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Basic Mountaineering

Course 1,2,& 3
Lecture by: Michael P. Gonzaga Sources : FEATI University Mountaineering Club Inc. ,U.P. Mountaineering Society &

What is Mountaineering?
For nature lover For outdoor challenge For outdoor recreation For physical fitness Exploration Habit Etc.

Mountaineering is one sport that can enjoy either with a team, a group of friends, with partner or even by his lonesome. It is good to experience each one of them once in a while but before one should venture out into wilderness on his own, it is advised that he first join an organized climb and learned the Basic Mountaineering skill for his safety and enjoyment.

Basic Mountaineering Course no.1

Climb Preparation 1. Physical Fitness > Diagnostic run > Jogging > Body condition 2. Planning a climb > Mountain Specification

Example: Name: Mt. Batulao Location: Nasugbu, Batangas jump off point: Evercrest Golf Course, Nasugbu. LLA :14.0408-N 120.8011-E Elevation: 811 MASL Days Required:1day Hour to summit: 2-4 hours Class , Spec.: Minor Climb, Difficulty 4l9 trail class-3 with 60-70 assault

> Study the background of Mountain

Culture History Tradition Contact person (guide) Emergency response Climate Hazard of nature Equipment to use Transportation Permits and other requirements

> Itinerary of a climb Example: Day 1 6am- assembly area 6:30am- ETD to Bulacan 8am- ETA Bulacan jump off 9am- start trek 11am- ETA summit 2pm- back to jump off 4pm-ETA jump off 5pm- Back to manila

> Check Weather forecast - no typhoon - no low pressure > Budget Plan Transportation Foods & water needs Permits, guide & other fees Equipment needs Medicine etc.

Make a Pre-climb meeting

3 days before the climb Discuss to all members Planning of groups Set for climb organization 1. Team Leader 2. Lead man 3. Medic 4. Scribe 5. Tail man / sweeper 6. VIPs & others Ideal distance of a climber (2 meters) Maximum of 12 person in 1 group
Route Planning Assembly areas, trail management & side trips

7 Classification of climb
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Training climb- preparation Minor climb-easy and fan climb Clean up climb / tree planting-sharing Major climb-difficult expedition Guide ship climb- to lead the other groups Exploratory climb- unexplored trails & route Rescue operation climb-Find and salvage

Types of climbs
Day hike Night trekking Over night Continues climb (2,3,4 peaks) Travers climb Traditional climb Side trips (water falls, caves & lakes)

Trail Signals
Whistle blast 1 long blast whistle stop or take 5min. rest 6 continues blast a sec.-need for medic Trail Sign 1. Stone

This way

Left turn

Right turn

Stone sign


Hazard Area Keep away

2. Grass

Turn Left

Turn Right


3. Sticks, Branch & woods

This Way

Wrong Way

Close Trail


Trail Techniques
Do not step on obstacles for they might upset your balance. Where there is a need to hold on roots or vines, make sure first that they are sturdy enough to carry your weight. Uphill & down hill trail balancing. On a river Crossing, unlock your bag belt and straps. Rest 5 to 10mins. Of every hour of hiking. Small steps, much better for up hill.

Trail Regulation
No Littering No noisy No cutting of vegetation No drinking & smoking Do not create your own trail No Over taking Unless, if necessarily Single line on the trail

Take home garbage. Do not leave any refuse from cooking. Leave the camp ground exactly the way you found it. Detergent and free washing, wash dishes by cleaning, use by cloth or tissue and lesser water. The rinse with water away from any body of water. Silence please, keep voice tone and volume a minimum, some other creatures need their rest, too.. Campfire or bonfire is prohibited or not advisable, due to damage impact. Dig your Latrine, as your toilet. Place away from any water source , to prevent water contamination. Ideal hole size 6 deep and 6 diameter width. Do not cook inside the tent to avoid accident.

Campsite Management

Personal use & equipment

Back pack- hydration bag, day pack 15 to40L, tall pack 45 to 85L & up to 100L, belt bag. Trekking shoes- water proof & ordinary, high cut & low cut Sandals- w/ straps or sleepers Clothing's- trekking pants / t-shirts wind breaker, arm feet protector , hut, gloves , & bonnet.

Light Head lamp , handy flashlight Dog tag / ID (water proof) Wristwatch Folding knife Trekking poles (if necessarily) Sleeping bag Plates , fork & spoon Survival kits / first aid kits Water container & tumbler Trash bag

Group equipment
Tent Camp light Map / Compass Bolo or Big knifes Stove / fuels Ground sheets Lighter /matches Cook sets Group flags Portable water filter Shovel & toiletries Ropes

Packing of Equipment
The maximum carrying load should not exceed 1/3 or 33% of your body weight

Load Diagram
A-Trail Food B-First Aid/Rain Gear C-Others D-Clothes E-Food / Tents F-Cook Set / stove G-Water container Side Packets-Trail Water/Food


SP Belt strap

Tall Pack Bag

Food Preparation
Packed food (breakfast ,lunch & packed dinner ) ex. Adobo w/ rice Food Preservation (Precooked) ex. Boiling meats + salt & vinegar Emergency Food( in caned food) ex. Corned beef. Condiments packing -zip lock or container to prevent leakage ex. Vinegar, cooking oil & etc. Trail food selection
ex. Chocolate, jelly ace & other nutritious foods

Basic Mountaineering Course 2

Camp site selection Camp shelter Tent :Free standing and not free standing A-Type

Tunnel / Hoop type

Not free standing

Dome type
Fly sheet cover not installed

Geodesic Dome

Aerodynamic design

Tadpole tent

Improvised Shelter

Material, 1.Fly sheet (water proof) 2.Ropes 3.Pegs 4.Stick, poles or nature trees. note: this improvised shelter are advisable to minimal wind only.

