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An overview of Advanced Welding Process

Dr V.P. Raghupathy Dept. of Mechanical Engg. PES Institute of Technology Bangalore -85

Arc welding Electrical energy source SMAW SAW GMAW GTAW ESW EGW

Beam welding 1 Electro-magnetic energy source Electron Beam LASER welding

Solid state
Mechanical energy source Pressure Friction welding

Resistance welding Electrical energy source Spot, Seam & Projection welding Flash butt welding

Explosive welding
Ultrasonic welding Diffusion welding 2 Brazing methods Torch, Furnace, Dip, Resistance

Soldering methods Iron, Infra-red, Dip, Oven, resistance

4 Spraying Arc, Flame, Plasma

5 Adhesive
Iron, Hot pressing

SMAW Process
Also referred as Stick electrode or covered electrode welding

Flux covering
provides the gas and slag to shield the molten pool. It also

scavenges , deoxidises
and adds alloying additions to the weld Allows only short lengths of the weld Quality very much depends on the welder

SMAW Process
Uses electrode that is quickly consumed Uses an equipment that is simple & portable

Provides positional flexibility

It is less sensitive to wind & drafts Yields a weld with a variable quality and appearance depending on operators skill

Limitations Low productivity

Interrupted welding
Requires skill & training of the welder High labour costs

SAW Process

SAW Process
Process features Flux is used to generate
protective layer of gas &

Excess flux can be reused Slag can be removed easily Thermal efficiency very high (60% as compared to 25% in SMAW Deposition rate in SAW is far higher as compared to SMAW (only 2 kg/hr)

SAW Process
Process variants
(depends on size & shape of component)
Wire SAW is operated with a single wire on AC or Dc. Common variants are: Twin wire; Single wire with hot wire addition; Metal powder addition Flux Granulated fusible minerals containing oxides of Mn, Si, Ti, Al, Zr,Mg and other compounds such as CaF2 are used as Flux. The constituents are specifically formulated so that it is compatible with

the wire and base material and yields desired

bead shape and mechanical properties of the weld Flux is termed as active if it contains Mn or Si content

SAW Process

Types of flux : Bonded flux & Fused flux

Bonded flux is produced by drying the ingredients & bonding them with with a binding agent such as sodium silicate. These fluxes contain deoxidisers to remove porosity Fused flux is produced by mixing the ingredients and fusing them to get a homogeneous product. Smooth & stable arc can be achieved and current levels upto 2000A can be obtained

Flux recovery Unit

SAW Process
Applications Mainly used for longitudinal & circumferential joints of Pressure vessels Because of high fluidity of molten pool, slag layer & fused flux, process is suitable only for Flat position (butt welds) and horizontal Position (FILLET WELDS) There is no restriction in number of passes and hence there is no limitation in the thickness of the part to be welded) Mainly suited for C-Mn steels

SAW Process
Future prospects Narrow Gap SAW


Heat is developed through the arc between consumable metal electrode and the work to be welded. Electrode (bare metal wire) is transferred across the arc and into molten weld puddle. The wire, the weld puddle, and the area in the arc zone are protected from atmosphere by a gaseous shield.

Key parts control switch contact tip power cable gas nozzle electrode gas hose

GMAW Torch cutaway image

1. Torch handle 2. Moulded phenolic dielectric (white) threaded metal insert (yellow) 3. Shielding gas nozzle 4. Contact tip 5. Nozzle output face

The control switch, or trigger, when pressed by the operator, initiates the wire feed, electric power, and the shielding gas flow, causing an electric arc to be struck. The contact tip, normally made of copper, is connected to the welding power source through the power cable and transmits the electrical energy to the electrode The gas is supplied to the nozzle through a gas hose, which is connected to the tanks of shielding gas. Sometimes, a water hose is also built into the welding gun, cooling the gun in high heat operations

Torches in GMAW
Function of the welding gun, or torch, is to deliver the welding wire, welding current, and shielding gas to the welding arc. Guns are available for semiautomatic operation and for automatic operation, where they are fixed in the automatic welding head. Guns for GMAW have several characteristics in common. All have a copper alloy shielding gas nozzle, that delivers the gas to the arc area in a nonturbulent, angular pattern to prevent aspiration of air. The nozzle may be water cooled for semiautomatic welding at high amperage and for automatic welding where the arc time is of long duration.

