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Fundamentals of Lubrication

INDIAN OIL CORPORATION LTD

ASPERITIES

INDIAN OIL CORPORATION LIMITED

Types of lubrication

BOUNDARY LUBRICATION
ELASTO HYDRODYNAMIC LUBRICATION HYDRODYNAMIC LUBRICATION

MIXED FILM LUBRICATION

Boundary Lubrication

HIGH ADHESIVENESS HIGH FILM STRENGTH

HIGH LUBRICITY OR OILINESS PROPER VISCOSITY OR CONSISTENCY

Fluid Film Lubrication

Excellent chemical stability Ability to separate from water , dust and other contaminants Reasonable degree of lubricity, adhesiveness and film strength

Mixed Film Lubrication

Elasto - Hydrodynamic Lubrication

LUBRICANT

Lubricant can be defined as any material, when interposed between


two surfaces in rubbing contact, is capable of reducing friction.

LUBRICANT = BASE OIL + ADDITIVE

ADDITIVES
Lubricant Additive can be defined as any speciality chemical which when blended into a base oil, imparts or modifies its properties.
- Careful balance of both base oils and the performance enhancing additives goes in designing a lubricant which is a complex and complicated task.

FORMULATOR IS A WIZARD OF CHEMISTRY

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INDIAN OIL CORPORATION LIMITED

Correct lubrication is
RIGHT LUBRICANT RIGHT PLACE

RIGHT TIME
& IN RIGHT MANNER
What are the other functions of lubricants ???

FUNCTIONS OF LUBRICANTS

Friction & wear control

Contaminant control

Corrosion control
Heat transfer Conserves Energy

LUBE OIL
Anticorrosion Antioxidant Antifoam

Anti-wear Detergents & Dispersants

BASE OIL

VI Improvers

PPDs
Demulsibility

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INDIAN OIL CORPORATION LIMITED

CLASSIFICATION OF LUBRICATING OILS


CRANKCASE OILS
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

SAE ENGINE OIL CLASSIFICATIONS API ENGINE SERVICE CLASSIFICATIONS ILSAC ENGINE OIL CLASSIFICATION CCMC CLASSIFICATION ACEA CLASSIFICATION US MILITARY SPECIFICATIONS IS SPECIFICSATIONS

GEAR OILS
1. 2. 3.

4.
5.

SAE GEAR OIL CLASSIFICATION API SERVICE DESIGNATION U.S MILITARY DESIGNATION UK DEFENCE SPECIFICATIONS IS SPECIFICATIONS

ENGINE OILS
SAE VISCOSITY GRADES CLASSIFICATION SAE VISCOSITY LOW TEMP (deg. C) BORDERLINE KIN. VISCOSITY PUMPING TEMP (deg C) at 100 deg C MIN MAX

GRADE 0W 5W 10W 15W 20W 25W 20 30 40 50 60

VISCOSITY (cP) MAX

3250 at ( - ) 30 3500 at ( - ) 25 3500 at ( - ) 20 3500 at ( - ) 15 4500 at ( - ) 10 6000 at ( - ) 5 -

( - ) 35 ( - ) 30 ( - ) 25 ( - ) 20 ( - ) 15 ( - ) 10 -

3.8 3.8 4.1 5.6 5.6 9.3 5.6 9.3 12.5 16.3 21.9

< 9.3 < 12.5 < 16.3 < 21.9 < 26.1

GEAR OILS
SAE CLASSIFICATIONS
SAE VISCOSITY MIN TEMP (deg C) VISCOSITY at 100 deg C GRADE FOR VISCOSITY OF (cSts) 150 cP MIN MAX

70W 75W 80W 85W 90 140 250

( - ) 55 ( - ) 40 ( - ) 26 ( - ) 12 -

4.1 4.1 7.0 11.0 13.5 24.0 41.0

24 41 -

GEAR OIL
API SERVICE CLASSIFICATION
CLASSIFICATION

TYPE STRAIGHT MINERAL OIL

APPLICATION AUTOMOTIVE MANUAL TRANSMISSION (TRACTORS & TRUCKS)

SERVO' GRADES

GL-1

SERVO GEAR SM

GL-2

CONTAINS FATTY MATERIALS

WORM GEAR DRIVES INDUSTRIAL GEAR OIL

GL-3

CONTAINS MILD EP ADDITIVES

SPIRAL BEVEL GEARS 9NOT WIDELY USED)

