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Managing

Human Resources
Bohlander Snell Sherman
Chapter 6 Training and Development
Managing Human Resources, 12e, by Bohlander/Snell/Sherman 2001 South-Western/Thomson Learning

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Chapter 6 Learning Objectives


Discuss the systems approach to training and development. Describe the components of training-needs assessment. Identify the principles of learning and describe how they facilitate training.

Managing Human Resources, 12e, by Bohlander/Snell/Sherman 2001 South-Western/Thomson Learning

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Learning Objectives, cont.


Identify the types of training methods used for managers and nonmanagers. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of various evaluation criteria. Describe the special training programs that are currently popular.

Managing Human Resources, 12e, by Bohlander/Snell/Sherman 2001 South-Western/Thomson Learning

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Presentation Slide 6-1

Training and Development and other HRM Functions

Managing Human Resources, 12e, by Bohlander/Snell/Sherman 2001 South-Western/Thomson Learning

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Presentation Slide 6-2

Systems Model of Training


Phase One: Phase Two: Phase Three: Phase Four:

Needs Assessment

Design

Implementation

Evaluation

Managing Human Resources, 12e, by Bohlander/Snell/Sherman 2001 South-Western/Thomson Learning

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Presentation Slide 6-2

Systems Model of Training


Phase 4: Evaluation Reactions Learning Phase 3: Implementation Behavior (transfer) Results On-the-job methods
Phase 2: Design Instructional objectives Trainee readiness Learning principles

Off-the-job methods Management development

Phase 1: Needs Assessment Organization Analysis Task analysis Person Analysis

Note: US organizations spend over $60 billion annually on training (1.7 billion training hours). Much of that investment is wasted because it is not done in a systematic way.

Managing Human Resources, 12e, by Bohlander/Snell/Sherman 2001 South-Western/Thomson Learning

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Organization Analysis
Examination of the environment, strategies, and resources of the organization to determine where training emphasis should be placed

Managing Human Resources, 12e, by Bohlander/Snell/Sherman 2001 South-Western/Thomson Learning

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Presentation Slide 6-3

Needs Assessment
Organizational Analysis

Task Analysis

Person Analysis

Managing Human Resources, 12e, by Bohlander/Snell/Sherman 2001 South-Western/Thomson Learning

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Task Analysis
Process of determining what the content of a training program should be on the basis of a study of the tasks and duties involved in the job

Managing Human Resources, 12e, by Bohlander/Snell/Sherman 2001 South-Western/Thomson Learning

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Competency Assessment
Analysis of the sets of skills and knowledge needed for decision-oriented and knowledge-intensive jobs

Managing Human Resources, 12e, by Bohlander/Snell/Sherman 2001 South-Western/Thomson Learning

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Person Analysis
Determination of the specific individuals who need training

Managing Human Resources, 12e, by Bohlander/Snell/Sherman 2001 South-Western/Thomson Learning

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Designing Training Programs


Instructional Objectives

Issues in Training Design

Trainee Readiness and Motivation Principles of Learning Characteristics of Successful Trainers

Managing Human Resources, 12e, by Bohlander/Snell/Sherman 2001 South-Western/Thomson Learning

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Instructional Objectives
Desired outcomes of a training program

Managing Human Resources, 12e, by Bohlander/Snell/Sherman 2001 South-Western/Thomson Learning

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Presentation Slide 6-4

Principles of Learning

Principles of Learning

Managing Human Resources, 12e, by Bohlander/Snell/Sherman 2001 South-Western/Thomson Learning

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Distributed Learning
In most cases, spacing out training periods will result in faster learning and longer retention

Managing Human Resources, 12e, by Bohlander/Snell/Sherman 2001 South-Western/Thomson Learning

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Presentation Slide 6-5

A Typical Learning Curve


High Low PERFORMANCE

TIME (weeks)
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Managing Human Resources, 12e, by Bohlander/Snell/Sherman 2001 South-Western/Thomson Learning

Behavior Modification
Technique that operates on the principle that behavior that is rewarded, or positively reinforced, will be exhibited more frequently in the future, whereas behavior that is penalized or unrewarded will decrease in frequency
Managing Human Resources, 12e, by Bohlander/Snell/Sherman 2001 South-Western/Thomson Learning

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Training for Nonmanagers


On-the-Job Simulation Apprentice

Computer-Based

Cooperative, Internship, and Government

Audiovisual Materials Programmed

Classroom

Managing Human Resources, 12e, by Bohlander/Snell/Sherman 2001 South-Western/Thomson Learning

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On-the-Job Training (OJT)


Method by which employees are given hands-on experience with instructions from their supervisor or other trainer

Managing Human Resources, 12e, by Bohlander/Snell/Sherman 2001 South-Western/Thomson Learning

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Job Instruction Training


STEP FOUR: FOLLOW-UP
Put employee on his/her own. Check-up frequently that instructions are followed. Taper off extra supervision.

