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Chapter 5

Climate and Terrestrial


Biodiversity
Chapter Overview Questions
 What factors the earth’s climate?
 How does climate determine where the
earth’s major biome’s are found?
 What are the major types of desert biomes?
 What are the major types of grassland
biomes?
Chapter Overview Questions (cont’d)
 What are the major types of forest and
mountain biomes?
 How have human activities affected the
world’s desert, grassland, forest, and
mountain biomes?
Updates Online
The latest references for topics covered in this section can be found at
the book companion website. Log in to the book’s e-resources page at
www.thomsonedu.com to access InfoTrac articles.

 InfoTrac: Of Chicks and Frogs. Steven Pinker. Forbes,


August 14, 2006 v178 i3 p40.
 InfoTrac: Nice Rats, Nasty Rats: Maybe It's All In the Genes.
Nicholas Wade. The New York Times, July 25, 2006 pF1(L).
 InfoTrac: Ancient shrub unlocks a clue to Darwin's
'abominable mystery.’ The Christian Science Monitor, May
18, 2006 p02.
 The Jane Goodall Institute
 Natural History Museum: Ancient Birds
Core Case Study
Blowing in the Wind:
A Story of Connections
 Wind connects
most life on earth.
 Keeps tropics from
being unbearably
hot.
 Prevents rest of
world from
freezing.
Figure 5-1
CLIMATE: A BRIEF INTRODUCTION

 Weather is a local area’s short-term physical


conditions such as temperature and
precipitation.
 Climate is a region’s average weather
conditions over a long time.

Latitude and elevation help determine climate.
Earth’s Current Climate Zones

Figure 5-2
Solar Energy and Global Air
Circulation: Distributing Heat
 Global air
circulation is
affected by the
uneven heating of
the earth’s surface
by solar energy,
seasonal changes
in temperature and
precipitation.
Figure 5-3
Winter
Spring (northern hemisphere 23.5 °
(sun aims directly tilts away from sun)
at equator)

Solar
radiation

Summer
(northern hemisphere
tilts toward sun)

Fall
(sun aims directly at equator)
Fig. 5-3, p. 102
Coriolis Effect

 Global air
circulation is
affected by the
rotation of the
earth on its axis.

Figure 5-4
Cold deserts

Westerlies
Forests

Northeast trades Hot deserts

Forests
Equator

Southeast trades Hot deserts

Westerlies Forests

Cold deserts
Fig. 5-4, p. 102
Convection Currents

 Global air
circulation is
affected by the
properties of air
water, and land.

Figure 5-5
LOW HIGH
PRESSURE Heat released PRESSURE
radiates to space Condensation
Cool, dry and
air precipitation

Falls, is compressed, Rises, expands, cools


warms

Warm, Hot, wet


dry air air
Flows toward low pressure,
picks up moisture and heat
HIGH Moist surface warmed LOW
PRESSURE by sun PRESSURE

Fig. 5-5, p. 103


Convection Cells
 Heat and moisture
are distributed over
the earth’s surface by
vertical currents,
which form six giant
convection cells at
different latitudes.

Figure 5-6
Cold, Cell 3 North
dry air
falls
Moist air rises — rain

Polar cap
Arctic tundra Cell 2 North
Evergreen
60° coniferous forest Cool, dry
air falls
Temperate deciduous
forest and grassland
30° Tropical Desert Cell 1 North
deciduous
forest
Moist air rises,
0° Equator Tropical cools, and releases
rain forest Moisture as rain
Tropical
deciduous
30° forest
Desert
Temperate Cell 1 South
deciduous Cool, dry
60° forest and
air falls
grassland

Polar cap Cell 2 South

Cold,
Moist air rises — rain
dry air
falls
Cell 3 South
Fig. 5-6, p. 103
Ocean Currents:
Distributing Heat and Nutrients

