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DESIGN DEPARTMENT Product developmentProduct development is the first step in the manufacturing process.

This involves lots of research and inspiration. Design is an on-going process and as soon as one line is complete, the designer will have to begin on the next season's designs, producing four to six collections each year. Fashion designers design outer and inner garments and accessories to go with it. The process begins with sketching the original idea on paper and then shaping the pattern pieces which make the garment. The pieces are then drawn in actual size on paper and cut out on a rough material.

These pieces are stitched together and fitted on a model. Modifications in the pattern pieces or other features of the mock up are made and thus the design is completed.

From the rough model sample garments are made in the final fabric.
Much time of the designer is spent in exploration and research. Knowledge about fabric, weave, draping qualities, material, colour and design and the changing trends is important.

Stages in the designing of a garmentI) Research - Creation of a design involves identifying what customers need and which designs will sell. Even in the special designers section, designers producing expensive original work keep in mind factors such as social customs, international fashion trends and fabrics available. In the wholesale sector manufacturing designers select and modify designs which are going to sell. They get ideas by reviewing periodicals and attending fashion shows etc. They also take into account competitors products and sales information. Trends are anticipated as designs are produced a year in advance of garments reaching the market. New designs are required for two or more seasons each year.

Fashion TrendsThere is in the fashion industry a constant flow of information about what the customer is buying. From the manufacturer of the finished garment, information about customer preferences, as expressed in customer purchases, flows in several directions.

One example is when information flows back to the retail store, via the manufacturers sales representative, who alerts the store to trends they may not have noticed.
Another flow is to the fabric producers, in the form of the garment manufacturers reorders for the most accepted materials, patterns and colors. From the records of an individual store, the retailer can find out sudden or gradual changes in the preferences of the customer and is able to spot new trends.

II) Designs - Designers use their creativity to produce ideas to suit the market needs. Sketches are used to outline basic ideas when fabrics are selected. The appearance, quality and texture of fabrics are taken into account.
Choosing Fabric For a Line Usually a designer plans a certain number of garments for each type of fabric and color selected; this is called a story. A certain proportion of the line could be high-end fashion, with some styles designed in more basic styling and fabric, which would complement the more extreme styles.

Price as well as the design influences the choice of fabric and trimmings. If the fabric is on the more expensive end of the budget, then a simpler design will be necessary in order to keep the garment within the price range required for the line.

III) Patterns Once the sample yardage is acquired, the first pattern is made.
In order to produce a good first pattern, the patternmaker must be able to understand the design that is to be translated into a pattern, and then into a first sample. A flat (technical drawing) of the garment is sketched with finished dimensions and sewing details, topstitching, zipper length, etc. Designers make formal drawings indicating the position of seams, folds, darts, etc., but in many cases patterns are translated from the rough sketches by draftsmen.

Flat patterns

Draping

Computerized Pattern Making/ Computer aided design At most high apparel production apparel industry, patterns are made on a computer. CAD is the use of computer technology to aid in the design and especially the drafting of a part or product.

With CAD, the pattern maker manipulates small graphic patterns on the computer screen. Geometry drivers can make an infinite number of changes to the shapes & sizes in the pattern, Creating new designs lines adding pleats, fullness && seam allowances

Plotter is use to take out print outs of marker planners

Example of CAD software: 1) Lectra offers a fast and efficient solution for marker making with both plain and matched fabrics. Automatic marker making provides an additional opportunity for better control of the different phases of the process while maintaining maximum efficiency. 2) TUKAcad is a user-friendly, sophisticated production suite that combines pattern making, grading and marker making into one unified package. TUKAcad 2007 also has advanced features for pattern card creation, marker generation and built-in plotting and email services. The benefits of having your patterns stored by computer are: - improved measurement accuracy - ability to transfer patterns or markers via email - reducing production costs

Fabric is the greatest cost in the apparel industry. Therefore it can determine the cost effectiveness of a product. optimum utilization of any fabric width to attain the highest profit margin for your new and existing products.

Comparison Between CAD Marker Making & Manual Marker Making: 1. In manual system the system is used to make maker for garment making is traditional. But in CAD system marker making is done in modern system. 2. Marker efficiencies is not visible in manual system. Other hand, marker efficiency is visible in CAD system.
3. Marker length is not visible in manual system. Marker length is visible in monitor screen at CAD system. 4. In manual, once marker is made, not possible to increase its efficiency. But in CAD it is possible to increase the efficiency at any time. Marker copying is not possible manually. In CAD, by using Plotter as much as possible copy can be done.