GL- 4

MIL - L- 2105 SPEC


50 % OF GL5 ADDITIVE LEVEL

SPIRAL BEVELS & HYPOID GEARS UNDER MODERATE CONDS

SERVO GEAR HP SERIES

GL - 5

MIL - L- 2105D SPEC RECOMMENDATION FOR MOST PASSENGER CARS AND TRUCK BUILDERS
MODERATE AND SEVERE CONDITIONS

SERVO GEAR SUPER SERIES

GL-6

TECHNICALLY OBSOLETE FOR SERVICE CONDITIONS REQUIRING


MORE ANTI-SCORING PROTECTION THAN PROVIDED BY GL-5

INDUSTRIAL OILS
International Organisation for Standards Viscosity grade

ISOVG CLASSIFICATIONS

INDUSTRIAL OILS
ISOVG CLASSIFICATIONS
ISO GRADE VISCOSITY (cSts) RANGE AT 40 deg C ISO VISCOSITY (cSts)

GRADE RANGE AT 40 deg C

2 3 5 7 10 15 22 32 46

1.98 -2.42 2.88 - 3.52 4.14 - 5.06 6.12 - 7.48 9.00 - 11.0 13.5 - 16.5 19.8 - 24.2 28.8 - 35.2 41.4 - 50.6

68 100 150 220 320 460 680 1000 1500

61.2 - 74.8 90 - 110 135 - 165 198 - 242 288 - 352 414 - 506 612 - 748 900 - 1100 1350 - 1650

CLASSIFICATION OF GREASES
BASED ON CONSISTANCY ( NLGI NO)

NLGI GRADE 000 00 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

ASTM PENITRATION 60 STROKES 445 - 475 400 - 430 355 - 385 310 - 340 265 - 295 220 - 250 175 - 205 130 - 160 085 - 115

AS NLGI GRADE DECREASES, GREASE WILL BE SOFTER

DIFFERENT OILS
AUTOMOTIVE OILS INDUSTRIAL OILS SPECIALITY OILS GREASES TRANSFORMER OILS

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INDIAN OIL CORPORATION LIMITED

OILS BEING USED


ENGINEOIL-CF4/ CH4 HYDRAULICOILS -SYSTEM OILS RAILROAD OILS AUTO-HYDRAULIC OILS- ULTRA SERIES GEAR OILS- MESH , SYNTHETIC, MESH PLUS TURBINE OILS- PRIME SERIES
INDIAN OIL CORPORATION LIMITED

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OILS BEING USED

GREASES GEM SERIES GENERAL MCHINERY-LUBREX 22 FIRERESISTANT-HFB68/ HFDU68

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INDIAN OIL CORPORATION LIMITED

FUNCTIONS OF ENGINE OIL


REDUCE FRICTIONAL RESISTANCE PROTECT AGAINST CORROSION & WEAR ASSIST SEALING ACT AS A COOLANT KEEP THE SLUDGE IN SUSPENSION

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ENGINE PARTS LUBRICATED


main bearings connecting rod bearings cylinders, pistons and rings camshaft bearings cams and valve tappets timing gears valve gears
INDIAN OIL CORPORATION LIMITED

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ENGINE LUBRICATION SYSTEM


one or more oil pumps outlet relief valves internal and external ducts for conveying the oil under pressure to the points requiring lubrication. oil filteration system oil cooling system

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INDIAN OIL CORPORATION LIMITED

Engine Principles and Layout


Rocker Arm Valve Push Rod Valve Lifter Camshaft

Cams

Timing Gears

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INDIAN OIL CORPORATION LIMITED

APR1 19

Engines and Lubrication


Approximate Temperature of Internal Surfaces
Area of the Engine Temperature Range (OC)

Exhaust Valve Head Exhaust Valve Stem Combustion Chamber Gases Combustion Chamber Wall Piston Crown Piston Rings Piston (Wrist) Pin Piston Skirt Top Cylinder Wall Bottom Cylinder Wall Main Bearings Connecting Rod Bearings

650-730 635-675 2300-2500 204-260 204-426 149-315 120-230 93-204 93-371 Up to 149 Up to 177 93-204

