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Internet

by Maria Elena Y. Timbang

The Internet
What are some services found on the Internet?

The Internet
How did the Internet originate?

Goal: To allow scientists and militar! at different locations to s"are information

Became functional September 1969 ARPAN T

Goal: To function if part of network were disabled

Evolution of the Internet


Has its roots in a networking project started by the Pentagons Advanced Research Project Agency (ARPA) ARPA is an agency o! the "# $ept o! $e!ense

ARPAs goals
Build a network that !"Allowed scientists at different #h$sical locations to share information and work together on militar$ and scientific #ro%ects &"'ould function even if #art of the network were disa(led or destro$ed ($ disaster such as a nuclear attack

ARPA)ET
* )etwork esta(lished ($ the agenc$ * Became functional in +e#t" !,-, * .inked scientific and academic researchers across the /+" * 'onsisted of 0 main com#uters located at /'.A1 /'+B1 +tanford Research Institute1 and /niversit$ of /tah * Each com#uter served as a host on the network
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Host
* 'ommonl$ known toda$ as a server * It is an$ com#uter that #rovides services and connections to the other com#uters on a network" * 2ften use high3s#eed communications to transfer data and messages over a network

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The Internet
How has the Internet grown?
Toda! #ore t"an $$% million computer linked "osts 19&' #ore t"an 1(%%% "osts 1969 )*our+ "osts

The Internet
Who controls the Internet?

No one 6 it is a public( cooperati2e( and independent network Se2eral or3ani7ations set standards .,/-( 8-ANN( etc0
c c

,orld ,ide ,eb -onsortium .,/-0


12ersees researc"( sets standards and 3uidelines Tim Berners45ee

How the Internet Works


How can $ou connect to the Internet?
Slow4speed Slow4speed tec"nolo3! tec"nolo3!
:ial4up :ial4upaccess access modem in modem inyour your computer uses computer usesaa standard standardtelephone telephoneline line to connect to the Internet to connect to the Internet
-onnection -onnectionmust mustbe beestablis"ed establis"ed eac" time !ou lo3 eac" time !ou lo3on; on; Slow but ine<pensi2e Slow but ine<pensi2e

9i3"4speed 9i3"4speed connection connection


$#+ 1 1cab,e 11 $#+ cab,e-ode-ode!i.ed 1 1/i01i2 !i.edwire,ess wire,ess /i01i2/i3A42 /i3A42 and andsate,,ite sate,,ite-ode-s -ode-s

-onnection -onnectionis isalwa!s alwa!son6 on6 w"ene2er t"e computer w"ene2er t"e computer is isrunnin3 runnin3

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E4am#les of Broad(and Internet +ervice * 'a(le Internet service 5 #rovides high3 s#eed Internet access through ca(le television network via a ca(le modem" * 6+. 7digital su(scri(er line8 5 #rovides high3s#eed Internet connections using regular co##er tele#hone lines" * 9i(er to the Premises 79TTP8 5 uses fi(er o#tic ca(le to #rovide high3s#eed Internet access to home and (usiness users"
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E4am#les of Broad(and Internet +ervice * 9i4ed wireless 5 #rovides high3s#eed Internet connections using a dish3sha#ed antenna on $our house or (usiness to communicate with a tower location via radio signals"

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E4am#les of Broad(and Internet +ervice * 'ellular radio network 5 offers high s#eed Internet connections to devices with (uilt3 in com#ati(le technolog$ or com#uters with wireless modems

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E4am#les of Broad(and Internet +ervice * Wi39i 7wireless fidelit$8 network 5 uses radio signals to #rovide high3s#eed Internet connections to com#ati(le or #ro#erl$ e:ui##ed wireless com#uters and devices" * +atellite Internet service 5 #rovides high3 s#eed Internet connections via satellite to a satellite dish that communicates with a satellite modem"
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How the Internet Works


What are wa$s to access the Internet?
1; =; /;

8SP( re3ional or national 1SP .A15 and #SN( for e<ample0 ,ireless 8nternet Ser2ice Pro2ider

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Access Provider
* A (usiness that #rovides individuals and organi;ations access to the Internet free or for a fee"

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'ategories of Access Providers


* I+P 7Internet service #rovider8 5 is a regional or national access #rovider" A regional I+P #rovides Internet access to a s#ecific geogra#hic area" A national I+P #rovides Internet access in cities and towns nationwide" E4am#le of national I+Ps are AT<T and Earth.ink1 +k$ Internet1 =osaic 'ommunications1 Inc1 Infocom1 etc"
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'ategories of Access Providers