STEP THREE: PERFORMANCE


Test employee by having him/her perform the job. Ask questions beginning with why, how, when, where. Observe, correct errors & repeat instructions. Continue until you know the employee knows.

STEP TWO: PRESENTATION

Tell, show, illustrate, and question in order to put of the new knowledge. Instruct slowly, clearly, completely, and patiently, one point at a time. Check, question, and repeat. Make sure the employee really knows.

STEP ONE: PREPARATION


Put the employee at ease Find out what the employee already knows Get the employee interested and desirous of learning the job 6-20

Managing Human Resources, 12e, by Bohlander/Snell/Sherman 2001 South-Western/Thomson Learning

Source: The Training within Industry Report (Washington, D.C.: Bureau of Training, Training with Industry Service, War Manpower Commission).

Apprenticeship Training
System of training in which a worker entering the skilled trades is given thorough instruction and experience, both on and off the job, in the practical and theoretical aspects of the work
Managing Human Resources, 12e, by Bohlander/Snell/Sherman 2001 South-Western/Thomson Learning

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Cooperative Training
Training program that combines practical on-the-job experience with formal educational classes

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Internship Programs
Programs jointly sponsored by colleges, universities, and other organizations that offer students the opportunity to gain real-life experience while allowing them to find out how they will perform in work organizations
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Managing Human Resources, 12e, by Bohlander/Snell/Sherman 2001 South-Western/Thomson Learning

Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI)


System that delivers instructional material directly through a computer terminal in an interactive format

Managing Human Resources, 12e, by Bohlander/Snell/Sherman 2001 South-Western/Thomson Learning

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Computer-Managed Instruction (CMI)


System normally employed in conjunction with CAI that uses a computer to generate and score tests and to determine the level of training proficiency

Managing Human Resources, 12e, by Bohlander/Snell/Sherman 2001 South-Western/Thomson Learning

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Training for Management Development


On-the-job

Experiences Seminars and conferences Case Studies Management Games Role Playing Behavior modeling
Managing Human Resources, 12e, by Bohlander/Snell/Sherman 2001 South-Western/Thomson Learning

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Behavior Modeling
Approach that demonstrates desired behavior and gives trainees the chance to practice and role play those behaviors and receive feedback

Managing Human Resources, 12e, by Bohlander/Snell/Sherman 2001 South-Western/Thomson Learning

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Characteristics of Successful Trainers


Knowledge of Subject
Adaptability Interest

Clear Instructions Individual Assistance

Sincerity

Sense of Humor

Enthusiasm
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Managing Human Resources, 12e, by Bohlander/Snell/Sherman 2001 South-Western/Thomson Learning

Presentation Slide 6-6

Criteria for Evaluating Training

Managing Human Resources, 12e, by Bohlander/Snell/Sherman 2001 South-Western/Thomson Learning

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Transfer of Training
Effective application of principles learned to what is required on the job

Managing Human Resources, 12e, by Bohlander/Snell/Sherman 2001 South-Western/Thomson Learning

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Benchmarking
Process of measuring ones own services and practices against the recognized leaders in order to identify areas for improvement

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Presentation Slide 6-7

Special Training Programs

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Orientation
Formal process of familiarizing new employees with the organization, their jobs, and their work units

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PROCESS DYNAMICS
meeting skills problem solving brainstorming decision making negotiation skills goal setting presentation skills process analysis task evaluation customer/vendor analysis project planning information management creativity

Team Training Skills


Team Training
BEHAVIOR DYNAMICS
member communications conflict resolution trusts building establishing norms handling difficult members diversity awareness team development stages team issues/concerns team benefits features of good teams negotiations
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Managing Human Resources, 12e, by Bohlander/Snell/Sherman 2001 South-Western/Thomson Learning

Source: George Bohlander and Kathy McCarthy, How to Get the Most from Team Training, National Productivity Review, Autumn 1996 25-35.