Welding current is transferred to the welding wire as the wire travels through the contact tip or contact tube located inside the gas nozzle (Refer to Figure). The hole in the contact tip through which the wire passes is only a few thousandths of an inch larger than the wire diameter. A worn contact tip will result in an erratic arc due to poor current transfer.

Welding consumables
Ferrous welding wires Si deoxidiser; Mn strengthener

Al, Ti & Zr strong deoxidiser

Ni, Cr, V to improve mechanical properties ER70S-2 to ER70S-7 welding of Mild steel ER80S-D2 to ER100S-4 welding of low alloy steel ER308L ; ER308L-Si ; ER309L, E316L - welding of stainless steel Non - Ferrous welding wires ERCuSiA ; ERCuSnA welding of Cu & brass

Effect of Shielding Gases

Properties of shielding gases that affect welding process - Thermal properties at elevated temperatures - Chemical reaction of the gas - Effect of each gas on the mode of metal transfer

Thermal conductivity of CO2 gas is higher and requires more voltage

Spatter level is high when CO2 is used Penetration level is high Steels should have deoxidising elements to compensate for the reactive nature of the gas

GMAW Process
Narrow Gap MIG welding

GTAW Process

GTAW Process
Process characteristics
TIG welding is also called GTAW (Gas Tungsten Arc Welding). Arc is started with a tungsten electrode shielded by inert gas and filler rod is fed into the weld puddle separately. Gas shielding (Ar) that is required to protect the molten metal from contamination and amperage issupplied during the TIG welding operation. TIG welding is a slower process than MIG, but it produces a more precise weld and can be used at lower amperages for thinner metal and can even be used on exotic metals.

TIG welding has become a popular choice of welding processes when high quality, precision welding is required.
TIG welding process requires more time to learn than MIG.

GTAW Process
Uses a non-consumable tungsten electrode Is easily applied to thin materials Produces very high-quality, superior welds Welds can be made with or without filler metal Provides precise control of welding variables (i.e. heat) Welding yields low distortion Leaves no slag or splatter

Very slow process

Thickness limitation
High operator skill

EBW Process
Electron Beam Welding joins ferrous metals, light metals, precious metals, and alloys, to themselves or each other. Multi-axis EB control
High ratio of depth-to-width Maximum penetration with minimal distortion Exceptional weld strength Ability to weld components up to 10 feet in diameter High precision & repeatability with virtually 0% scrap Versatility from .002" depth to 3.00" depth of penetration

EBW Process
Maximum amount of weld penetration with the least amount of heat input reduces distortion Repeatability is achieved through electrical control systems
A cleaner, stronger and homogeneous weld is produced in a vacuum Exotic alloys and dissimilar materials can be welded Extreme precision due to CNC programming and magnification of operator viewing yields a 0% scrap rate


LBW Process
Laser welding & cutting uses a high intensity laser beam to melt or burn through plastic or metal. Different types of laser are used, depending on the material and application. Diode lasers are the lowest power and lowest cost and can be used for welding of plastics. CO2 lasers have higher power and can be used for both welding and cutting of plastics. Nd:YAG lasers can be used at very high powers, making them suitable for welding and cutting of sheet metal and thermoplastics.

LBW Process
Very high precision welding or cutting Contact-free, very localised energy means low thermal & mechanical strain on parts Cleaner than electric arc or gas welding No consumables, unless filler material is used for welding.

Very high initial cost Reflective metals cannot be welded High cost compared with conventional welding and cutting techniques. Not practical for manua welding.

Solid state Welding Process

It is a group of welding processes which produces coalescence at temperatures essentially below the melting point of the base materials being joined, without the addition of brazing filler metal. Process variables : Pressure Temperature Time This group of welding processes includes - cold welding - diffusion welding - explosion welding - forge welding - friction welding - ultrasonic welding
Adherent oxide & contaminated film

Principle: Break or dislodge adherent oxide & contaminated surface film and produce clean surfaces

Even out the undulations in the surface

Friction Welding
It that allows more materials and material combinations to be joined than with any other welding process. A whole range of different material combinations, such as steel/copper, steel/aluminum or aluminum/magnesium, can also be joined without difficulty.