* 2+P 7online service #rovider8 5 #rovides Internet access and has man$ mem(ers3 onl$ features such as instant messaging or their own customi;ed version of a We( (rowser" * =ost #o#ular 333 A2. 7American 2nline81 =+) 7=icrosoft )etwork8

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'ategories of Access Providers


* WI+P 7wireless Internet service #rovider8 5 #rovides wireless Internet access to deskto# and note(ook com#uters and mo(ile devices or to com#uters using wireless modems 7in the form of /+B flash drive or a card that inserts in a slot in a com#uter or mo(ile device"

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'ategories of Access Providers


* AT<T1Boingo Wireless1 +#rint Broad(and 6irect1 T3=o(ile1 >eri;on Wireless1 Tatoo Pre#aid +tick1 +mart 'ommunications1 Air(orne Access

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Internet Address
* IP address 7Internet Protocol address8 5 is a num(er that uni:uel$ identifies each com#uter or device connected to the Internet" * 'onsists of four grou#s of num(ers se#arated ($ a #eriod"

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Internet Address
* The num(er in each grou# is (etween ? and &@@" * E4am#le A&"!0"&?A",, are an IP address 9irst #ortion 5 identifies the network .ast #ortion identifies the s#ecific com#uter

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6omain name
* Te4t version of an IP address since all3 numeric IP address are difficult to remem(er and use" E4" IP address 333333 A&"!0"&?A",, 6omain name 33333 www"google"com
to# level domain

* Ever$ domain name contains a to#3level domain 7T.68 which is the last section of the domain name" It identifies the t$#e of organi;ation associated with the domain"
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The World Wide We(


,"at is t"e ,orld ,ide ,eb .,,,0>

A worldwide collection of electronic documents


Also called the /eb

Each electronic document is called a /eb page

'an contain te4t1 gra#hics1 audio1 video1 and (uilt3in connections

A /eb site is a collection of related We( #ages


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The World Wide We(


What is a We( (rowser?

Pro3ram t"at allows !ou to 2iew ,eb pa3es


MS Internet Explorer Opera Firefox 2/3

Chrome

Safari (Apple) Sea Monkey Avant Netscape 2&

The World Wide We(


How does a We( (rowser dis#la$ a home #age?
#tep 2
Web browser looks up the home page setting

#tep 3 #tep 1
Click the Web browser program name The Web browser communicates with the access providers server to retrieve the IP address. The IP address is sent to your computer.

#tep 4
The home page displays in the Web browser

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The World Wide We(


What is a home #age?

T"e first pa3e t"at a ,eb site displa!s 1ften pro2ides connections to ot"er ,eb pa3es T"e process of a computer recei2in3 information :ependin3 upon connection speed( downloadin3 can take from a few seconds to se2eral minutes T"e top of t"e browser displa!s a tab for eac" ,eb pa3e !ou open
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,"at is downloadin3>

,"at is tabbed browsin3>

The World Wide We(


What is a /R.? 7/niformB/niversal Resource .ocator
?ni@ue address for a ,eb pa3e
A web server delivers the Web page to your computer

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The World Wide We(


What is a h$#erlink 7link8?

Built4in connection to anot"er related ,eb pa3e


Item found elsewhere on same Web page ifferent Web page at same Web site Web page at a different Web site

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The World Wide We(


How can $ou recogni;e links?

Pointer c"an3es to a small "and w"en !ou point to a link A link can be te<t or an ima3e Te<t links are usuall! underlined and in a different color

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The World Wide We(


What is a search engine?

Pro3ram used to find ,eb sites and ,eb pa3es b! enterin3 words or p"rases called searc" te<t A /B;com See also:
http://www.thesearchenginelist.com/

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The World Wide We(


What is a su(%ect director$? 7CahooD8

Searc" tool wit" or3ani7ed set of topics and subtopics

5ets !ou find information b! clickin3 links rat"er t"an enterin3 ke!words

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The World Wide We(


What is a hit?

An! ,eb site name t"at is listed as t"e result of a searc"

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The World Wide We(


What are the thirteen (asic t$#es of We( sites?

Porta,

)ews

Informational

BusinessB =arketing

Educational Entertainment

Advocac$

Blog

Wiki

+ocial 'ontent )etwork Aggregator

Personal

We( A##

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The World Wide We(


What are the guidelines for evaluating the value of a We( site?
Affiliation Audience Authorit$ 'ontent

'urrenc$

6esign

2(%ectivit$

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The World Wide We(


What is multimedia?

Application inte3ratin3 te<t wit" ot"er media elements


Grap"ics Animation Audio Cideo Cirtual realit! Plu34ins

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The World Wide We(


What is a thum(nail?