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INDIAN OIL CORPORATION LIMITED

ENGINE LUBRICATION MECHANISM

thick film lubrication (bearings) mixed film lubrication (piston skirt) boundary lubrication (top ring zone area)

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INDIAN OIL CORPORATION LIMITED

Performance Categories
API Performance Categories for Diesel Engine Oils
Category CI-4
Heavy Duty CH-4 CG-4 CF-4 CF-2 CF

Service Definition 2002 Low Emission, Four Stroke Engine with EGR and Low Sulfur Fuel 1998 Low Emission, Four Stroke Engine Both High and Low Sulfur Fuel 1994 Low Emission, Four-Stroke Engines Using 0.05% Sulfur Fuel 1991 Low Emission Engines Severe Duty Two-Stroke Cycle Engines Turbocharged Engines or High Sulfur Fuel
1983 and Later Turbocharged Engines Two-Stroke Cycle Engines Turbocharged Engines or High Sulfur Fuel Moderate Duty - Diesel and Gasoline Moderate Duty or High Sulfur Fuel Light Duty, Low Sulfur Fuel
HD4 2

Obsolete

CE CD-II CD CC CB CA

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12-19-01

INDIAN OIL CORPORATION LIMITED

Performance Categories
Relative Performance of Each API Category
Used Oil Viscometrics Oxidation Oil Aeration

Sludge

Shear Stability

Ring and Liner Wear

Filter Plugging

Oil Consumption

CI-4 CH-4 CG-4 CF-4 CF

Piston Deposits

Valvetrain Wear

Corrosion

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Soot Thickening INDIAN OIL CORPORATION


LIMITED
HD4 379

12-19-01

SERVO DIESEL ENGINE OILS


Servo Pride 30 / 40 Servo Pride Super 15W40 Servo Premium CF4 15W40 Servo Pride XL( CH4) 15W40 Servo Pride Supreme ( CI4) 15W40

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INDIAN OIL CORPORATION LIMITED

SYSTEM OILS

USAGE OF SYSTEM HLP OILS SUPERIOR IN OXIDATION LEVELS GROUP- II BASED OILS LONGER LIFE OILS REDUCTION OF GRADES AND INTER MIXING BETTER DEMULSIBILTY CHARACTERS
INDIAN OIL CORPORATION LIMITED

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ADVANTAGES OF RR606 MG

CYLINDER LINER WEAR REDUCED BY 13.3% PISTON RING WEAR REDUCED BY 7% CONNECTING ROD BEARING WEIGHTLOSSIS IS 44% LOWER CARBON DEPOSIT REDUCED BY 21% SFC REDUCED BY 3% HIGHER TBN LIFE MEANS LOWER LUBE OIL CONSUMPTION
INDIAN OIL CORPORATION LIMITED

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SAVINGS BY RR606MG
SFC IS 2.6-3.0 LTRS/ 100KM FROM 4-5 LTRS/100 KM CONSUMPTION 15YEARS BACK- 25000 KL ESTIMATED CONSUMPTION32000KL ACTUAL CURRENTCONSUMPTION-17500KL SAVINGS ON ACCOUNT OF LUBE OIL- 6400KL

APPROXIMATE VALUE- Rs 64 crore


SAVINGS ON FUEL IS 5% OF100000 MT

APPROXIMATE VALUE IS Rs 450 Crore


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INDIAN OIL CORPORATION LIMITED

NEW GENERATION OILS

RR 606MG PLUS- LUDHIANA RR 606MG ALTERANATE VII- JHANSI RR 520 MG

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INDIAN OIL CORPORATION LIMITED

RR 606 MG PLUS& VII SERIES


TO FURTHER REDUCE SFC, SLC TO SUSTAIN HIGHER LOADS LONGER DRAIN PERIODS HIGHER TBN RETENTION VALUES ASH LESS ADDITIVES

Since trial is under progress detailed data is not available


INDIAN OIL CORPORATION LIMITED

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ULTRA SERIES OF OILS


ENHANCE THE DRAIN PERIOD CURRENT RECOMMENDED IS 1000 HRS DRAIN PERIOD TO BE INCREASED TO 1800 HRS

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INDIAN OIL CORPORATION LIMITED

