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CHYLOMICRON

Fat Absorption: Triglycerides


Small molecules-

glycerol, short & medium chain fatty acids


absorbed DIRECTLY (DIFFUSE) Large molecules-

monoglycerides & long chain fatty acids (


20 carbons) form MICELLES Micelles are emulsified fat droplets formed by
bile surrounding monoglycerides and FAs soluble in water diffuse into intestinal cells

Small intestine

Stomach Short-chain fatty acids

Medium-chain fatty acids Glycerol

Chylomicrons
Capillary network Lacteal (lymph)

Blood vessels

Via lymph to blood Via blood to liver Glycerol and small lipids such as short- and medium-chain fatty acids can move directly into the bloodstream.

Monoglyceride

Micelle Protein Triglyceride

Chylomicron

Longchain fatty acids

Large lipids such as monoglycerides and long-chain fatty acids combine with bile, forming micelles that are sufficiently water soluble to penetrate the watery solution that bathes the absorptive cells. There the lipid contents of the micelles diffuse into the cells.
Fig. 5-17b, p. 152

Asam lemak yg diserap disintesis kembali mjd lemak dalam badan golgi dan retikulum endoplasma sel mukosa usus halus

Post-absorption
Triglycerides, Phospholipids & Sterols

intestinal cells re-assemble monoglycerides & fatty


acids into triglycerides & Packed with other lipid (PL & sterols) and protein into transport vehicles called CHYLOMICRONS

released into lymph enter bloodstream and carried to tissues for use or
storage

Molecular structure of a chylomicron

The surface is a layer of phospholipids, with head groups facing the aqueous phase. Triacylglycerols sequestered in the interior (yellow) make up more than 80% of the mass. Several apolipoproteins that protrude from the surface (B-48, C-III, C-II) act as signals in the uptake and metabolism of chylomicron contents. The diameter of chylomicrons ranges from about 100 to 500 nm. density <<1.006
Synthesized in small intestine Transport dietary lipids

98% lipid, large sized, lowest density Apo B-48


Receptor binding Apo C-II

Lipoprotein lipase activator


Apo E Remnant receptor binding

Chylomicrons
Assembled in intestinal mucosal cells. They enter the lymphatic system and enter the blood via the thoracic

duct.
They contain mostly TAG.
Nascent chylomicrons contain apoprotein B48 but pick up others

apoproteins from high density lipoproteins (HDL) once they enter the circulation.
Apoprotein phospholipid Cholesterol ester Cholesterol

TAG (86%)

Nascent

chylomicron (B-48) Mature chylomicron (+apo C & apo E) Lipoprotein lipase Chylomicron remnant
Apo C removed
Removed in liver

chylomicron

Lipoprotein ini disintesis di sel usus. Fungsi mengangkut lipida hasil penyerapan keseluruh tubuh.. Mempunyai diameter yang paling besar. Dapat membias sinar. Kadarnya tinggi dalam darah sehabis makan yang mengandung lipida. Bagian atas darah setelah dipusing kelihatan agak putih. Orang normal setelah 6 8 jam post prandial akan hilang dari peredaran darah. bila kadar tinggi serum/plasma keruh Mengandung apoprotein ; Apo-B; Apo-C dan Apo-A Fungsinya mengangkut : -TG dari usus ke jaringan Ekstrahepatik/jar.Lemak -Kholesterol bebas/kholesterol ester dari usus

bila kadar tinggi serum/plasma keruh Mengandung apoprotein ; Apo-B; Apo-C dan Apo-A Fungsinya mengangkut : -TG dari usus ke jaringan Ekstrahepatik/jar.Lemak -Kholesterol bebas/kholesterol ester dari usus Lipoprotein Lipase (LPL) pada pembuluh darah kapiler akan menghidrolisis TG dari Khilomikron menjadi : - Asam lemak Oksidasi (Ekstrahepatik) Reesterifikasi (Jar.Lemak) - Gliserol ke hati Akibat hidrolisis oleh LPL menyebabkan partikel khilomikron menyusut - TG berkurang - Kholesterol, Fosfolipid, protein relatip meningkat

Setelah mencapai jaringan yang dituju,

pada permukaan kapiler ada enzim lipoprotein lipase dibantu oleh apoprotein C II menghidrolisis triasilgliserol dalam khilomikron asam lemak dan gliserol. Gliserol masuk darah dan dibawa ke hepar. Asam lemak masuk ke jaringan dan disintesis kembali menjadi triasilgliserol atau lipida yang lain. Sisa khilomikron disebut chylomicron remnant akan ditangkap oleh hepar.

Metabolic fate of chylomicrons. (A, apolipoprotein A; B-48, apolipoprotein B-48; , apolipoprotein C; E,


apolipoprotein E; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; TG, triacylglycerol; C, cholesterol and cholesteryl ester; P, phospholipid; HL, hepatic lipase; LRP, LDL receptor-related protein.) Only the predominant lipids are shown.

Chylomicrons
The nascent chylomicron enters the circulation carrying apoprotein B48 and a

large cargo of triacylglycerol (with a little cholesterol, cholesterol ester and phospholipid).

It receives apoproteins E and CII from high density lipoprotein (HDL). lipoprotein lipase, an enzyme bound to the enodothelial surface. This association is mediated through apoprotein CII.

The chylomicrons travel around the circulatory system until they associate with

The lipoprotein lipase hydrolyses the triacylglycerol to liberate free fatty acids

which diffuse into the local tissues.


As triacylglycerol is lost, the chylomicron shrinks and forms a chylomicron

remnant (CMR).

The released fatty acids can be reassembled into triaclyglycerol for storage as fat or oxidised to produce ATP. apoprotein CII to HDL. The remnant is finally taken up by the liver through receptor mediated endocytosis (liver receptors recognise B48 and E).

The chylomicron remnant dissociates from the lipoprotein lipase and returns

Dietary cholesterol delivered to the liver in CMR can be repackaged in VLDLs