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Project stages

Project and Stages

Enterprise Management

Principals of project Management Concept of strategy formulation Competitive Environments

Strategic Analysis

Development in Strategic Management Alternative approaches to strategy formulation


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WHAT IS STRATEGY??
M A D E D I V N R O L A N I A V S N I S T R I A O O G N N E M E N T

S
E B O A

T
C J N L

A
T E G Y

K
I C T S

E
O T E I

H
N I R S

O
V M

L
E

D
S

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What? Corporate Competitive advantage Business

purpose

How ?

Action plans

Functional

Support

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Rational strategic planning process


Mission
All embracing

Objectives become increasingly SMART

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Strategic

Goals
Analysis

General

Objectives

Specific

Strategies

Detailed targets

Specific Measurable Attainable Relevant Time- bound


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Strategic

Tactics
Implementation

Implementation targets

Operational Plans

Action targets

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Advantages and disadvantages of the rational (Formal Approach)


Identifies key issues Goal congruence

Bureaucratic and inflexible Strategies emerge

Long term view

Improves stakeholder perception


Provides basis for strategic review

Costly and time consuming Inappropriate in dynamic markets

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Alternatives to the rational approach


Resource based view
Easy to copy Logical incrementalism Hard to copy

Small Steps

competencies

Threshold

Core

Emergent resources
Basic Unique

emergent

intended

deliberate unrealised

realised

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Mission and Objectives


Mission Overriding purpose General Intention

Goals
Objectives Critical Success Factors Key Performance Indicators

S.M.A.R.T
Things that must go right

Measurable targets
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Stakeholders

Mendelows power/interest matrix

low

Minimal effort

Keep informed

power

Keep satisfied

Key players

low interest Those persons and organizations that have an interest in the strategy of an organization.

High

high

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Assessment of the competitive environment


Porters Value Chain Porters diamond

Resources audit

Porters 5 forces

External analysis Internal Analysis

P E S T E L

Corporate appraisal (SWOT)

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Internal analysis
Resources audit
WHAT WE ARE GOOD AT COMPETENCIES

THRESHOLD
CORE

Minimum requirement to operate within a market The basis for competitive advantage Similar to competitors/ easy to copy or obtain The more unique, the stronger the competitive position

BASIC WHAT WE HAVE

RESOURCES UNIQUE

Value chain
Support activities
Inbound logistics Outbound logistics Marketing and Sales

Operations

Service

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External analysis
New entrants
Factor conditions Porters diamond Related and supporting Strategy, structure and industries rivalry

Demand conditions

Power of buyers

Rivalry

Power of suppliers

P OLITICAL E
CONOMIC OCIAL ECHNOLOGICAL COLOGICAL/ENVIRONMENTAL EGAL
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Substitutes

T
E

Porters 5 Forces
L
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Contemporary thinking on strategy


distributors hierarchy solution In house
Drafting and enforcing contracts

suppliers Network organizations manufacturers

finance

Asset specificity
Monitoring the contract

Transaction cost view

Strategic alliances

Sub contracting

Complex forms
merges

outsourced hierarchy

solution

Complex forms

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ENTERPRISE MANAGEMENT Strategic Management and the competitive Environment Exam Tips There is no one single best way of doing strategic planning. When evaluating which approach is most appropriate in an exam question, make sure you justify your choice by reference to the details in the scenario. Look at the whole organization in the longer term. Aim to achieve sustainable competitive advantage, considering stakeholders and ensuring a good fit with the environment. Be able to discuss what critical success factors or objectives an organisation should set in order to achieve its strategic goals

Make sure you know the models for internals and external analysis and be able to apply them to the given scenario

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ENTERPRISE MANAGEMENT Strategic Management and the competitive Environment Past exam questions
Around 30% of the exam paper will come from the strategic management section. Popular topics are discussing the approaches to strategy and the various analysis techniques. The following questions are from the E2 paper, but most of the old syllabus p5 questions are also worthwhile reviewing. Rational approach MT (specimen) Levels of strategy (May 10) Stakeholders OD (specimen) Competitor analysis FX (May 10) Examiners comments (from May 10):

Not enough breadth of knowledge


Lack of theoretical knowledge A general lack of preparation Remember all parts of the syllabus are examinable

5 Forces CN (specimen)
SWOT PC (Nov 10) Porters diamond SCO (Nov 10)
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CORPORATE GOVERNANCE,SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND ETHICS


Enterprise Management
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ENTERPRISE MANAGEMENT Strategic Management and the competitive Environment Profit People Planet OECD Agency Problem

Social Responsibility Corporate Governance Social Responsibility and Ethics

Corporate Governance

Ethics

Professional ethics Approaches


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Levels
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ENTERPRISE MANAGEMENT Corporate governance, social responsibility and ethics


Corporate governance Companies are Owned by shareholders Run by Directors The OECD 5 principles of corporate governance Right of shareholders Equitable treatment of shareholders

The role of stakeholders


Corporate governance is the system by which companies are directed and controlled Disclosure and transparency Responsibility of the board

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ENTERPRISE MANAGEMENT Strategic Management and the competitive Environment Ethics Approaches
Ethics can be define as Integrity based

The discipline dealing with what is good and bad and right and wrong or with moral duty and obligation.
Many ethical dilemmas involve a conflict of interest between stakeholder groups.