GEAR OILS- MESH SERIES


SHIFTED TO SYNGEAR OIL- SYTHETIC OILS CURRENT OTHER GRADES USED IN MESH SP OILS RECOMMENDED IS SERVO MESH PLUS SERIES OILS ANTI MICRO PITTING OILSSEMI SYNTHETIC OILS
INDIAN OIL CORPORATION LIMITED

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MICROPITTING

A new form of tooth surface wear Conventional gear oils are inadequate to control this type of wear under severe operating conditions Characterized by the presence of fine surface pits, showing Fractured lower surfaces Driving stress for micro pitting arises from the Roughness of the gear surfaces Therefore, surface roughness & lubricant additives have an important impact

MICROPITTING IS AN UNIFORM ROLLING CONTACT

FATIGUE WEAR PHENOMENON, OBSERVED IN CASE


OF HARDENED GEARS, OPERATING UNDER MIXED OR BOUNDARY LUBRICATION REGIMES

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INDIAN OIL CORPORATION LIMITED

SERVOMESH PLUS
Anti micro pitting resistant industrial gear oils

Carefully blended with HVI solvent neutral base stocks


Optimized with tailor made additive package to ensure many other performance parameters of S-P series oils in addition to

superior antimicropitting and wear protections


Protects against scuffing without promoting corrosive wear and fatigue failures

Passes through special micro pitting tests


THE OILS ARE APPROVED BY M/S FLENDER AG OF GERMANY

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INDIAN OIL CORPORATION COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE IN ISOVG GRADES OF 220 / 320/460 LIMITED

TURBINE OILS- PRIME OILS


IMPROVEMENT DONE IS INDEGENIOUS BASE OIL STOCKS SULPHUR % IS THE ORDER OF 200 ppm AGAINST IMPORTED STOCKS OF 2000 ppm SEMI-SYNTHETIC IN NATURE SATURATES % IS HIGH LOWER OXIDATION LEVELS LESS OF ELEMENTAL- METALS
INDIAN OIL CORPORATION LIMITED

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GREASES
SERVO GREASE WR2- WATER RESISTANCE SERVO PLEX SHC 120- SYNTHETIC GREASE SERVO CHAIN TEXT- SYNTHETIC OILS HIGH TEMPERATURE SERVO CHAIN KOTE CHAIN LUBRICATION

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INDIAN OIL CORPORATION LIMITED

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INDIAN OIL CORPORATION LIMITED

TRANSFORMER OILS

SERVO ELECTRA BIS335-1993 SPECIFICATION. Approved by Central power research institution (CPRI) NON CONVENTIONAL-ACID TREATMENT Hydro Catalytic Techniques, which resulted in high quality base oil with inherent property of low pour point, and superior Hydrophobic
INDIAN OIL CORPORATION LIMITED

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TRANSFORMER OIL
Kinematic Vis. @ 400 C : 14.84 Density : 0.835 Flash Point : 165 Min. Pour point : (-)10 min Interfacial tension,N/m : 0.050 min Neutalisation value,TAN : nil Corrosive sulphur : non corrosive BD Voltage,ms,KV : 71 Di electic, dissipation factor : 0.0001

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INDIAN OIL CORPORATION LIMITED

TRANSFORMER OIL
Specific resistance 1012 degreeC) OXIDATION STABILITY Water content ppm

: 3920 (ohm @27 :0.01mgKOH/gm : 14

GASSING TENDENCY IS 1/3 RD OF THE NORMAL CONVENTIONAL OILS

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INDIAN OIL CORPORATION LIMITED

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INDIAN OIL CORPORATION LIMITED

DISPOSAL OF OILS

BURNING INCERENATING BURYING UNDER GROUND

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INDIAN OIL CORPORATION LIMITED

FUNDAMENTALS OF LUBRICATION Lubrication is any procedure that has the effect of reducing friction and wear
Friction

resistance to motion encountered


during sliding
Wear

loss or destruction of surface material


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INDIAN OIL CORPORATION LIMITED

History Egyptians used fluids to lubricate sledges as early as 2400 B.C. Natural oils widely used as lubricants up to the 19th Century

Mineral oils introduced during 19th century (industrial revolution)


Additives and synthetic lubricants introduced during the 20th Century, particularly after World War II
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INDIAN OIL CORPORATION LIMITED

CAUSES OF FRICTION

Molecular attraction between bodies in contact Interlocking of the opposing surface irregularities Surface waviness

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INDIAN OIL CORPORATION LIMITED

TYPES OF FRICTION
Static

Kinetic...................

