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Physical Layer

Position of the physical layer

Services

Signals

Generally, the data usable to a person or application are not in a form that can be transmitted over a network. To send data we have to encode to create a stream of 1s and 0s. But even 1s and 0s cannot be sent as such across network links.

They must be further converted to a form that transmission media can accept. Transmission media work by conducting energy along a physical path. So a data stream of 1s and 0s must be turned into energy in the form of electromagnetic signals.

Note:

To be transmitted, data must be transformed to electromagnetic signals.

3.1 Analog and Digital Analog and Digital Data Analog and Digital Signals
Periodic and Aperiodic Signals

Analog And Digital


Analog And Digital Data

Data can be Analog or Digital


# Example of analog data is human voice. # Example of digital data is data stored in the memory of a computer in the form of 0s and 1s.

Analog And Digital


Analog And Digital Signals
Signals can be Analog or Digital
# An analog signal has infinitely many levels of intensity over a period of time. As the wave moves from value A to value B, it passes through and includes an infinite number of values along its path # A digital signal can have only a limited number of defined values, often as simple as 1s and 0s. Figure below shows diagrammatic representation of the concept

Analog And Digital


Periodic and Aperiodic Signals
Both Analog and Digital signals can take one of two forms:
# Periodic signal: It completes a pattern within measurable time frame, called a period, and repeats that pattern over subsequent identical periods. The completion of one full pattern is called a cycle. # Aperiodic signal: It changes without exhibiting a pattern or cycle that repeats over time.

Note: In data communication, we commonly use periodic analog signals and aperiodic digital signals.

3.2 Analog Signals Sine Wave Phase Examples of Sine Waves Time and Frequency Domains Composite Signals Bandwidth

Analog Signals
Sine Wave
The sine wave can be visualized as a simple oscillating curve. Its change over the course of a cycle is smooth and consistent, a continuous, rolling flow. Each cycle consists of a single arc above the time axis followed by a single arc below it. We can mathematically describe a sine wave as:

s(t) = A sin(2ft + )
Where s is the instantaneous amplitude, A the peak amplitude, f the frequency, and the phase.

Analog Signals
Sine Wave
Peak Amplitude

The Peak amplitude of a signal represents the absolute value of its highest intensity, proportional to the energy it carries.

Analog Signals
Sine Wave
Period and Frequency

Period refers to the amount of time, in seconds, a signal needs to complete one cycle.

Frequency refers to the number of periods in one second.


Both are related as follows :

f = 1/T

and

T = 1/f

Note:

Frequency and period are inverses of each other.

Analog Signals
Sine Wave
Period and Frequency

Analog Signals
Sine Wave
Period and Frequency

Units of periods and frequencies


Unit Seconds (s) Equivalent 1s 103 s 106 s 109 s 1012 s Unit hertz (Hz) Equivalent 1 Hz 103 Hz 106 Hz 109 Hz 1012 Hz

Milliseconds (ms)

kilohertz (KHz)

Microseconds (ms) Nanoseconds (ns) Picoseconds (ps)

megahertz (MHz) gigahertz (GHz) terahertz (THz)

Analog Signals
Sine Wave

Example 1

Period and Frequency

Express a period of 100 ms in microseconds, and express the corresponding frequency in kilohertz.

Solution
We calculate the equivalent of 1 ms. We make the following substitutions: 100 ms = 100 10-3 s = 100 10-3 106 ms = 105 ms Now we use the inverse relationship to find the frequency, changing hertz to kilohertz 100 ms = 100 10-3 s = 10-1 s f = 1/10-1 Hz = 10 10-3 KHz = 10-2 KHz

Analog Signals
Sine Wave
Period and Frequency

Note: Frequency is the rate of change with respect to time. Change in a short span of time means high frequency. Change over a long span of time means low frequency. Note:
If a signal does not change at all, its frequency is zero. If a signal changes instantaneously, its frequency is infinite.

Analog Signals

Phase

Phase refers to the position of the waveform relative to time zero.


Phase is measured in degrees or radians [ 3600 is 2 radians ].

A phase shift of 900 corresponds to a shift of one-quarter of a period

A phase shift of 1800 corresponds to a shift of one-half of a period

Note: Phase describes the position of the waveform relative to time zero.

Analog Signals Example 2

Phase

A sine wave is offset one-sixth of a cycle with respect to time zero. What is its phase in degrees and radians?

Solution
We know that one complete cycle is 360 degrees. Therefore, 1/6 cycle is (1/6) 360 = 60 degrees = 60 x 2p /360 rad = 1.046 rad

Analog Signals

Sine wave examples

Analog Signals

Time and Frequency Domains

As we know that a sine wave is comprehensively defined by its amplitude, frequency, and phase. It can be represented in two ways : Time-Domain plot: It shows changes in signal amplitude with respect to time (it is an amplitude vs. time plot). Phase and frequency are not explicitly measured on a time domain plot. Frequency-Domain plot: It shows relationship b/w amplitude and frequency. It gives peak amplitude with respect to frequency.