 Ocean currents influence climate by


distributing heat from place to place and
mixing and distributing nutrients.
Figure 5-7
(a) Rays of sunlight (b) The earth's surface absorbs (c) As concentrations of
penetrate the lower much of the incoming solar radiation greenhouse gases rise,
atmosphere and and degrades it to longer-wavelength their molecules absorb
warm the earth's infrared (IR) radiation, which rises and emit more infrared
surface. into the lower atmosphere. Some of this radiation, which adds
IR radiation escapes into space as heat, more heat to the lower
and some is absorbed by molecules of atmosphere.
greenhouse gases and emitted as even
longer-wavelength IR radiation, which
warms the lower atmosphere.

Fig. 5-7, p. 104


Ocean Currents:
Distributing Heat and Nutrients

 Global warming:

Considerable scientific evidence and climate
models indicate that large inputs of greenhouse
gases from anthropogenic activities into the
troposphere can enhance the natural greenhouse
effect and change the earth’s climate in your
lifetime.
Video: Global Warming
 This video clip is available in CNN Today
Videos for Environmental Science, 2004,
Volume VII. Instructors, contact your local
sales representative to order this volume,
while supplies last.
Topography and Local Climate:
Land Matters

 Interactions between land and oceans and


disruptions of airflows by mountains and
cities affect local climates.
Figure 5-8
Prevailing winds On the windward On the leeward side of
pick up moisture side of a mountain range, the mountain range, air
from an ocean. air rises, cools, and descends, warms, and
releases moisture. Releases little moisture.
Dry
habitats
Moist
habitats

Fig. 5-8, p. 105


BIOMES:
CLIMATE AND LIFE ON LAND
 Different climates lead to different
communities of organisms, especially
vegetation.
 Biomes – large terrestrial regions characterized
by similar climate, soil, plants, and animals.
 Each biome contains many ecosystems whose
communities have adapted to differences in
climate, soil, and other environmental factors.
BIOMES:
CLIMATE AND LIFE ON LAND

Figure 5-9
Tropic of
Cancer

Equator
High mountains
Polar ice
Polar grassland (arctic
tundra) Tropic of
Temperate grassland Capricorn
Tropical grassland
(savanna)
Chaparral
Coniferous forest
Temperate deciduous forest
Tropical forest
Desert

Fig. 5-9, p. 106


BIOMES:
CLIMATE AND LIFE ON LAND

 Biome type is determined by precipitation,


temperature and soil type Figure 5-10
ld
Co Polar

Tundra
Subpolar

Coniferous Temperate
forest
Desert

Deciduous Grassland
Forest Tropical
Chaparral
Hot

Desert
W Savanna
et Rain forest y
Tropical Dr
seasonal Scrubland
forest

Fig. 5-10, p. 107


BIOMES:
CLIMATE AND LIFE ON LAND

 Parallel changes occur in vegetation type


occur when we travel from the equator to the
poles or from lowlands to mountaintops.
Figure 5-11
Elevation Mountain
ice and snow
Tundra
(herbs,
lichens,
mosses)
Coniferous
Forest
Latitude
Deciduous
Forest
Tropical
Forest

Tropical Deciduous Coniferous Tundra Polar


Forest Forest Forest (herbs, ice
lichens, and
mosses) snow

Fig. 5-11, p. 108


DESERT BIOMES
 Deserts are areas where evaporation
exceeds precipitation.
 Deserts have little precipitation and little
vegetation.
 Found in tropical, temperate and polar regions.
 Desert plants have adaptations that help
them stay cool and get enough water.
Video: Desertification
 This video clip is available in CNN Today
Videos for Environmental Science, 2004,
Volume VII. Instructors, contact your local
sales representative to order this volume,
while supplies last.
DESERT BIOMES

 Variations in
annual
temperature (red)
and precipitation
(blue) in tropical,
temperate and
cold deserts.

