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# ATM PETE 625 ATM

ATM ATM
Lesson 2A
Kicks & Gas Migration
ATM PETE 625 ATM
ATM ATM
Harold Vance Department of
Petroleum Engineering
Kicks & Gas Migration
Density of real gasses
Equivalent Mud Weight (EMW)
Wellbore pressure before and after kick
Gas migration rate - first order approx.
Gas migration rate - w/mud compressibility
ATM PETE 625 ATM
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Kicks & Gas Migration

Read Ch 1 & 2 Watson
Ch 8 Schubert
Homework: 2.1-2.10
ATM PETE 625 ATM
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Harold Vance Department of
Petroleum Engineering
Density of Real Gasses
M = molecular weight
m = mass
n = no. of moles

g
= S.G. of gas
ZRT
p
M
M
M
ZRT
pM
V
M
ZRT
pV
ZRT
pV
n
V
nM
V
m
g
g
air
g
g
g

29
29
=
= =
= =
=
= =
ATM PETE 625 ATM
ATM ATM
Harold Vance Department of
Petroleum Engineering
Density of Real Gasses
What is the density of a 0.6 gravity gas at
10,000 psig and 200 degF?
From Lesson 2, Fig. 1
p
pr
= p/p
pc
= 10,015/671 = 14.93
T
pr
= (200+460)/358 = 1.84
Z = 1.413
ATM PETE 625 ATM
ATM ATM
Harold Vance Department of
Petroleum Engineering
Density of Real Gasses

g
= (29*0.6*10,015)/(1.413*80.28*660)

g
= 2.33 ppg
ATM PETE 625 ATM
ATM ATM
Harold Vance Department of
Petroleum Engineering
Equivalent Mud Weight, EMW
The pressure, p (psig) in a wellbore, at a
depth of x (ft) can always be expressed in
terms of an equivalent mud density or
weight.
EMW = p/(0.052*x) in ppg

ATM PETE 625 ATM
ATM ATM
Harold Vance Department of
Petroleum Engineering
EMW
EMW is the density of the mud that, in a
column of height, x (ft) will generate the
pressure, p (psig) at the bottom, if the
pressure at top = 0 psig
or,
p=0.052*EMW*TVD
ATM PETE 625 ATM
ATM ATM
Harold Vance Department of
Petroleum Engineering
ATM PETE 625 ATM
ATM ATM
Harold Vance Department of
Petroleum Engineering
Depth Pressure
ft psia
0 500 0
10 505.98 10
100 559.8 100
150 589.7 150
200 619.6 200
300 679.4 300
400 739.2 400
500 799 500
1000 1098 1000
2000 1696 2000
3000 2294 3000
4000 2892 4000
5000 3490 5000
6000 4088 6000
7000 4686 7000
8000 5284 8000
9000 5882 9000
10000 6480 10000
11000 7078 11000
11600 7436.8 11600
0
2000
4000
6000
8000
10000
12000
0 2000 4000 6000 8000
After Kick
Before Kick
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Harold Vance Department of
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Gas Migration
Gas generally has a much lower density than the
drilling mud in the well, causing the gas to rise
when the well is shut in.
Since the gas, cannot expand in a closed wellbore,
it will maintain its pressure as it rises (ignoring
temp, fluid loss to formation, compressibility of
gas, mud, and formation)
This causes pressures everywhere in the wellbore
to increase.
ATM PETE 625 ATM
ATM ATM
Harold Vance Department of
Petroleum Engineering
ATM PETE 625 ATM
ATM ATM
Harold Vance Department of
Petroleum Engineering
Gas Migration
Problem 2.6: A 0.7 gravity gas bubble
enters the bottom of a 9000 ft vertical well
when the drill collars are being pulled
through the rotary table. Flow is noted and
the well is shut in with an initial recorded
casing pressure of 50 psig. Influx height is
350 ft, Mud weight =9.6 ppg.
ATM PETE 625 ATM
ATM ATM
Harold Vance Department of
Petroleum Engineering
Gas Migration
Assume surface temperature of 70 deg F.
Temp gradient = 1.1 deg F/100 ft. Surface
pressure =14 psia
Determine the final casing pressure if the
gas bubble is allowed to reach the surface
without expanding
Determine the pressure and equivalent
density at total depth under these final
conditions
ATM PETE 625 ATM
ATM ATM
Harold Vance Department of
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Solution
First assumption - is that BHP is brought to
the surface
Pressure at the top of the bubble
=14 + 50+.052*9.6*(9000-350) = 4378 psia
T
9000
= 70 + (1.1/100)*(9000 - 350)
= 629 deg R
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ATM ATM
Harold Vance Department of
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Solution
p
pc
= 666 psia
T
pc
= 389 deg R
p
pr
= 4378/666 = 11.08
T
pr
= 629/389 = 1.62
Z = 0.925
ATM PETE 625 ATM
ATM ATM
Harold Vance Department of
Petroleum Engineering
Solution
Assume, at first, that Z
f
= 1.0 (at the
surface)
Then, 4378 * V = p
f
* V________
0.925 * 629 1.0 * (70 + 460)
so, p
f
= 3988 psia
ATM PETE 625 ATM
ATM ATM
Harold Vance Department of
Petroleum Engineering
Solution
At surface:
P
pr
= 3988 / 666 = 6.00
T
pr
= 530 / 389 = 1.36
Z
f
= 0.817
P
f
= 3258 psia
ATM PETE 625 ATM
ATM ATM
Harold Vance Department of
Petroleum Engineering
Solution
A few more iterative steps result in
Z
f
= 0.705 and p
f
= 2812 psia
At the surface

f
= 0.7*2812/(2.77*0.705*530) = 1.9 ppg
ATM PETE 625 ATM
ATM ATM
Harold Vance Department of
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Solution
BHP =
2812+0.052*1.9*350+.052*9.6*9650
BHP = 7160 psia