Note: An analog signal is best represented in the frequency domain.

Analog Signals

Time and Frequency Domains


Examples

Analog Signals

Composite Signals

Simple sine waves is useless for data communication. If we sent one single sine wave to convey data, we would always be sending alternating 1s and 0s, which does not have any communication value. To use for communication, we need to change one or more of its characteristics. However we need to keep in mind that now it is no longer a simple sine wave. Instead it is a composite signal made of many simple sine waves. A mere change in the amplitude, frequency or phase creates a new set of frequencies; more change means more new frequencies.

Analog Signals

Composite Signals

Note: A single-frequency sine wave is not useful in data communications; we need to change one or more of its characteristics to make it useful.
Note: When we change one or more characteristics of a single-frequency signal, it becomes a composite signal made of many frequencies.

Analog Signals

Composite Signals

Fourier Analysis Any composite signal is a sum of a set of sine waves of different frequencies, phase and amplitudes. In other words, we can write a composite signal as:

s(t)=A1sin(2f1t + 1)+A2sin(2f2t + 2)+A3sin(2f3t + 3)+......


In other words, we have a series of sine waves with frequencies f1 , f2 , f3 and so on. The term with frequency f1 is dominant and is called fundamental frequency. The term with frequency f1 is called first harmonic, the term with frequency f2 is called second harmonic, and so on.

Note:
According to Fourier analysis, any composite signal can be represented as a combination of simple sine waves with different frequencies, phases, and amplitudes.

Analog Signals

Composite Signals
Fourier Analysis - Example
with peak amplitude of A and a

Let us consider the square wave frequency of f (period T).

According to Fourier analysis, this signal can be decomposed into a series of sine waves as depicted below:

Therefore we have a series of sine waves with frequencies f, 3f, 5f, 7f, and amplitudes 4A/, 4A/3, 4A/5, 4A/7, and so on. The term with frequency f is called fundamental frequency. The term with frequency 3f is called third harmonic and so on. Let us try to reconstruct this square wave from the sum of the series of sine waves.

Analog Signals

Composite Signals
Fourier Analysis - Example

The above figure shows the three harmonics relative to each other. Let us sum up these three harmonics to reconstruct a new wave which we expect to be like square wave

Analog Signals

Composite Signals

Frequency Spectrum

The description of a signal using the frequency domain and containing all its components is called the frequency spectrum of that signal. Diagram below shows the frequency spectrum of a square wave and the frequency spectrum of a signal which is very close to a square wave with only three harmonics.

Analog Signals

Composite Signals

Frequency Spectrum

This is for those who are following Tanenbaum book. Here same concept is being followed but in different way. Here Root Mean Square Amplitude is depicted on the frequency spectrum.

Analog Signals

Bandwidth

Each medium has its own characteristics. Each medium passes some frequencies, weakens others and blocks still others. The range of frequencies that a medium can pass is called its bandwidth. Because no medium can pass or block all frequencies, the bandwidth normally refers to the range of frequencies that a medium can pass without losing onehalf of the power contained in that signal.

Note: The bandwidth is a property of a medium: It is the difference between the highest and the lowest frequencies that the medium can satisfactorily pass.

Analog Signals

Bandwidth

Example

The Example below depicts the range of frequencies a medium can pass and the relative amplitude of the frequencies passed.

Analog Signals

Bandwidth

Example

Example 3 If a periodic signal is decomposed into five sine waves with frequencies of 100, 300, 500, 700, and 900 Hz, what is the bandwidth? Draw the spectrum, assuming all components have a maximum amplitude of 10 V.

Solution B = fh - fl = 900 - 100 = 800 Hz The spectrum has only five spikes, at 100, 300, 500, 700, and 900

Analog Signals
Example 4

Bandwidth

Example

A signal has a bandwidth of 20 Hz. The highest frequency is 60 Hz. What is the lowest frequency? Draw the spectrum if the signal contains all integral frequencies of the same amplitude.

Solution B = fh - fl 20 = 60 - fl fl = 60 - 20 = 40 Hz

Analog Signals Example 5

Bandwidth

Example

A signal has a spectrum with frequencies between 1000 and 2000 Hz (bandwidth of 1000 Hz). A medium can pass frequencies from 3000 to 4000 Hz (a bandwidth of 1000 Hz). Can this signal faithfully pass through this medium?

Solution
The answer is definitely no. Although the signal can have the same bandwidth (1000 Hz), the range does not overlap. The medium can only pass the frequencies between 3000 and 4000 Hz; the signal is totally lost.

