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Sociability is part of the human condition

Man is...born into a group, grows up in a group socializes with a group, learns many things in a group. And will die in a group. For the last time, his own group will follow him to pay their last homage to him.

What is a group:

Composed of two or more persons interacting with each other, guided by set of norms.
consistent, coordinated action toward the achievement of some common objectives is whats important

What is a Group?

Specified number of individuals where each recognizes members from non-members It refers to two or more people coming together.

Some meanings implied in the term group:

Social category ( emphasis on sharing of traits ) A group life emphasizing common presence and minimum awareness of other Social group which essence lie in common association, awareness of others , socially shared goals

Social group is not synonymous to :

A category
A crowd / an aggregate ( people who happen to be in a same place, for a ride, show , movie etc. and share little else.)



Secondary Group

A small social group whose members share personal and enduring relationships Personal and tightly integrated Among the first groups we experience in life Shows personal orientation

A large and impersonal social group whose members pursue a specific goal or activity A secondary relationship involving weak emotional ties and little personal knowledge of one another Shows goal orientation

Characteristics of Groups Generally groups share the following characteristics:

Permanence beyond meetings and members that is , even when members are dispersed. Means of identifying members, Mechanisms for recruiting members, Goals or purposes, Social statuses and roles, i.e. norms of behavior, Means of controlling members behavior.

Common Bases of Groups:

Common ancestry the strongest tie that bind human beings ( Fichter). Territory shared in common physical territory, sociological neighborhood. Similar bodily characteristics athletic groups, gender groups Common interests. scientific, business, professional associations.

Basic Classifications of Social Groups: this depends on the purpose of classification.

Primary vs. Secondary Groups In-groups vs. out-groups Informal vs. formal groups Gemenschaft vs. gesselschaft



Groups in which relationships are impersonal and widely separate. Less intimacy among the members, with specific goals, formally organized and impersonal they

A social group characterized by intimate face-to-face relationship and close association and cooperation we Relationships are spontaneous, personal and intimate.




Physical Conditions

Small number Long duration

Big number Short duration




Social Characteristics

Intrinsic valuation of relation Intrinsic valuation of other person Inclusive knowledge of other person Feeling of freedom and spontaneity Operation of informal controls

Extrinsic valuation of relation Extrinsic valuation of other persons Specialized and limited knowledge of other persons Feeling of external constraints Operation of formal controls




Sample Relationships

Friend- friend Husband-wife Parent child Teacher-pupil

Clerk-costumer Announcer-listener Performer-spectator Officer-subordinate


Sample Groups


Play group Family Village or Neighborhood Work-team

Nation Church hierarchy Professional association Corporation



A social group toward which one feels competition or opposition they

A social group commanding members esteem and loyalty we


vs. Informal

Goals objectives are explicitly labeled Roles and statuses are specifically defined Norms and behaviour are formalized into policies Often governed by constitution and bylaws

Arises spontaneously out of the interaction two of or more persons Unplanned, no specific goals, no rules for membership Posses characteristics of a primary group

Gemeinschaft vs. Gesselschaft

Relationships are close, durable and highly valued by members. Most impt.. Unit of society is family. Social control in maintained by customs and traditions. Ndividuals are agents of conformity

Relationships are impersonal and segmented Social networks other than the family are pivotal points where individuals organize major parts of their lives. Social ties becomes associational with division of labor Locus of social control is law. This is usually found in societies undergoing urbanization and industrialization.

The Groups Influence on the Individual

Individuals in the presence of others become aroused or motivated to perform some kinds of physical and social skills at higher levels of excellence than they would if they are alone. Example: athletes team work common goalscheerers. Students taking exams with a group than being alone/ This situation in which an individual is stimulated by the presence of others is called social facilitation.

The Groups Influence on the Individual

However, presence of others may inhibit the learning of new subject matter; individuals can assimilate information more rapidly by themselves. This situation is called social inhibition in which the presence of others blocks or retards ones performance. Group pressure exerts powerful influence on members opinions. Group disucssions also plays an iportan trole in shapings ones attitude and behavior. A process of Attitudinal change best made in group context than individuallly.

Why do some people conform? What are their reasons for violating the norms?

Norms develop and conformity occurs because individuals seek others with similar characteristics. Based on Aristotles notion of distributive justice, it can be said that rewards in society are passed out according to what one does. Presumably, if an action is not likely to achieve a profit, that action will not occur. Conformity is seen as rewarding because it confers social acceptance, whereas deviancy is viewed as costly because it brings social discomfort and may result to various forms of punishments.

Linkages in Group : Social Linkages may explain why people connect with certain types of groups.

Diagramming social relationships.

Sociometry helps us understand how people interelate in social relaitonship in which everybody knows everybody else.. School teachers may arrange seating plans to indentify friendships and break unwanted conversations.
Social networks a persons social networks consist of all those people whm she/he is directly or indirectly linked. ( Example facebook list of friends)

Importance of ones knowing social networks?

It helps people who are interested in the adoption of innovation or the tranmission of information to people. Network analysis may be used to understand which people hae power in a community as well as how corporaitons are interlocked through members of their board of trustees. Social networks can provide data about social structure. They provide data on peoples interrelationships. Social netwroks provide emotional and social support to people in a complex society. Sociologist and anthropologist may utilize knowledge of social netwroks in order to categorize the societies in which they are found.

Dimensions of Groups

Size Structure Nature of goals Identifiabiluty of members Cohesiveness Leadership styles.

Dimensions of Groups

Size may range from 2 to the entire population. Small group maybe dyad ( 2) , triad (3) , or a collectivity of 20 to 30 individuals. Intermediate and large scale relationships include various social units such as organizaiton, communities and societies. Size of a group may affect quality of interaction in any group. Dyads are particularly fragile. The removal of either party destroys the relationship. Addition of a thrid party in a triad reduces the fragility of the relationship but may set the formation of a coalition ( 2 teaming against 2).

Dimensions of Groups

Structure refers to the patterning of actual behavior. Degrees of structure may vary from high to low ( military), formal or informal ( bureaucracy) Nature of goals- group may vary in terms of specific goals and objectives. Identifiability of members Cohesiveness - degree to which members of group cooperate. Leadership styles ( socioligist found that leaders and followers had simlar personality types ( autocratic, democratic and laissez faire) generaly get along well than those whose leaders and followers differ in personalty types. Democratic and autocratic groups gets the job done.