Rolling............................................
INDIAN OIL CORPORATION LIMITED

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FRICTION & WEAR


Friction regime Coefficient of Friction Wear

Dry Friction (Sliding)

0.3

high

Dry Friction (Rolling)

0.005

very low

Mixed friction (rolling)

0.005 - 0.3

noticeable

Fluid friction

0.005 - 0.1
INDIAN OIL CORPORATION LIMITED

practically zero

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FUNDAMENTALS OF LUBRICATION
MODES OF LUBRICATION

HYDRODYNAMIC MIXED FILM ELASTO HYDRODYNAMIC BOUNDARY

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INDIAN OIL CORPORATION LIMITED

FUNDAMENTALS OF LUBRICATION
Hydrodynamic
Moving Surface

Hydrodynamic Pressure

Stationary Surface

Liquid wedge formed under the inclined plate causes lift


INDIAN OIL CORPORATION LIMITED

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FUNDAMENTALS OF LUBRICATION
Hydrodynamic
Low Load high speed

laminar flow static

Lubricant film thickness greater than surface asperities

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INDIAN OIL CORPORATION LIMITED

FUNDAMENTALS OF LUBRICATION
Mixed
High load Low speed

Some surface contact

Lubricant film thickness of similar order to surface asperities

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INDIAN OIL CORPORATION LIMITED

FUNDAMENTALS OF LUBRICATION
Elasto-hydrodynamic
W Model Gear tooth surfaces Unloaded

W Loaded

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Elastic deformation of gear tooth surfacesINDIAN OIL CORPORATION


LIMITED

Very thin layer of oil under extreme pressure

Example: Loaded Gears

FUNDAMENTALS OF LUBRICATION Boundary


Very High Load Very low speed

Lubricant Film

Surface Contact

Lubricant film thickness less than surface asperities

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INDIAN OIL CORPORATION LIMITED

FUNDAMENTALS OF LUBRICATION
Lubrication Regimes
Coefficient of Friction
Boundary Lubrication
1.0 0.1 0.01 0.001

Mixed Lubrication

0.0001
1 10

Full Fluid Film Lubrication


100 1,000 100,000

ZN/P

Z= Viscosity N= Speed P= Pressure

PRIMARY FUNCTIONS OF A LUBRICANT


Reduce Friction Reduce Wear Removal of Heat ( Due to Frictional Work, Combustion Heat)

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INDIAN OIL CORPORATION LIMITED

IMPORTANT PROPERTIES

Proper fluidity under operating conditions Film strength to withstand loads Chemical Stability Lubricity or oiliness or slipperiness to the degree required Adhesiveness to bearing surfaces Purity , freedom from contaminants Noncorrosive characterstics
INDIAN OIL CORPORATION LIMITED

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IMPORTANT PROPERTIES

Rust proofing capability Resistance to water washout Resistance to foaming Good sealing properties Low change in fluidity due to change in temperatures Fire resistance Low volatility Good emulsifying qualities Availability at reasonable cost

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INDIAN OIL CORPORATION LIMITED

CLASSIFICATION OF LUBRICANTS

PHYSICAL STATE SOLID : Graphite Powder , Molebdenum disulphide , Talc Liquid: Mineral Oils, Vegetable Oils, Synthetic Oils Gases : Air, Helium, Carbon dioxide Plastics: Greases
INDIAN OIL CORPORATION LIMITED

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APPLICATIONS

Gases : Lighter bearings like gyroscopes , Rotating mount of large telescopes Solids: They are used of extreme conditions of temperature, vacuum, loads & nuclear radiations. Liquids: For most of the Industrial & Automotive application mineral oil based lubricants are used. Greases: Greases are used for those applications where liquids do not stay in place.