3.3 Digital Signals Bit Interval and Bit Rate As a Composite Analog Signal Through Wide-Bandwidth Medium Through Band-Limited Medium Versus Analog Bandwidth Higher Bit Rate

Digital Signals
This is a digital signal. Here 1 is encoded as positive voltage and a 0 as zero voltage.

Digital Signals

Bit Interval and Bit Rate

Because most digital signals are non periodic, therefore period or frequency is irrelevant. Therefore we use:
-bit interval (instead of period) -bit rate (instead of frequency)

Bit Interval is the time required to send one single bit.


Bit Rate is the number of bit intervals per second. Therefore it is usually expressed in bits per second (bps).

Digital Signals Example 6

Bit Interval and Bit Rate

A digital signal has a bit rate of 2000 bps. What is the duration of each bit (bit interval)

Solution
The bit interval is the inverse of the bit rate.

Bit interval = 1/ 2000 s = 0.000500 s = 0.000500 x 106 s = 500 s

Digital Signals

Digital versus Analog

Digital Bandwidth

Digital Bandwidth (bps) : It is the maximum bit rate that a medium can pass.
Remember : If we are sending analog data through a medium, we are concerned with analog bandwidth (expressed in Hertz); If we are sending digital data through a medium, we are concerned with digital bandwidth (expressed in Bits per Second). So therefore they represent the same property of a medium, but in different scales and units. Let us see an example :

So therefore More changes means higher frequency.

3.4 Analog versus Digital

Low-pass, Band-pass and High-pass

Digital and Analog Transmission

Analog versus Digital

Low-pass, Band-pass and High-pass

A channel or link can be low-pass, band-pass or high-pass. A low-pass channel has a bandwidth with frequencies between 0 and f. The lower limit is 0, upper limit can be any frequency (including infinity). A band-pass channel has a bandwidth with frequencies between f1 and f2. A high-pass channel has a bandwidth with frequencies above f1.

Analog versus Digital

Digital and Analog Transmission

A digital signal theoretically needs a bandwidth between 0 and infinity (Think why ?). The lower limit is fixed ; the upper limit (infinity) can be relaxed if we lower our standards by accepting a limited number of harmonics. This means we need a bandwidth between 0 and f (low-pass)

for digital transmission.

An analog signal normally needs a narrower bandwidth than a digital signal with frequencies between f1 and f2. This means we need a

bandwidth between f1 and f2 (band-pass) for analog transmission.

Key-point here to note is that we can always shift a signal with a bandwidth from f1 to f2 to a signal with a bandwidth from f3 to f4 as long as the width of the bandwidth remains the same.

3.5 Data Rate Limit

Noiseless Channel: Nyquist Bit Rate Noisy Channel: Shannon Capacity

Using Both Limits

Data Rate Limits


Question : How fast we can send data, in bits per second, over a channel ? Answer : Data rate depends on three factors : 1. The bandwidth available 2. The levels of signals we can use 3. The quality of the channel (the level of the noise) There are two theoretical formulas were developed to calculate the data rate ; one by Nyquist for a noiseless channel, another by Shannon for a noisy channel.

Data Rate Limits Noiseless Channel: Nyquist Bit Rate


For a noiseless channel, Nyquist bit rate formula defines the theoretical maximum bit rate :

Bit Rate = 2 X Bandwidth X log2L


Here Bandwidth is the bandwidth of the channel, L is the number of signal levels used to represent data, and Bit Rate is the bit rate in bits per second.

Data Rate Limits Noiseless Channel: Nyquist Bit Rate Example 7


Consider a noiseless channel with a bandwidth of 3000 Hz transmitting a signal with two signal levels. The maximum bit rate can be calculated as

Solution
Bit Rate = 2 X 3000 X log2 2 = 6000 bps

Data Rate Limits Noiseless Channel: Nyquist Bit Rate Example 8


Consider the same noiseless channel, transmitting a signal with four signal levels (for each level, we send two bits). The maximum bit rate can be calculated as:

Example 7
Bit Rate = 2 x 3000 x log2 4 = 12,000 bps

Data Rate Limits Noisy Channel: Shannan Capacity


For a noisy channel, Shannon formula (Shannon Capacity) is used to determine the theoretical highest data rate :

Capacity = Bandwidth X log2(1 + SNR)


Here Bandwidth is the bandwidth of the channel, SNR is the signal-to-noise ratio, and Capacity is the capacity of the channel in bits per second. The signal-to-noise ratio is the statistical ratio of the power of the signal to the power of the noise., and Capacity is the capacity of the channel in bits per second. Note: There is no indication of the signal level, which means that no matter how many levels we use, we cannot achieve a data rate higher that the capacity of the channel. In other words, the formula defines a characteristics of the channel, not the method of transmission.