Small 2ersion of a lar3er 3rap"ic ima3e6used to impro2e ,eb pa3e displa! time
!sually click on thumbnail to display larger image

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The World Wide We(


What is animation?

Appearance of motion created b! displa!in3 a series of still ima3es in se@uence

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The World Wide We(


What is audio?

#usic( speec"( or an! ot"er sound 8ndi2idual compressed sound files t"at !ou download from t"e ,eb to !our computer 1nce downloaded( !ou can pla! .listen to0 t"e contents of t"e files A podcast is recorded audio.D2ideo0( usuall! an #P/D' file( stored on a ,eb site t"at can be downloaded to a computer or a portable media pla!er

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The World Wide We(


What is streaming audio?

Transfers data in a Econtinuous and e2enF flow nables !ou to listen to t"e sound as it downloads to !our computer

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The World Wide We(


What is streaming video?

-onsists of full4motion ima3es( most wit" sound( pla!ed back at 2arious speeds #P G .#o2in3 Pictures <perts Group0 is popular 2ideo compression standard

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The World Wide We(


What is virtual realit$ 7>R8?

?se of computers to simulate a real or ima3ined en2ironment Appears as a t"ree dimensional ./4:0 space
!sed for games and many practical applications

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The World Wide We(


What are #lug3ins?

Pro3rams t"at e<tend t"e capabilit! of a browser Gou can download man! plu34ins at no cost from 2arious ,eb sites

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We( Pu(lishing
What is We( #u(lishing?

:e2elopment and maintenance of ,eb pa3es


#tep 2 #tep 1
Plan the Web site Analy"e and design the Web site

#tep 3
Create the Web site

#tep %
#aintain the Web site

#tep 4
eploy the Web site

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E3'ommerce
What is E-Commerce?

S"ort for electronic commerce Business transaction t"at occurs o2er t"e 8nternet
Business to -onsumer .B=-0
Sale of 3oods to 3eneral public

-onsumer to -onsumer .-=-0


1ne consumer sells directl! to anot"er

Client Customer

Business to Business .B=B0


Business pro2idin3 3oods and ser2ices to ot"er businesses

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2ther Internet +ervices


What is e3mail?

S"ort for electronic mail T"e transmission of messa3es and files 2ia a computer network
#essages can consist of simple te$t or can contain attachments% such as documents% graphics% or audio&video clips Internet access providers usually provide an e4mail pro3ram

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2ther Internet +ervices


What is an e3mail address?

Name t"at consists of a user name and domain name t"at identifies t"e user )Plus H +

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2ther Internet +ervices


How does an e3mail message travel?
#tep 1
!sing e'mail software% you create and send message

#tep 2
(our software contacts software on your service providers outgoing mail server

#tep 4
When recipient uses e'mail software to check for e'mail messages% the message transfers from incoming mail server to recipients computer

#tep 3
)oftware on outgoing mail server determines best route for data and sends message% which travels along Internet routers to recipients incoming mail server

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2ther Internet +ervices


What is 9TP?

*ile Transfer Protocol68nternet standard t"at permits !ou to upload and download files wit" ot"er computers on t"e 8nternet

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2ther Internet +ervices


What are newsgrou#s and message (oards?

News3roup
*nline area where users discuss a particular sub+ect

3essage board T$#e of discussion grou# #any Web sites use message boards because they are easier to use

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2ther Internet +ervices


What is a mailing list?

Group of e4mail names and addresses 3i2en a sin3le name ,"en a messa3e is sent to t"e mailin3 list( e2er!one on t"e list recei2es t"e messa3e To add !our name to a mailin3 list !ou must subscribe to itI to remo2e !our name !ou must unsubscribe Sometimes called a 5istSer2 #ana3er DAdministrator sometimes called a Major Domo

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2ther Internet +ervices


What is a chat?

Real4time t!ped con2ersation t"at takes place on a computer


-"at room is a location on an 8nternet ser2er t"at permits users to discuss topics of interest

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2ther Internet +ervices


What is instant messaging 7I=8?

A real4time 8nternet communications ser2ice t"at notifies !ou w"en one or more people are online and allows !ou to e<c"an3e messa3es or files

LIKE?

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2ther Internet +ervices


What is internet tele#hon$? E>oIPF
nables users to speak to ot"er users o2er t"e 8nternet usin3 t"eir computer

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)eti:uette
What is neti:uette?

-ode of acceptable be"a2iors users s"ould follow w"ile on t"e 8nternet

Golden Rule: Treat ot"ers as !ou would like t"em to treat !ou;

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