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INDIAN OIL CORPORATION LIMITED

CLASSIFICATION BASED ON APPLICATION


Engine Oils Gear Oils Hydraulic Oils Compressor Oils Turbine Oils Cutting Oils Circulation bearing oils
INDIAN OIL CORPORATION LIMITED

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CLASSIFICATION OF LUBRICANTS BASED ON VISCOSITY

SAE Classification for Automotive Engine Oils & Gear Oils ISO VG Classification for Industrial Oils NLGI Classification for Greases

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SAE CLASSIFICATION - ENGINE OILS

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INDIAN OIL CORPORATION LIMITED

SAE CLASSIFICATION OF AUTOMOTIVE GEAR OILS

SAE VISCOSITY MIN TEMP FOR GRADE VISC OF 150000 cP C

VISC AT 100C cSt MINIMUM MAXIMUM

70W 75W

-55 -40

4.1 4.1

80W 85W 90 140 250

-26 -12 -

7.0 11.0 13.5 24.0 41.0

24.0 41.0 -

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INDIAN OIL CORPORATION LIMITED

ISO VG CLASSIFICATION
Midpoint Viscosity Limit cSt ISO o cSt @ Visosity @ 40 C o Grade 40 C Min. Max. 2 3 5 7 10 15 22 32 46 2.2 3.2 4.6 6.8 10.0 15.0 22.0 32.0 46.0 1.98 2.88 4.14 6.12 9.00 13.50 19.80 28.80 41.40 2.42 3.52 5.06 7.48 11.00 16.50 24.20 35.20 50.60 Midpoint Viscosity Limit cSt ISO o Viscosity cSt @ @ 40 C o Grade 40 C Min. Max. 68 100 150 220 320 460 680 1000 1500 68 100 150 220 320 460 680 1000 1500 61.20 90.00 135.00 198.00 288.00 414.00 612.00 900.00 1350.00 74.80 110.00 165.00 242.00 352.00 506.00 748.00 1100.00 1650.00

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INDIAN OIL CORPORATION LIMITED

NLGI CLASSIFICATION
NLGI No.
000 00 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

ASTM Penetration at 25 C
445-475 400-430 355-385 310-340 265-295 220-250 175-205 130-160 84-115
INDIAN OIL CORPORATION LIMITED

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HOW LUBRICANTS ARE MADE

BASE OIL

Additives

ADDITIVES: Detergents,Dispersants,Oxidation Inhibitors,VI


Improvers,Antifoam,Antiwear

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INDIAN OIL CORPORATION LIMITED

BASE OIL PRODUCTION


Base oils are produced from crude Oil. Distillation is done to adjust viscosity & flash point Refining to improve aging tendency & VT Charactersitics Dewaxing is done to improve low- temperature properties. Base Oils & Additives blended together to get required properties for a specific application.

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INDIAN OIL CORPORATION LIMITED

SERVO NOMENCLATURE

SERVOPRIME SERVOSYSTEMSERVOMESH SERVOPRESSSERVOSPIN

TURBINES ( PRIME MOVER) HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS INDUSTRIAL GEARS COMPRESSORS TEXTILE/GRINDING HIGH SPEED SPINDLES SERVOSTEEL FOR STEEL INDUSTRY BEARINGS SERVOFRIZ FOR REFRIGERATION COMPRESSOR SERVONEUM FOR PNEUMATIC TOOLS SERVOWAYFOR MACHINE TOOL GUIDE WAYS SERVOCYL FOR STEAM CYLINDER SERVO SM FOR SUGAR MILL BEARINGS SERVOSHAFT FOR MARINE SHAFT BEARINGS
INDIAN OIL CORPORATION LIMITED

FOR FOR FOR FOR FOR

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SERVO NOMENCLATURE

SERVOCUT FOR CUTTING CUTTING FLUIDS SERVOTHERM FOR HEAT TRANSFER SYSTEMS SERVOQUENCH FOR QUENCHING OPERATIONS SERVO MARINE FOR MARINE ENGINES SERVO GEM FOR GENERAL ELECTRICAL & MECHANICAL SERVOCOAT OPEN GEAR COATING LUBRICANT SERVORP FOR RUST PREVENTION SERVOVACUUM FOR VACUUM PUMPS SERVOSYNGEAR FOR GEARS SYNTHETIC OIL SERVOSYNCO FOR COMPRESSORS- SYNTHETIC OIL SERVO GEAR FOR AUTO GEARS

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INDIAN OIL CORPORATION LIMITED