Figure 5-12
Tropical Desert

Mean monthly precipitation (mm)


Mean monthly temperature (°C)
Freezing point

Month

Fig. 5-12a, p. 109


Temperate Desert

Mean monthly precipitation (mm)


Mean monthly temperature (°C)
Freezing point

Month

Fig. 5-12b, p. 109


Polar Desert

Mean monthly precipitation (mm)


Mean monthly temperature (°C)
Freezing point

Month

Fig. 5-12c, p. 109


DESERT BIOMES
 The flora and
fauna in desert
ecosystems
adapt to their
environment
through their
behavior and
physiology.

Figure 5-13
Red-tailed hawk

Gambel's
Quail

Yucca

Jack Agave
rabbit Collared
lizard

Prickly
pear
cactus

Roadrunner
Darkling
Beetle
Bacteria

Diamondback
rattlesnake Fungi

Kangaroo rat
Producer Primary Secondary
to primary to to All producers and
consumer secondary higher-level consumers to
consumer consumer decomposers Fig. 5-13, p. 110
GRASSLANDS AND CHAPARRAL
BIOMES

 Variations in
annual
temperature
(red) and
precipitation
(blue).

Figure 5-14
Tropical grassland (savanna)

Mean monthly precipitation (mm)


Mean monthly temperature (°C)
Freezing point

Month

Fig. 5-14a, p. 112


Temperate grassland

Mean monthly precipitation (mm)


Mean monthly temperature (°C)
Freezing point

Month

Fig. 5-14b, p. 112


Polar grassland (arctic tundra)

Mean monthly precipitation (mm)


Mean monthly temperature (°C)
Freezing point

Month

Fig. 5-14c, p. 112


GRASSLANDS AND CHAPARRAL
BIOMES

 Grasslands (prairies) occur in areas too


moist for desert and too dry for forests.
 Savannas are tropical grasslands with
scattered tree and herds of hoofed animals.
Temperate Grasslands

 The cold winters and


hot dry summers
have deep and
fertile soil that make
them ideal for
growing crops and
grazing cattle.

Figure 5-15
Temperate Grasslands

 Temperate tall-
grass prairie
ecosystem in North
America.

Figure 5-16
Golden eagle

Pronghorn
antelope

Coyote Grasshopper
sparrow

Grasshopper

Blue stem
grass
Prairie
dog
Bacteria

Fungi
Prairie
Coneflower
Producer Primary Secondary
to to All producers and
to primary consumers to
consumer secondary higher-level
consumer consumer decomposers Fig. 5-15, p. 113
Polar Grasslands

 Polar grasslands
are covered with ice
and snow except
during a brief
summer.

Figure 5-17
Long-tailed jaeger
Grizzly bear

Caribou

Mosquito
Snowy owl
Horned lark Arctic
fox
Willow
ptarmigan

Dwarf
Willow

Lemming

Mountain
Cranberry

Moss campion
Producer Primary Secondary
to to All producers and
to primary consumers to
consumer secondary higher-level
consumer consumer decomposers Fig. 5-17, p. 114
Chaparral

 Chaparral has a
moderate
climate but its
dense thickets of
spiny shrubs are
subject to
periodic fires.

Figure 5-18
FOREST BIOMES
 Variations in annual
temperature (red)
and precipitation
(blue) in tropical,
temperate, and
polar forests.

Figure 5-19
Tropical rain forest

Mean monthly precipitation (mm)


Mean monthly temperature (°C)
Freezing point

Month

Fig. 5-19a, p. 116


Temperate deciduous forest

Mean monthly precipitation (mm)


Mean monthly temperature (°C)
Freezing point

Month

Fig. 5-19b, p. 116


Polar evergreen coniferous forest
(boreal forest, taiga)

Mean monthly precipitation (mm)


Mean monthly temperature (°C)
Freezing point

Month

Fig. 5-19c, p. 116


FOREST BIOMES

 Forests have enough precipitation to support


stands of trees and are found in tropical,
temperate, and polar regions.
Tropical Rain Forest
 Tropical rain forests
have heavy rainfall
and a rich diversity
of species.
 Found near the
equator.