Data Rate Limits Noisy Channel: Shannon Capacity Example 9


Consider an extremely noisy channel in which the value of the signal-to-noise ratio is almost zero. In other words, the noise is so strong that the signal is faint. For this channel the capacity is calculated as

Solution
C = B log2 (1 + SNR) = B log2 (1 + 0)
= B log2 (1) = B 0 = 0

Data Rate Limits Noisy Channel: Shannon Capacity Example 10


We can calculate the theoretical highest bit rate of a regular telephone line. A telephone line normally has a bandwidth of 3000 Hz (300 Hz to 3300 Hz). The signalto-noise ratio is usually 3162. For this channel the capacity is calculated as

Solution
C = B log2 (1 + SNR) = 3000 log2 (1 + 3162) = 3000 log2 (3163) C = 3000 11.62 = 34,860 bps

Data Rate Limits Using both: Nyquist Bit Rate & Shannon Capacity Example 11
We have a channel with a 1 MHz bandwidth. The SNR for this channel is 63; what is the appropriate bit rate and signal level?

Solution
First, we use the Shannon formula to find our upper limit.
C = B log2 (1 + SNR) = 106 log2 (1 + 63) = 106 log2 (64) = 6 Mbps

6 Mbps is upper limit, For better performance we choose something lower, for example 4 Mbps. Then we use the Nyquist formula to find the number of signal levels.
4 Mbps = 2 X 1 MHz X log2 L L = 4

3.6 Transmission Impairment

Attenuation

Distortion Noise

Transmission Impairment

Impairment types

Transmission Impairment

Attenuation

Attenuation means loss of energy. When a signal, simple or composite, travels through a medium, it loses some of its energy to overcome the resistance of the medium. To compensate for this loss, amplifiers are used to amplify the signal. Figure below shows the effect of attenuation and amplification.

Transmission Impairment
dB = 10 log10(P2/P1)

Attenuation Decibel

The decibel (db) measures the relative strengths of two signals or a signal at two different points.

Where P1 and P2 are the powers of a signal at point 1 and 2 respectively.

Example 12
Imagine a signal travels through a transmission medium and its power is reduced to half. This means that P2 = 1/2 P1. In this case, the attenuation (loss of power) can be calculated as?

Solution
10 log10 (P2/P1) = 10 log10 (0.5P1/P1) = 10 log10 (0.5) = 10(0.3) = 3 dB

Transmission Impairment Example 13

Attenuation Decibel

Imagine a signal travels through an amplifier and its power is increased ten times. This means that P2 = 10 P1. In this case, the amplification (gain of power) can be calculated as

Solution
10 log10 (P2/P1) = 10 log10 (10P1/P1)

= 10 log10 (10) = 10 (1) = 10 dB

Transmission Impairment

Attenuation Decibel

One reason that engineers use the decibel to measure the changes in the strength of a signal is that decibel numbers can be added (or subtracted) when we are talking about several points instead of just two (cascading).

dB = 3 + 7 3 = +1 , means signal has gained power.

Transmission Impairment

Distortion

Distortion means that the signal changes its form or shape. Distortion occurs in a composite signal, made of different frequencies. Each signal component has its own propagation speed through a medium and, therefore, its own delay in arriving at the final destination.

Transmission Impairment

Noise

Several types of Noise such as thermal, induced, crosstalk, and impulse noise may corrupt the signal.
Thermal Noise: It is the random motion of electrons in a wire which creates an extra signal not originally sent by the transmitter. Induced Noise: It comes from sources such as motors and appliances. These devices act as a sending antenna and transmission medium acts as the receiving antenna. Crosstalk: It is the effect of one wire on the other. Impulse Noise: It is a spike ( a signal with high energy in a very short period of time) that comes from power lines, lightening etc.

3.7 More About Signals


Throughput Propagation Speed Propagation Time Wavelength

More About Signals Throughput


The throughput is the measurement of how fast data can pass through an entity (such as a point or network). In other words, if we consider this entity as a wall through which bits pass, throughput is the number of bits that can pass this wall in one second

More About Signals Propagation Speed


Propagation speed measures the distance a signal or bit can travel through a medium in one second. The propagation speed of electromagnetic signals depends on the medium and on the frequency of the signal. For example, in a vacuum, light is propagated with a speed of 3 X 108 m/s. It is lower in air and much lower in a cable.

More About Signals Propagation time


Propagation Time measures the time required for a signal or a bit to travel from one point of the transmission medium to another. The propagation time is calculated by dividing the distance by propagation speed. Propagation time = Distance/Propagation speed

More About Signals Wavelength


Wavelength is the distance a simple signal can travel in one period.