With friction welding, joints are possible not only between two solid materials or two hollow parts: solid material/hollow part combinations can also be reliably welded.
Friction-welded parts are characterized by great accuracy in their length and eccentricity. The process is distinguished by very short welding times and thus extremely short cycle times

Friction Welding

Friction Stir Welding

Friction Stir Welding

Explosive Welding
Coalescence is effected by highvelocity movement together of the parts to be joined produced by a controlled detonation. The resultant composite system is joined with a durable, metallurgical bond. A no. of combinations of metals, which are impossible, by other means can be welded

RDX (Cyclotrimethylene trinitramine PETN (Pentaerythritol tetranitrate) TNT (Trinitrotoluene) Tetryl Trinitrophenylmethylinitramine, Lead azide Ammonium nitrate

velocity , m/s
8100 8190 6600 7800 5010 2655

Explosive Welding
Joining of pipes and tubes Tube sheets and pressure vessels


Tube Plugging
Remote joining in hazardous environments

Joining of dissimilar metals Aluminium to steel, Titanium alloys to Cr Ni steel, Cu to stainless steel, Tungsten to Steel, etc
Attaching cooling fins

Ultrasonic Welding

Ultrasonic Welding
Ultrasonic welding is a solid state welding process which produces coalescence by the local application of highfrequency vibratory energy as the work parts are held together under pressure. Welding occurs when the ultrasonic tip or electrode, the energy coupling device, is clamped against the work pieces and is made to oscillate in a plane parallel to the weld interface.

Ultrasonic welding is widely used in electronic industry

Diffusion Welding

Selection of Welding Process

Four easy steps to aid selection 1.) The joint to be welded is analyzed in terms of its requirements. 2.) The joint requirements are matched with the capabilities of available processes. One or more of the processes are selected for further examination. 3.) A checklist of variables is used to determine the ability of the selected processes(s) to meet the particular application. 4.) Finally, the proposed process or processes deemed most efficient are reviewed with an informed consultant

Selection of Welding Process

Analysis of Joint to be welded


Analyze the size of the weld metal

Base metal thickness whether thick or thin Type of base metal Position of weld Express the need of the joint in four terms
Fast-Fill (high deposition rate) Fast-Freeze (the joint is out-of-position overhead or vertical)

Fast-Follow (high arc speed and very

small welds) Penetration (the depth the weld penetrates the base metal)

Selection of Welding Process



This is required when a large amount of weld metal is needed to fill the joint. A heavy weld bead can only be laid down in minimum arc time with a high deposition rate.

implies that a joint is out-of-position, and therefore requires quick solidification of the molten crater. Not all semiautomatic processes can be used on fast-freeze joints.

suggests that the molten metal follows the arc at rapid travel speed, giving continuous, well-shaped beads, without "skips" or islands. This trait is especially desirable on relatively small singlepass welds, such as those used in joining sheet metal

varies with the joint. With some joints, penetration must be deep to provide adequate mixing of the weld and base metal and with others it must be limited to prevent burn-through or cracking.

Selection of Welding Process

Matching Joint Requirements with Processes Carefully examine the capabilities of the process Select appropriate equipment Consider the options of using


alternate consumables

Selection of Welding Process

Check list


Volume of Production. Cost of welding equipment should be commensurate with amount of work, or productivity Weld Specifications. Rule out a process if it does not provide the weld properties specified by the code governing the work. Operator Skill. Operators may develop skill with one process more rapidly than another. Train your operators according to his capabilities Auxiliary Equipment. Every process has a recommended power source and other items of auxiliary equipment. If a process makes use of existing auxiliary equipment, the initial cost in changing to that process can be substantially reduced. Accessory Equipment. Availability and cost of necessary accessory equipment - chipping hammers, deslagging tools, flux lay-down and pickup equipment, exhaust systems, et cetera should be taken into account.