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6. Manual marker making is very time consuming method whereas, CAD is a faster method.
7. In manual system quality can not be assured. It has quality assurance. 8. Manual system costing is low but CAD is expensive. Uses of CAD: 1) Textile Design System: Most fabrics, yarn dyes, Plain weaves, jacquards or dobbies can be designed using a CAD. 2) Knitted Fabrics: Some systems specialize in knitwear production and final knitted design can be viewed on screen with indication of all stitch formation. 3) Printed Fabrics: The print motif can be resized, recolored, rotated or multiples depending on the designers goal. New CAD systems are coming which have built in software to match swatch color to screen color to printer color automatically.

4) Sketch Pad Systems: There are graphic program that allow the designer to use pen or styles on electronic pad or tablet thereby creating freehand images which are stored in the computer. 5)Embroidery Systems: It requires assigning color and stitch to different parts of the design. Data is fed and multiple head work. Scanned images can be used also. 6) Marker Making Systems: It ensured minimal wastage of fabric. Striped fabric can be done also.

7)Cutting Operations: Automated Cutting machines can be used after direction from marker making.

Sketch pad system- Pattern makers can make the patterns manually on computer by working on the sensitized table with the traditional tools & as stylus attached to the table & the computer. The stylus picks up the lines drawn on the table & shows them on screen. Changes can be done directly on the screen. Computer CompaniesTukatech, Gerber, Lectra

IV) Samples The next step is to have the first sample sewn.
The contractor can be asked to make the first sample, who later make the production, (not necessarily a sample maker).

This has the added advantage of the contractor being able to cost the garment for production. Contractors like to sew the first sample, as they hope that they will then be able to sew the production orders.
As a rule of thumb, sewing the first sample is usually two to three times the price of sewing a garment in production. In wholesale manufacture, samples are made up before mass production begins and the designer makes any necessary adjustments. Changes may be required to suit production/budgetary requirements.

V) Presentation - Designers are required to present their design work to clients.


Effective presentation is essential for designers.

They do so through fashion shows, selling to individuals or retail buyers. Designers market their work and give advice to clients about adaptations - types of fabric which can be used, different dimensions, production problems etc.
This is a major aspect of the work for many designers

Sampling Department of GMUIn any GMU, the sampling department is one of the most important department and it play a vital role in the upliftment of a unit. Sampling department directly co-ordinates with the Merchandising and Production department.
Sampling is done to see how the product will look like when produced in bulk and to check whether there are any discrepancies in the pattern. Patterns are made according to the buyers specification. Merchandiser procures order from the buyer. Merchandising is a process through which products are planned, developed, executed and presented to buyer. It includes directing and overseeing the development of product lines from start to finish.

Role of Fashion merchandisersThe merchandisers work is one of coordination. The job can be broken down into the several functions.

Merchandisers have to negotiate with the buyers on pricing workout delivery schedules and investigate for future buyers.
Merchandisers understand buying trends and the buyers needs. The buyer sends spec sheet, sketches, fabric details, embellishment details; stitch types etc. to the merchandiser. Merchandiser files this information along with details, regarding costing, average, port, fit, correction, size set and approval into a style package and hands it over to the sampling dept. head. They prepare samples approved by the buyer, they price the samples.

From procurement of raw materials to production management it is the responsibility of merchandisers.


They oversee quality and ensure timely delivery to the buyers. Merchandising can be divided into the following stages : In Product development oMerchandisers along with fashion designers develop a product which is market specific. oIn export houses merchandisers gear the companys production line to meet customer requirements. oMerchandisers require specifications/measurements from buyers to translate the sample requirements to fashion designers first and then to the production team. In Sampling stage oMerchandisers give buyers samples for their opinion and advise. On approval, costs are negotiated. oModifications to the sample may be suggested.

In Production stage Raw materials are procured by the merchandising department, quality check is carried out for proper materials supply and finally the production process is monitored. Final approval is given by the buyer after which garments are packaged and dispatched to the buyers. Usually, merchandiser keeps in constant touch with the buyer and communicates his instructions to the sampling and other departments. He maintains the style package and updates it every time the buyer makes any changes. A typical style package or tech pack or communication pack contains

Development details Folder summary


Fabric details (weight, width, count etc.) Dyeing method Washing and finishing details Packaging details Garment sketch Garment type/category etc.

