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By

Shanmuka Nalli IMBA(1st Year)

RAJA RAM MOHAN ROY


Date & Place of Birth: 14th Aug. 1774,Radhanagar, Bengal Date & Place of Death: 27th Sep. 1833, Bristol, England (aged 59yrs) Known For: Bengal Renaissance, Brahmo Samaj Also Known As: Herald of New Age

EARLY LIFE
Roy was born in Radhanagar, Bengal, in August 1774 into the Rarhi Brahmin caste. His family background displayed religious diversity; his father Ramkanto Roy was a Vaishnavite, while his mother Tarinidevi was from a Shivaite family. This was unusual for Vaishanavites did not commonly marry Shaivites at that time. Thus, one parent wanted him to be a scholar, a sastrin, while the other wanted him to have a career dedicated to the laukik, which was secular public administration. He wandered around Himalayas and went to Tibet.

MANY FACETS
Social Reformer Demanded property inheritance rights for women and, in 1828, set up the Brahmo Sabha, which was
a movement of reformist Bengalis formed to fight against social evils. Objected included sati, caste rigidity, polygamy and child marriages. These practices were often the reasons British officials claimed moral superiority over the Indian nation.

Religional Ideas
He preached about the unity of God, made early translations of Vedic scriptures into English, cofounded the Calcutta Unitarian Society, founded the Brahmo Samaj. He sought to integrate Western culture with features of his own country's traditions.

Educationist
Believed education to be an implement for social reform. In 1817, in collaboration with David Hare, he set up the Hindu College at Calcutta. In 1822, Roy founded the Anglo-Hindu school, followed four years later by the Vendanta College. He insisted that his teachings be incorporated with "modern, western curriculum. He advocated the study of English, Science, Western Medicine and Technology.

Journalist
Roy published journals in English, Hindi, Persian, and Bengali. When the English Company censored the press, Rammohan composed two memorials against this
Personal Life Ram Mohan Roy was married three times by the time he was ten years old. His first wife died during his childhood. His second wife, who died in 1824, bore him two sons: Radhaprasad in 1800 and Ramaprasad in 1812. Roy's third wife outlived him.

LIFE & DEATH IN ENGLAND


In 1830, Ram Mohan Roy travelled to the United Kingdom as an ambassador of the Mughal emperor Akbar II, who conferred him title of Raja, to convince British government for welfare of India and to ensure that the Lord Bentick's regulation banning the practice of Sati was not overturned. Roy also visited France. Roy died at Stapleton, which was then a village to the north east of Bristol on September 27, 1833. His cause of death was meningitis; he was buried in Arnos Vale Cemetery in southern Bristol.

SWAMI VIVEKANANDA
Date & Place of Birth: 12th Jan. 1863, Calcutta(present Kolkata) Birth Name: Narendranath Dutta Date & Place of Death: 4th July 1904, Belur Math near Kolkata(aged 41yrs) Known For: Spreading & Modernizing Indian Culture & Hinduism Worldwide

Birth & Childhood


Swami Vivekananda was born in Shimla Pally, Calcutta at 6:33 am on Monday, 12 January 1863, during the Makra Sankranti festival and was given the name Narendranath Dutta. Parents: Vishanath Dutta & Bhuneshwari Devi Viveknandas thinking was influenced by mothers religious and fathers rational mind. Vivekananda showed inclination towards spirituality & God realization. Vivekananda had varied interests and a wide range of scholarship in philosophy, history, the social sciences, arts, literature, and other subjects. He evinced much interest in scriptural texts, Vedas, the Upanishads, Bhagavat Gita, Ramayana, Mahabharata and the Puranas. He was also well versed in classical music. Vivekananda had varied interests and a wide range of scholarship in philosophy, history, the social sciences, arts, literature, and other subjects

Brahmo Samaj
In 1881 he passed the Fine Arts examination and in 1884 he passed the Bachelor of Arts Narendranath became the member of the breakaway faction from the Brahmo Samaj led by Keshab Chunder Sen . His initial beliefs were shaped by Brahmo concepts, which include belief in a formless God and deprecation of the worship of idols.