EMW = (7160 - 14)/(0.052 * 9000)
EMW = 15.3 ppg
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Harold Vance Department of
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ATM PETE 625 ATM
ATM ATM
Harold Vance Department of
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Compression of Mud in Annulus
AV = compressibility * volume * Ap
= -6 * 10
-6
(1/psi) * 0.1(9000-350)*2626
AV = -13.63 bbls
Initial kick volume = 0.1 * 350 = 35 bbls
New kick volume = 35 + 13.63 = 48.63 bbl

ATM PETE 625 ATM
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Harold Vance Department of
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Compression of Mud in Annulus
From Boyles Law,
p
2
* 48.63 = 2815 * 35
p
2
= 2024 psia
p
8650
p
oA
P
oB
P
oC
Consider: V,p,Z const. P,Z change mud comp.

2nd iteration ? . 3rd
or, Is there a better way?

ATM PETE 625 ATM
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Harold Vance Department of
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Gas Migration Rate
A well is shut in after taking a 30 bbl kick.
The SIDPP appears to stabilize at 1000
psig. One hour later the pressure is 2000
psig.
Ann Cap = 0.1 bbl/ft
MW = 14 ppg
TD = 10,000
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Harold Vance Department of
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Gas Migration Rate
How fast is the kick migrating?

What assumptions do we need to make?
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1 hr
ATM PETE 625 ATM
ATM ATM
Harold Vance Department of
Petroleum Engineering
First Attempt
If the kick rises x ft. in 1 hr and the pressure
in the kick = constant, then the pressure
increases everywhere,
Ap = 0.052*14*x
x = (2000-1000)/(0.052*14)
x = 1374 ft
Rise velocity = 1374 ft/hr
ATM PETE 625 ATM
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Harold Vance Department of
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Gas Migration Rate
Field rule of thumb ~ 1000 ft/hr
Laboratory studies ~ 2000 - 6000 ft/hr

Who is right?

Field results?

Is the previous calculation correct?
ATM PETE 625 ATM
ATM ATM
Harold Vance Department of
Petroleum Engineering
Second Attempt
Consider mud compressibility
Ann cap = 0.1 bbl/ft * 10000 ft
= 1000 bbl of mud
Volume change due to compressibility and
increase in pressure of 1000 psi,
AV = 6*10
-6
(1/psi) * 1000 psi * 1000 bbl
= 6 bbl
ATM PETE 625 ATM
ATM ATM
Harold Vance Department of
Petroleum Engineering
Second Attempt
i.e. gas could expand by 6 bbl, to 36 bbl
Initial kick pressure
=1000 + 0.052 * 14 * 10000
= 8280 psig
= 8295 psia

ATM PETE 625 ATM
ATM ATM
Harold Vance Department of
Petroleum Engineering
Second Attempt
A 20% expansion would reduce the
pressure in the kick to ~ 0.8*8295
= 6636 psia
= 6621 psig
So, the kick must have migrated more than
1374 ft!
ATM PETE 625 ATM
ATM ATM
Harold Vance Department of
Petroleum Engineering
Second Attempt
How far did it migrate in 1 hour?
The pressure reduction in kick fluid
=8260-6621=1659 psi
The kick must therefore have risen an
2
ft, biven by:
1659 = 0.052 * 14 * x
2

x
2
= 2279 ft
ATM PETE 625 ATM
ATM ATM
Harold Vance Department of
Petroleum Engineering
Second Attempt
2nd estimate = 1374 + 2279
3653 ft/hr
What if the kick size is only 12 bbl?
What about balooning of the wellbore?
What about fluid loss to permeable
formations?
ATM PETE 625 ATM
ATM ATM
Harold Vance Department of
Petroleum Engineering
ATM PETE 625 ATM
ATM ATM
Harold Vance Department of
Petroleum Engineering
Example 2.7
Kick occurs. After shut-in, initial csg. Press
= 500 psig. 30 minutes later, p = 800 psig
What is the slip velocity if the kick volume
remains constant?
MW = 10.0 ppg
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ATM ATM
Harold Vance Department of
Petroleum Engineering
Solution
( )
( )( )
( )
hr f t v
v
hr t t
f t
psi
g
psi p p
v
slip
slip
slip
/ 1154
5 . 0 0 . 10 052 . 0
500 800
1 2
1 2
=

=

|
|
.
|

\
|

=
Ignoring
compressibility and
other effects

What factors affect gas
slip velocity, or
migration rate?
ATM PETE 625 ATM
ATM ATM
Harold Vance Department of
Petroleum Engineering
Gas slip velocity
The bubble size, and the size of the gas void
fraction, will influence bubble slip velocity.
The void fraction is defined as the ratio
(or percentage) of the gas cross-sectional
area to the total flow area.
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Gas slip velocity
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Gas slip velocity
Bubbles with a void
fraction > 25% assume
a bullet nose shape
and migrate upwards
along the high side of
the wellbore
concurrent with liquid
backflow, on the
opposite side of the
wellbore
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Harold Vance Department of
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Gas slip velocity
Large bubbles rise faster than small bubbles
Other factors:
Density differences
Hole geometry
Mud viscosity
Circulation rate
Hole inclination
One lab study showed max. rate at 45
o
.