Construction overview
General construction Detailed construction trims detail Thread details Fabric details Cutting details (two way etc.) Seam types etc. Pictures of the trims

Design component work sheet


Color of trims Embroidery Decorative stitching etc

Fabric chart
Vendor details Fabric description Type Finishes Construction Color Dips etc

Trim research sheet


Quality Type Measurements

Lab dips
Swatches of lab dips Matching light conditions Comments Shade approval

COSTINGThe most important activity for the merchant is to estimate correctly and negotiate for the cost of production. These cost include general raw material cost manufacturing cost washing etc.
once the production sample is approved and grading on a final costing is done accurately using fabric averages from the CAD, cost of trims etc. Costing agreement includes manufacturers cost materials labour fabric direct expenses lining factory overheads thread ware housing and transportation trims

packing cost tags labels hangers pins bags cartons etc. overheads sewing administrative financing and interest returns and allowances
trade discounts taxes

Pre- Production Includes making patterns, grading developing markers, ordering fabric & trims, planning the cut order, bundling. Production Management records are created on Spec sheet. Spec sheet- Includes all the elements used to construct the garment are listed, with supplier information, style numbers, costs, measurements details & construction details.
Cutting ticket- is created for style It lists the sizes, colors & fabrics in which the style will be created.

Working of sampling DepartmentSampling department head will receive the package from the merchant and understand about the requirement of the design. He allocates the style to a particular pattern master for its development.
Pattern master co-ordinates with the CAD department in this regard. CAD will be responsible for digitizing the first patterns, fit correction, grading, size set correction, costing the marker for fabric order, making production cutting marker. Pattern cutting by CAD cutter and shrinkage addition the patterns. The pattern master studies the style package thoroughly and makes the pattern on the brown paper pattern sheet, giving all the seam allowances, notches, darts and style features as specified in the design sheet

Pattern Making: The first pattern is made in medium size. This pattern is sent to the head cutting master of the sampling department who gets the fabric cut accordingly. Three sizes of the same pattern are cut. The merchandiser procure the fabric required for sampling from the store. Before sampling the fabric also undergoes the lab test and gets an approval by the buyer. After the fabric is cut, the components are sent back to the individual pattern masters handling that particular style. Pattern master gets it stitched in his line keeping in mind all the technicalities, design features and different types of stitches.

The merchandiser gives the required accessories to the pattern master.


The cut pieces are then stitched in their respective allotted sampling assembly line, washed, checked by the sampling QC and finally finished and packed. These activities are personally taken care by the junior merchandiser and the line in charge so that quality samples are delivered within the time limit. Out of three samples made, two are sent to the buyer for approval and one is kept for own references. If the samples are according to the buyer specifications one piece is sent back with approval.

If the sample is not up to the mark, then buyer sends a comment sheet in which the further alterations are specified and fresh patterns and samples are made according to the comment sheet. When buyers approval is sort, size set grading preparation begins according to the details sent by him to the merchant. The CAD according to the Graded spec sheet sent by the buyer does grading in different sizes. Size sheet is also received which states the size ratio according to which the graded patterns are cut in that many numbers.

GRADING SIZES Pattern grading is the scaling of a pattern to a different size by incrementing important points of the pattern using an algorithm in the clothing industry. The purpose of grading is to proportionally increase or decrease the size of a pattern, while maintaining shape, fit, balance, and scale of style details (dress, original design). To properly fit a pattern to a range of sizes, each pattern piece needed to be graded, or systematically increased or decreased.

Grading is the method to increase or decrease the samples size production patterns to make up a complete size range.
Each company set a predetermined grade specifications or rules. Most of the manufacturers grade patterns on CAD system

At each of the key points, push the button to record the grade point. Each point is cross referenced by the grade rule table stored in the computer which enlarges or reduces the pattern automatically according to the predetermined increments & directions.

Garments are made in this ratio and are checked by the QC in a similar manner as discussed earlier. Approved pieces are handed over to the merchant who sort buyers approval for size set if any changes are requested in the size set report then the CAD makes the correction in the patterns and sample are remade afresh. If satisfied, the buyer sends back medium size with a seal on it this becomes the sealer sample or the preproduction sample. The production will be carried out according to this sample.

Types of sample Proto sample (to see styling) sample stitched as per specs but with a different fabric with a different fabric with resembling properties
Fit sample: shapes and fits are most important; measurement tolerance is up to 1/8 (depend on buyer). These are accurate in fit and size, and made exactly in fabric as required. They have been perfected after a number of alterations in the measurements. Pilot run sample: these sample are run in the production line presented to the buyer QC for approval Pre production sample(PP sample) for bulk production approval, 100% quality required in all respect.