RAMAKRISHNAS INFLUENCE
His meeting with Ramakrishna Paramahamsa in November 1881 proved to be a turning point in his life He initially looked upon Ramakrishna's ecstasies and visions as, "mere figments of imagination",["mere hallucinations". As a member of Brahmo Samaj, he revolted against idol worship and polytheism, and Ramakrishna's worship of Kali. He even rejected the Advaitist Vedantism He tested Ramakrishna, who never asked Vivekananda to abandon reason, and faced all of Vivekananda's arguments and examinations with patience"Try to see the truth from all angles" was his reply. Vivekananda was taught that service to men was the most effective worship of God During the course of five years of his training under Ramakrishna, Vivekananda was transformed from a restless, puzzled, impatient youth to a mature man who was ready to renounce everything for the sake of Godrealization.
After Ramkrishnas death, Vivekanananda Vivekananda as a Parivrjakathe Hindu religious life of a wandering monk, "without fixed abode, His sole possessions were a kamandalu (water pot), staff, and his two favorite booksBhagavat Gita and The Imitation of Christ. Vivekanandanath travelled the length and breadth of India for five years, visiting important centers of learning, acquainting himself with the diverse religious traditions and different patterns of social life. He developed sympathy for the suffering and poverty of the masses and resolved to uplift the nation.

Parliament of World's Religions


The Parliament of Religions opened on 11 September 1893 at the Art Institute of Chicago. On this day Vivekananda gave his first brief address. He began his speech with, "Sisters and brothers of America! To these words he got a standing ovation from a crowd of seven thousand, which lasted for two minutes. "And he quoted two illustrative passages in this relation, from the Bhagavat Gita"As the different streams having their sources in different places all mingle their water in the sea, so, O Lord, the different paths which men take, through different tendencies, various though they appear, crooked or straight, all lead to Thee!" and "Whosoever comes to Me, through whatsoever form, I reach him; all men are struggling through paths that in the end lead to Me." Despite being a short speech, it voiced the spirit of the Parliament and its sense of universality. Dr. Barrows, the president of the Parliament said, "India, the Mother of religions was represented by Swami Vivekananda. He attracted widespread attention in the press, which dubbed him as the "Cyclonic monk from India He spoke several more times at the Parliament on topics related to Hinduism and Buddhism. All his speeches at the Parliament had one common themeUniversalityand stressed religious tolerance.

RAMKRISHNA MATH & MISSION


On 1 May 1897 at Calcutta, Vivekananda founded the "Ramakrishna Math"the organ for propagating religion and "Ramakrishna Mission"the organ for social service. He founded the Sri Ramakrishna Math and Mission on the principle of Atmano Mokshartham Jagat-hitaya cha ( ) (for one's own salvation and for the welfare of the World). This was the beginning of an organized socio-religious movement to help the masses through educational, cultural, medical and relief work. The ideals based on Karma Yoga. Vivekananda had inspired Sir Jamshetji Tata to set up a research and educational institution when they had travelled together from Yokohama to Chicago on the Swami's first visit to the West He later visited western Punjab with the mission of establishing harmony between the Arya Samaj which stood for reinterpreted Hinduism and the Sanatanaists who stood for orthodox Hinduism. At Rawalpindi, he suggested methods for rooting out antagonism between Arya Samajists and Muslims. He spent the next few months consolidating the work of the Math and training the disciples. During this period he composed the famous arti song, Khandana Bhava Bandhana during the event of consecration of Ramakrishna's temple at a devotees' house.

TEACHINGS & Philosophy


Vivekananda believed that the essence of Hinduism was best expressed in the Vedanta philosophy, based on the interpretation of Adi Shankara. He summarized the Vedanta's teachings as follows, Each soul is potentially divine. The goal is to manifest this Divinity within by controlling nature, external and internal. Do this either by work, or worship, or psychic control, or philosophyby one, or more, or all of theseand be free. This is the whole of religion. Doctrines, or dogmas, or rituals, or books, or temples, or forms, are but secondary details. So long as even a single dog in my country is without food my whole religion is to feed it and serve it, anything excluding that is unreligious. Arise, awake and stop not till the goal is reached. Education is the manifestation of perfection already in man. Religion is the manifestation of divinity already in man. Serving man is serving God. According to Vivekananda, an important teaching he received from Ramakrishna was that "Jiva is Shiva" (each individual is divinity itself). He coined the concept of daridra narayana seva - the service of God in and through (poor) human beings.

LAST YEARS

Vivekananda spent few of his days at Advaita Ashrama, Mayavati and later at the Belur Math. Henceforth till the end he stayed at Belur Math, guiding the work of Ramakrishna Mission and Math and the work in England and America. He undertook pilgrimages to Bodhgaya and Varanasi towards his final days. He was suffering from asthma, diabetes and other physical ailments. He died on 4th July, 1904 **********