Have year-round
uniformity warm
temperatures and
high humidity.

Figure 5-20
Blue and Harpy Ocelot
gold macaw eagle

Squirrel
monkeys
Climbing
monstera
palm
Slaty-tailed Katydid
trogon
Green tree snake
Tree frog

Ants

Bacteria Bromeliad
Fungi

Producer Primary Secondary


to to All producers and
to primary consumers to
consumer secondary higher-level
consumer consumer decomposers Fig. 5-20, p. 117
Tropical Rain Forest

 Filling such niches enables species to avoid


or minimize competition and coexist
Figure 5-21
Emergent
layer
Harpy
eagle

Toco
toucan
Height (meters)

Canopy

Understory
Woolly
opossum

Shrub
layer
Brazilian
tapir Ground
Black-crowned layer
antipitta
Fig. 5-21, p. 118
Temperate Deciduous Forest
 Most of the trees
survive winter by
dropping their
leaves, which
decay and
produce a
nutrient-rich soil.

Figure 5-22
Broad-winged
hawk

Hairy
Woodpecker

Gray
Squirrel
White oak
White-footed
mouse
Metallic
wood-boring
White-tailed beetle and
deer Larvae
Mountain
Winterberry
Shagbark hickory

May beetle
Racer
Long-tailed
Fungi weasel
Bacteria Wood frog

Producer Primary Secondary


to to All producers and
to primary consumers to
consumer secondary higher-level
consumer consumer decomposers Fig. 5-22, p. 120
Evergreen Coniferous Forests
 Consist mostly of
cone-bearing
evergreen trees
that keep their
needles year-round
to help the trees
survive long and
cold winters.

Figure 5-23
Blue jay Great
horned
owl

Balsam fir Marten

Moose
White
Spruce

Wolf
Bebb
willow Pine sawyer
beetle
and larvae

Snowshoe
hare

Fungi
Starflower

Bacteria Bunchberry

Producer Primary Secondary to All producers and


to primary to secondary higher-level consumers to
consumer consumer consumer decomposers Fig. 5-23, p. 121
Temperate Rain Forests

 Coastal areas support huge cone-bearing


evergreen trees such as redwoods and
Douglas fir in a cool moist environment.
Figure 5-24
MOUNTAIN BIOMES
 High-elevation
islands of
biodiversity
 Often have snow-
covered peaks that
reflect solar
radiation and
gradually release
water to lower-
elevation streams
and ecosystems.
Figure 5-25
HUMAN IMPACTS ON
TERRESTRIAL BIOMES
 Human activities have damaged or disturbed
more than half of the world’s terrestrial
ecosystems.
 Humans have had a number of specific
harmful effects on the world’s deserts,
grasslands, forests, and mountains.
Natural Capital Degradation
Desert

Large desert cities

Soil destruction by off-road


vehicles

Soil salinization from


irrigation

Depletion of groundwater

Land disturbance and


pollution from mineral
extraction

Fig. 5-26, p. 123


Natural Capital Degradation

Grasslands

Conversion to cropland

Release of CO2 to atmosphere


from grassland burning

Overgrazing by livestock

Oil production and off-road


vehicles in arctic tundra

Fig. 5-27, p. 123


Natural Capital Degradation

Forests

Clearing for agriculture, livestock


grazing, timber, and urban
development

Conversion of diverse forests to tree


plantations

Damage from off-road vehicles

Pollution of forest streams

Fig. 5-28, p. 124


Natural Capital Degradation
Mountains

Agriculture

Timber extraction

Mineral extraction
Hydroelectric dams and
reservoirs
Increasing tourism

Urban air pollution

Increased ultraviolet radiation


from ozone depletion
Soil damage from off-road
vehicles

Fig. 5-29, p. 124