Pre size set- to check grading, pieces of each size sent to buyer for approval S, M, L and XL. The measurement should be within the tolerance. The pre size set samples are prepared in the sampling department. Size set: the buyer specifies the size ratio and sizes. Then the samples are made according to these sizes. This forms the size set. To check grading, 2-3 pieces of each size sent to the buyer for approval. Measurement should be within the tolerance. The size set samples are prepared in production from the bulk material.

MARKER MAKING
The marker is the cutting guide or pattern lay out made on a sheet of lightweight paper of the same width as the fabric. The purpose of the marker: To make the layout for the cutter to follow. To place the pattern pieces close together to avoid fabric wastage. To accommodate the cutting order The desired economical use of the space is called a tight marker, which utilizes the highest % of fabric possible to avoid waste. Patterns are laid out so that each size & color is cut as needed. Grain line, one way prints, plaids, stripes are considered.

The Essential steps in making a Marker:


Planning for the marker or the placement of the pattern pieces to meet the technical requirements & needs of material economy. Drawing the marker directly onto fabric, drawing it onto a paper marker by pen or automatic plotter. Reproduction of the marker on the fabric. Planning for Marker This is the first step by which the cost of the company can be minimized. Any reduction in the amount of cloth used per garment leads to increase profit. The marker planner first positions the larger pieces & then fits the smaller pieces into the gaps.

CONSTRAINTS SUBJECTED:
1) The nature of the fabric & the desired result in the finished garment. The fabrics can be classified as soft & coarse, Small prints or large prints, Checks or other motifs Different factors to be considered while planning for the marker like: (i)Alignment of the pattern in relation to the grain of the fabric. (ii)Symmetry & asymmetry (i) Pattern alignment in relation to the grain :

The pattern pieces prepared carry a grain line which has to match with the grain of the fabric when placed.
If the patterns are not laid properly, then the finished garment will not hang & drape properly.

(ii) Symmetry & asymmetryEither way or symmetrical fabrics- the fabrics can be turned round ( through 180) & retain the same appearance.
Require no special action on part of marker planner. One way- either way or asymmetrical- if a fabric ply is turned round it does not retain the same appearance, especially when two opposite ways are sewn. E.g.- fabrics with a nap or pile which is brushed in one direction fabrics with a surface design which does not run the same way when turned round but where either direction is acceptable. One way only- apply to fabrics with prints pointed in one direction or heavy piles fabrics

FABRIC NAP DIRECTION Fabric Nap Direction is defined as it relates to the direction that the nap (surface) is viewed, or the direction that the fibers in the surface naturally lay.
For printed fabrics, if the pattern in the fabric all appears to point in one direction in the length of the goods, the fabric has an asymmetric nap direction.

For fabric with surface fibers that lay naturally in one Direction. Velvet is an example of this type of fabric and has a distinct nap direction and is Asymmetric. Napped fabrics are normally cut so that the nap runs down the garment, down direction from the top down toward the lower hem. This feels softer, and the fabric tends to pill less and wear better. However, when the nap runs up, the color is richer.

Nap variation in velvet

Short-nap fabrics, such as corduroy and velour, can be cut with the nap running up to achieve a richer, deeper color and a more interesting texture.
Outerwear fabrics with heavy and longer surface fibers, such as fleece and camels hair, should be cut with the nap running down, so the pile is smooth and the garment repels moisture better.

Knit fabrics being a series of loops that point in one direction are technically always Asymmetric.
Although knits should be spread in one direction because they are asymmetric fabrics, most are not. Jersey knit has such small loops, and the fabric is smooth which permits an acceptable appearance in either direction.

2) The requirements of quantity in cuttingFor cutting movement of knife blade is important. A pattern count must be made at completion of the planning of the marker. E.g.- A 12 garment shirt marker, where each garment may have 12 patterns pieces, means a complete marker of 144 pattern pieces. Correct labeling of cut garment parts is essential.

3) The requirements of production planningIn an order normally specifies the quantity of each size & color. The specification is in terms of ratio.-

Scrambling- The mixing of sizes in a marker. Stepped LayE.g.- Required to cut 100 singles of a size 14 & 50 singles of size 12 , all in one color. 2 markers would be made with one having size 12 patterns & other size 14.

50 plies of the fabric would be spread to a length to include both marker, followed on top.
At one end by a further 50 plies of length to fit the size 14 marker. The marker containing size 12 patterns would be placed on top of the 50 plies & 14 on top of 100 plies.

4) Reproduction of the marker on the fabric(i) Diazo photographic method-

Light sensitive papers & the master marker are passed under a high intensity ultra violet light.
The lines & the other markings on the master marker prevent exposure of light sensitive paper which forms the copy & when developed the lines remain visible.