Selection of Welding Process

Check list


Base-Metal Conditions. Rust, oil, fit-up of the joint, weldability of the steel, and other conditions must be considered. These factors could limit the usefulness of a particular process. Arc Visibility. Is there a problem following irregular seams? Then open-arc processes are advantageous. On the other hand, if there's no difficulty in correct placement of the weld bead, there are "operator-comfort" benefits with the submerged-arc process; no head-shield required and heat from the arc is reduced. Fixturing Requirements. A change to a semiautomatic process requires some fixturing if productivity is to be realized. Appraise the equipment to find out if it can adapt to processes.

Selection of Welding Process

Check list


Production Bottlenecks. If the process reduces unit fabrication cost, but creates a production bottleneck, its value is lost. Highly complicated equipment that requires frequent servicing by skilled technicians may slow up your actual production thereby diminishing its value. The completed checklist should contain every factor known to affect the economics of the operation. Some may be specific to the weld job or weld shop. Other items might include: Protection Requirements Range of Weld Sizes Application Flexibility Seam Length Setup Time Requirements Initial Equipment Cost Cleanliness Requirements

Selection of Welding Process

Review & Consult Review of the Application & selection of equipment with expert Establish Systems. A system is of no value unless it is used. Create a chart and follow the steps to


determining process.
By taking the time to analyze each new weld joint, your operation will become more productive and your welding experience will be more fulfilling.

Weldability definition & significance

Fabrication weldability Focus on : Process parameters
Process weldability

Focus on Choice of Process: Fusion welding Solid state welding

Welding conditions

Material weldability Focus on : Material quality
Service weldability

Focus on Weldment properties Strength Toughness Fatigue Creep

Composition Steel making practice

Problems encountered in welding

Hydrogen Assisted cracking Solidification cracking Reheat cracking Lamellar tearing Formation of Local Brittle Zones (LBZ) in the weld metal and hardening of HAZ Toughness of weld metal & HAZ

Hydrogen Assisted Cracking

Stress Caused by restraint, stress concentration and high weld metal yield strength. Hydrogen Caused by moisture in the electrode coating and flux, Lubricants on the wire (oil, drawing compounds, and rust) and paint contaminants
Microstructure. It's affected by chemical composition (high carbon, high-alloy steels are more likely to have cold cracking) and weld cooling rate.
CE = C + Mn/6 + [Cr+Mo+V]/5 + [Ni+Cu]/15

Low temperature HAC occurs below 150C.

Solidification cracking
Hot cracks are found at the grain boundaries, and tend to grow along the weld centerline, involving lowmelting eutectic liquid films They are sensitive to alloy composition and the weld thermal cycle Between two solid grains, if a liquid film is being pulled apart, the liquid goes into a state of tension and it becomes unstable. It will either cavitate or produce decohesion of oxides.

Reheat cracking
Reheat cracking also called Post Heat Treatment cracking, strain age cracking, stress rupture racking and stress relief cracking can occur during Post Weld Heat Treatment or during high temperature service of some low alloy and Cr-Mo steels.

Reheat cracks are inter-granular and usually occur in the coarse grain regions of the HAZX, although they sometimes occur in weld metals. Reheat cracking results from embrittlement of prior austenite grain boundaries caused by minor alloying elements such as P, Sn, Sb and As. Report cracking has been reported in some CrMo-V steels such as ASTM A 514, A517, A 508Cl II and in in ASTM A 710 HSLA steels.

Lamellar cracking
Lamellar tearing mainly occurs in fillet welds of corner or T joints which results in high welding stresses in the base metal adjacent to the weld metal. High tensile stresses can develop perpendicular to the mid-plane of the steel plate as well as parallel to it. The magnitude of the stresses depends on the size of the weld, welding procedures and the restraint imposed on the weldment design. This tearing is usually associated with poor elongation in the through-thickness direction of plates. It is aided by inclusions in the steel and usually progresses in a step-like manner. Elongated Sulphide inclusions increases the sensitivity of lamellar tearing.

Welding stress

Local Brittle Zones

Local Brittle Zones occur in reheated multi-pass welding of the steels. In these zones, small islands of martensite and austenite are formed, when the weld beads are heated to intercritical temperature by subsequent passed and cooled. It is reported that such localized brittle zones in high strength steel reduces its resistance to cleavage fracture. In the steels, in view of high hardneability, HAZ gets hardened and all care should be taken during like appropriate selection of heat input and pre-heat temperatures so as to limit the hardness to within 450 Vickers. As strength level is high, the weldment apart from possessing requisite strength must also have adequate toughness.

