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BY

E.HEMALATHA IV YR

Man is living in dangerous and highly complicated environment. Major factors contributing to ill health in INDIA are unsafe drinking water ,unhygienic disposal of solid wastes and human excreta, poor housing, sanitation, air and noise pollution .

Water intended for human consumption should not only be SAFE but also WHOLESOME. A SAFE water /POTABLE water is one that cannot harm the consumer ,even when ingested over prolonged period. It can be defined as, 1.free from pathogenic agents 2.free from harmful chemical substances 3.pleasant to taste 4.usable for domestic purposes

1.RAIN 2.SURFACE WATER a.impounding reservoirs b.rivers and streams c.tanks, ponds and lakes 3.GROUND WATER a.shallow well b.deep well c.springs

1.Purificatoin of water on a large scale a.storage b.filtration c.CHLORINATION 2.Purification of water on a small scale

Chlorination is one of the greatest advances in water purification. chlorine kills pathogenic bacteria, but it has no effect on spores & certain viruses except in high doses. It oxidises Fe, Mn & H2S, It destroys some taste & odour producing constituents ,it control algae & slime organisms,& aids coagulation.

CHLORINE+ WATER Hydrochloric acid+Hypochlorous acid The hydrochloric acid is neutralised by the alkalinity of the water The hypochlorous acid ionises to form hydrogen ions & hypochlorite ions

The disinfecting action of chlorine is mainly due to the hypochlorous acid. it is 70-80 times more effective than hypochlorite ions CHLORINE is applied as 1.chlorine gas 2.chloramine 3.perchloron

CHLORINE GAS:
first choice because it is cheap, quick in action, efficient & easy to apply. special equipment CHLORINATING EQUIPMENT is req to apply gas to water supplies as it is irritant to the eye & poisonous.

CHLORAMINES:
they are loose compounds of chlorine & ammonia have less tendency to produce chlorinous type of taste slower action than chlorine & therefore not being used to any great extent in water treatment High Test Hypochlorite ca compound carries 60-70 % of available chlorine. it is used for water disinfection

PERCHLORON:

When chlorine dose in the water is increased,a reduction in the residual chlorine occurs.The end products do not represent any residual chlorine. This fall in residual chlorine continues with further increase in chlorine dose,until after a stage residual chlorine begin to increase in proportion.The point at which it appears is called BREAK POINT CHLORINATION / DOSAGE

Ozonation Ultraviolet radiation