(ii) CAD system Efficiency of the marker planArea of patterns in the marker plan Total area of the marker plan X 100%

Inspection / Quality Control


Inspection in reference to quality control in the apparel industry- as a visual examination or review of raw materials such as fabric, buttons, zippers, trims etc. Inspection is an organized examination or formal evaluation exercise. Different Stages: Pre- production inspection In- process inspection Final inspection Principle- Early detection of defects , feed back of this information to the appropriate person, determination of cause, ultimately resulting in the correction of the problem.

INSPECTION CYCLE

Inspection

Correction of Defects

Define defects

Determine Causes & Remedies


Report to appropriate party

PRE- PRODUCTION INSPECTION


Raw Materials Inspection: Fabric Inspection Sewing Threads Zippers Interlining Fabric store: the capacity of store is about 10000metres the sourcing of fabric is done mainly from

Fabric storageLocation system of storage is followed that is fabric packages are stored in two areas Checked fabric Unchecked fabric

Fabric Inspection
It focuses on defect, color, hand & appearance Fabric inspection before spreading have advantage: Reduced the quality inspection during spreading Concentrate on spreading Cutters productivity increases as defects are already marked. Every yard of fabric is examined as the fabric moves slowly across the lighted inspected table. The machines are designed so that rolls of the fabric can be mounted behind the inspected table under adequate light & rerolled as they leave the table. Either power driven or inspector pulls the fabric. In India carried out on manually either on a slanted table or horizontal table

Fabric Defects1) Shading- is the variation in hue, value or intensity as measured against the standards. Shading may occur side to side, side to middle or end to end in the same roll, between lots for the same style number & color.
All garments in the group must match. 2) Fabric FlawsIncludes knots, stains, broken warps & filling yarns, holes 3) Width variation- is variation in the crosswise dimensions of fabrics because of relaxation, tension laundry or dry cleaning processes. Widths of the fabrics are 36,45,60,72 & 120 inches. Hand woven may be 39 inches. Nowadays, due to modern technology wider widths are woven at lower cost.

4) Bow & skew- are distortion in warp & weft alignment caused by improper tensioning of fabric in weaving or finishing. In bowed fabrics the filling yarns do not remain at right angles to the warp yarns. in skewed fabrics s the warp yarns are not at right angle. Affect the drapability & dimensional stability Cause garment twisting on the body. 5) Shrinkage- is the reduction in the physical dimensions of fabric caused by relaxation of yarns.

FABRIC Grading/INSPECTION SYSTEM


Various fabric inspection systems are: 4- point system 10- point system (i) 4 Point System: Issued by the American Society for Testing & Materials.

Also called- American Manufacturing Association( AAMA) point grading system


The flaws or defects are assigned a point value based on the length of a defect or dimension of a hole. Total number of points are calculated & those fabric rolls containing more than 40 points per 100 square yards are considered seconds.

Size of defect (Length in inches) 3 inches or less Over 3 inches but less than 6 inches Over 6 inches but less than 9 inches

Penalty points 1 2 3

Over 9 inches Holes & openings 1 inch or less Holes & openings Over 1 in.

4 2 4

Total defect points per 100 yd2 are calculated, and normally those fabric rolls more than 40 points per 100 yd2 are considered seconds. 2 defects up to 3 inch 2 X 1 = 2 points 5 defects over 3 in. but less than 6 in. 5 X2 = 10 points 1 defect over 6 in. but les than 9 in. 1 X 3 = 3 points 1 defect over 9 in. 1 X 4 = 4 points Total defect points = 19 So if the acceptance criteria are 40 points per 100 yd2 then this roll is acceptable.

DEFECTS :
1) Running defects Any defect found to repeat or run in continues manner must be assigned 4 point every yard or meter of defect Any roll with more than 3 continuous yards shall be rejected

2) Full Width Defects:

Any roll with a full width defect over 6 shall be rejected Roll not accepted as first quality with more than 4 width defects per 100 linear yards/ mts. Roll not accepted with defects in 1st or last 3 yards

3) Shade Grouping- No roll shall be accepted as first quality that exhibits a noticeable degree of shading 4) Fabric odors- fabric rejected with objectionable odors.

(ii) 10 Point SystemApproved & adopted by the Textile Distributors Institute & National Federation of Textiles. Assigns penalty points to each defect, depending on the length Fabric is first quality if the total penalty do not exceed the total yardage of the piece. Second if total penalty exceed the total yardage of the piece. Penalty Warp Defects 10-36 inches 10 points 5-10 1-5 5 3 Filling Defects Full Width 5-1/2 width 1-5 Penalty 10 points 5 3

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