Tent Pitching
Top cover


Inner cover


Tent pole 1. Fiber stick 2. Aluminum stick

Cooking Area Stoves a) Gas stove-butane Cartridge gas b) Multi fuel-liquid and gas



Fire Building
Prohibited on mountain or outdoors nature. For emergency needed, if necessarily. Signal and survival needed.

Rope Man ship

Laid Rope (static and dynamic) Kern mantle Rope

Knot Tying
Square Knot it is used for tying two ends of the same rope. Double Fisherman's Knot it is used for tying two ends of the same rope. Sheet Bend it is used for tying two ends of the same rope. Clove Hitch this knot is used to tie a rope to an object ,as a pole. Example: Pitching of tent ,pegs Taut line Hitch this knot is used for tying a tent guy line. One can tighten or loosen the line. Constricting Knot more secure version of clove hitch Bowline Figure 8 knot

The leave No trace Principles of outdoor ethics

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Plan ahead and prepare. Travel and Camp on Durable Surfaces. Dispose of waste Properly. Leave what you find. Minimize campfire impact. Respect wildlife. Be considerate of other Visitors.

Note: Take nothing but the picture, leave nothing but the footprints, kill nothing but time.

First Aid Kits 1. Alcohol/ Beta dine 2. Bandage tapes 3. Roll of gauze bandage 4. Band aids 5. Cotton
Medicine Kits Alaxan for pain killer Diatabs for stomach ache Anti- allergic Paracetamol Antibiotic Mefenamic Acid Omega pain killer Oral for dehydration

Survival Kits 1. Knifes/Bolo/Blade 2. Ropes/Strings 3. Pins 4. Rubber 5. Chocolate 6. Matches/Lighter 7. Salt

Feature of a Mountain in the Philippines

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. Grass land Mossy Forest Rockiest Dessert Rain Forest Peak Water Falls River Lake Ridge Cave Summit Cove & seashore

Basic Mountaineering Course No.3

Land Navigation using Compass and Maps
West Sun set East Sunrise

Meters above Sea level vs. Temperature Example: Tagaytay -600+ MASL 21c to 26c Metro Manila- 0 To 10 MASL 28c to 31c

Difficulty Climb Rates

1/9 - 2/9 = Very easy 30 min. to 2 hrs. 3/9 4/9 = Easy 3 hrs. to 6 hrs. Trekking 5/9 6/9 = Hard 5 hrs. to 10 hrs. trekking 7/9- 8/9 = Very Hard 11 hrs. to 20 hrs. or above Trekking 9/9 = Survival Climb(days Trekking to summit) Dangerous= 2 days above Trekking Trail

Classification of Trails
Class 1 subject to uphill/downhill Class 2 subject to cold wind and very steeply trail Class 3 subject to wet and dry trail possible to river crossing -60c - 75c assault trail -Safety ropes if necessary Class 4 Subject to dehydration due to open field and expose to sunlight very long trail /Survival /Technique Needed Class 5 Subject to rock climbing /scrambling Dangerous trail (need for safety rope and equipment) Expose to Nature Hazard & Poisonous - 80c - 90c assault trail - Exploratory survival needed

Common Problems on Expedition

1. Dehydration -replace the water as you lose it. -a mixture of teaspoon of salt to 1 liter of water ( electrolyte ). 2. Foot blister -apply cleaning and pad the blister 3. Sprain (accidental over stretching of a tendon or ligament). -rest injured area -ice for 24 hours, heat after that. -compression, wrapping or splinting. -elevation of effected areas.

3. Bites and stings (snake, bees and other poisonous insects). -do not panic -apply first aid -need help, for medical assistant a soon as possible. 4. Open wounds -clean the skin around the wounds, apply first aid. -dress and bandage the wound -drink a lot of water

6. Skin rashes -if it is moist, keep it dry -if it is dry, keep it moist -do not scratch -apply medicine or external ointment 7. Sunburns -do not scratch -apply medical treatment -drink a lot of water

8. Heat stroke -cool the victim as rapidly as possible -apply cool wet compress to all joint, -specially the neck & armpits 9. Hypothermia -maintain 36 C normal body temperature -get the victim into dry clothing -replace lost fluids and warm him 10. Diarrhea -limit your intake fluids for 24hrs -apply first aid medicine

11. Body pain -apply pain killer -take alaxan tablet 12. Fever and flu -keep it warm and rest -apply medicine treatment -take antibiotic capsule 13. Bone injuries -improvise traction splint

14. Conscious and Unconscious victim -Do not panic -Air way and breathing -Apply CPR (Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation) note: Incase of emergency, DO NOT PANIC!!!, stay calm, plan ahead and be strong.