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ULTRASONIC distance METER

(detail design specification)


ByAKSHAY JANDOO ECE/10/106

INTRODUCTION My aim is to design a handy device for noncontact measurement of distance.


For measurement of shorter distance only. Using a timer IC for better functionality. Less cost of manufacture.

ULTRASOUND ??? These are waves of frequency greater than 20KHz.


They travel with velocity of sound & inaudible. Because of shorter wave length they travel as sharp beam.

They undergo reflection.

BLOCK DIAGRAM

OSCILLATOR DISPLAY SECTION


LED DISPLAY LED DRIVER

TRANSMITTER CIRCUIT

TIME MEASUREMENT SECTION

DETECTOR CIRCUIT

POWER SUPPLY
TRANSFOR MER RECTIFIER REGULATOR (7809) FILTER

SIGNAL AMPLIFICATION CIRCUIT

RECIEVER CIRCUIT

TRANSMITTER
There is a 180 degree

phase shift between the positive & negative terminals. Inverters in parallel increases the transmission electric power. In the transmitter section inverter is used for the drive of the ultrasonic sensor.

555 OSCILLATOR
IC1 is the oscillation circuit to control the

sending-out time of the ultrasonic pulse. TL=1msec & TH=64msec. IC2 is the circuit to make oscillate the ultrasonic frequency of 40KHz. RB>RA to bring the duty of the oscillation wave close to 50%. The output of IC1 is connected with the reset terminal of IC2 through the inverter. The ultrasonic of 40KHz is sent out for the 1 millisecond and pauses for the 64 msec.

RECIEVER
The received signal has to be

amplified to sufficient gain. The ultrasonic signal which was received with the reception sensor is amplified by 1000 times (60dB) of voltage with the operational amplifier with two stages. It is 100 times at the first stage (40dB) and 10 times (20dB) at the next stage. The circuit this time works with the single power supply of +9 V. The operational amplifier with the negative feedback is used.

DETECTOR CIRCUIT
This section includes two unites, detection circuit and signal

detector. The detection is done to detect the received ultrasonic signal. This circuit is the circuit which detects the ultrasonic which returned from the measurement object. The output of the detection circuit is detected using the comparator. At the circuit this time, the operational amplifier of the single power supply is used instead of the comparator. The operational amplifier amplifies and outputs the difference between the positive input and the negative input.

DETECTION CIRCUIT

Detection circuit

Signal detector

DISPLAY SECTION
Display section includes led driver unit and led display unit. The measurement result is displayed in the three 7 segment

LEDs. Pnp type transistor is used for the control. 4511 is the decoder which changes the binary-coded decimal (BCD) code into the control code of the 7 segment led.

APPLICATIONS
Used to find the range of a distant object.
The same unit can be made to detect moving objects

(such as cars racing on the street) and find their range and speed.

ADVANTAGES
Long distance, up to 10 meters. Works with almost any surface type. Resistant to vibration, radiation, background light and noise. Unaffected by dust, dirt or high humidity. Low cost.

LIMITATIONS

Moderate accuracy: 0.1 to 2% of the range. Large beam hence poor object resolution. Limited speed. Restricted target angle: requires near-perpendicular

surface.

THANK YOU