Safe welding Procedures AWS Structural Welding Code for C - Mn Steels

ASTM Grade C Mn steels Specification A 572 Gr 42 A 633 Gr A C 0.21 0.22 0.07 Mn 1.35 1.00 0.40 Si 0.30 0.15 0.60 Cr 0.40 0.60 Ni 0.50 0.70 Others 0.20 Cu 0.05 Nb 1.30 Cu TS 413 MPa 572 Mpa 620 MPa

A 710 Gr A Step 1

Evaluate Composition parameter, Pcm Pcm Step 2 Evaluate Susceptibility index (SI) SI = 12 Pcm + log H = C + Si/30 + Mn/20 + Cu/20 +Ni/60 +Cr/20 +Mo/15 +V/10 +5B

Safe welding Procedures

Step 3 Identify the Group

Welding of C - Mn Steels Step 4 Identify Restraint level

Susceptibility Index
Up to 3.0 3.0 3.5 3.6 4.0


Low restraint Medium restraint

Weld joints with reasonable freedom of movement Weld joints with reduced freedom of movement (assembly joints) Weld joints with no freedom of movement (very thick plates and repair welds)

4.1 4.5
4.6 5.0


High restraint

5.1 5.5
5.6 7.0


Safe welding Procedures

Welding of C - Mn Steels

Selection of Pre heat and inter-pass temperatures

Restraint level Thickness mm Min. preheat & inter-pass temperature in C A
Low < 9.5 9.5 19.1 19.1 - 38.0 38.1 - 76 Medium < 9.5 9.5 19.1 19.1 - 38.0 38.1 - 76 High < 9.5 9.5 19.1 19.1 - 38.0 38.1 - 76 < 18 < 18 < 18 < 18 < 18 < 18 < 18 18 < 18 18 116 116

< 18 < 18 < 18 < 18 < 18 < 18 <18 80 18 85 130 130

< 18 < 18 < 18 < 18 < 18 18 74 110 66 116 149 149

< 18 60 80 93 < 18 80 110 130 104 138 149 149

60 99 110 121 71 116 134 149 138 149 160 160

138 138 138 138 138 143 149 149 160 160 160 160

149 149 149 149 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160

Safe welding Procedures

Selection of Filler
Grade Matching Filler SMAW Process Electrode

Welding of C - Mn Steels

E 7015, E 7016, E 7018, E 7028 YS : 414 MPa min. A 242 Gr 1 A 572 Gr 42 A 588 Gr A A 633 Gr A A 710 Gr A SAW Process Electrode F 7XX - EXX YS : 400 MPa min. SAW Process Electrode F 7XX - EXX YS : 400 MPa min. TS : 483 MPa TS : 483 MPa TS : 496 MPa

Safe welding Procedures

Welding of QT Steels

Typical Grades of QT steels

Specification C Mn Si Cr Ni Others YS MPa TS Mpa

A 514 A 515 A 533 A 537 HY 80 HY 100

0.15 0.14 0.25 0.24 0.12 0.12

0.80 0.95 1.15 0.70 0.10 0.10

0.40 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15

0.50 1.00 0.25 1.00 1.00

1.20 0.25 2.00 2.25

0.20 Mo` 0.40 Mo 0.45 Mo 0.08 Cu 0.20 Mo 0.20 Mo

620 620 344 317 551 689

689 689 551 482 -

Safe welding Procedures

Preheat & inter-pass temperatures
Thickness A514
Up to 13 mm 13 20 mm 21 - 40 41 - 63 > 64 10C 10C 50C 80C 105C
Steel A 514

Welding of QT Steels

10C 10C 50C 80C 105C

10C 40C 95C 95C 105C
SMAW E 1X01X-M E 1X01X-M E901X-M E 1101X-M

10C 10C 40C 65C 105C

20C 50 - 150C 95 - 150C 95 - 150C 95 - 150C
GMAW ER1X0S-1 ER1X0S-1 ER100S-1 ER110S-1

25 65C 25 65C 95 - 135C 95 - 150C 95 - 150C

Filler metal

A 517 A 533 HY 80

HY 100

E 1101X-M