b are arbitrary constants.

Introduction
Hoop Stress distribution diagram : 1. 2. Hoop stress is maximum at x=Ri Hoop stress is minimum at outer radius i.e. At x=Ro
Radial pressure distribution

Hoop Stress distribution

Design Equations
Design of thick cylinder can be done on the basis of any of following theories of failure : 1. Maximum Principal Stress Theory :r[(K2+1)/K2-1] where = Stress at elastic limit K = Ro/Ri 2. Maximum Principal Strain Theory :r[(K2+1/K2-1) + (1/m * K2-2/K2-1)] 3. Maximum Shear Stress Theory :r[(2K2)/K2-1]

Design Equations
4. Maximum Strain Energy Theory :r[2(1+1/m)K4 + 3(1-1/m)]1/2 / K2-1 5. Maximum Shear Strain Energy Theory:r[(3K4)1/2/K2-1]