Compliance based
Professional advisors Code of conduct

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ENTERPRISE MANAGEMENT Corporate governance, social responsibility and ethics Levels of ethics: Professional Ethics:

Objectives

C
O P

ONFIDENTIALITY BJECTIVITY

Corporate

ROFESSINAL
ROFESSIONAL COMPENCE AND DUE CARE

Group P Individual I T
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NTERGRITY ECHNICAL STANDARDS

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ENTERPRISE MANAGEMENT Corporate governance, social responsibility and ethics Social responsibility Corporate social responsibility (CSR) Triple bottom line reporting

Corporate social responsibility is one aspect of business ethics and is concerned specially with the ways in which an organization exceeds the minimum obligations to stakeholders specified through regulation and corporate governance.

Profits Planet

People

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Exam tips Corporate governance is viewed as how directors run companies.

Know the main corporate governance rules and be able to identify problems
in a given scenario, and explain why the y are a problem. Ethical policy should outline what activities the organization deems to be acceptable Corporate social responsibility is the deliberate inclusion of the public into

the corporate decision making, and the honoring of a triple bottom line:
people, plant and profit. Pros and cons of CSR
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Past exam questions- corporate governance, social responsibility and ethics


Around 30% of the exam paper will come from the management of relationships section, of which corporate governance, social responsibility and ethics makes up a small part. All 3 areas have been examined in the past. The following questions are from the E2 paper, but most of the old syllabus P5 questions are also worthwhile reviewing. Corporate governance SP Co (specimen) A scenario based question requiring students to identify and discuss the corporate governance issues. It is important to notice the verb discuss ,it is not enough to simply list the issues.
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CSR-PW (May 10) A popular CSR question requiring a discussion on the pros and cons of adopting a CSR approch .there is an argument against CSR as it is costly in the short term , but it may give the organization sustainability in the longer term. Be able to present a balanced argument. Remember all parts of the syllabus are examinable

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Management of relationships organizational culture


Enterprise management

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LEVELS

INFLUENCE
CLASSIFICATION Organizational Culture

MANAGING WHAT IS CULTURE?


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Organizational culture
culture can be defined as the way we do things around here(Handy) LEVELS OF CULTURE(SCHEIN) Influences on culture Seen, heard and observed Size Technology Diversity Age History Ownership

Artifacts and creations

Identified from stories Values and beliefs basic assumptions Deeply embedded
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Models for categorizing culture

Deal and Kennedy

Power Handys cultural types

Person

Role

Task

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Natural culture
Hofstede identified 5 dimension along which natural culture seems to vary

How much people accept an unequal distribution of power

Power distance

Long term orentaion


How much people value long standing rather than short term values and traditions

National culture

uncertainty

How much people values rules and stability over risk and adventure

Individualism / collectivism

Masculinity/ femininity

How much people prefer looking after themselves rather than looking after others
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How much people prefer male values (power, achievement, assertiveness etc.) over female values (relationships, sensitivity, concern etc.) 27

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Exam tips- organizational culture


There are a number of models and theories on culture . It is important that students are main familiar with them. The main ones are: Handy Schein Deals and Kennedy Hofstede There are others
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Ensure you can explain the influences on culture, be able to identify different cultures from a scenario and be able to suggest changes to existing cultures. Hofstedes model can be useful when companies are considering expanding their operation overseas.

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Past exam questions-organizational culture


Around 30% of the exam paper will come from the management of relationships section, of which culture makes up a small part. Culture has been a popular exam topic

The following question is from the E2 paper, but most of the old syllabus P5 questions are also worthwhile reviewing
culture KCC (may 10)

A scenario based question requiring students to identify the original culture of an organizational and to comment on the changes to the culture as the organization has grown.
The question mentioned role culture, which suggested the handy model. It is important to be familiar with the models in the texts are they are often used to enhance answer.
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Remember all parts of the syllabus are examinable

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Management of relationshipsmanagement and leadership


Enterprise management

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Classical theories

Definitions

Management and leadership

Leadership

Human relations school

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Management and leadership definitions:


POWER ability to expert influence French and Raven defined 5 source of power:

AUTHORITY right to expert influence


RESPONSIBILTY obligation to performs DELEGATION tasks passed to another to perform (note: the authority is delegated with the task, but the responsibility cannot be delegated) LEADERSHIP influencing others to act in a particular way

Reward

Legitimate Coercive

Expert

Referent

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Scientific management Well trained employees Work study method A fair days work for a fair days pay

TAYLOR

Co operation

CLASSICAL THEORIES

Division of work leadership 14 principles of managem ent Unity of command

Rules and regulations Specialisation WEBER FAYOL

Order

Hierarchy

Bureaucratic management

Administrative management

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Human relation school

Hygiene factors

motivators

Prevent dissatisfaction Environment Wages supervision

Prevent dissatisfaction Responsibility Advancement recognition

Maslow

Experimenter effect

Human relations schools

HERZBERG

Mayo

Increased motivation

HAWTHORNE EXPERIMENT

MOTIVATIONAL / HYGIENE FACTORS

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Management and leadership


The role of the manager (fayol) The role of the leader

Forecasting and planning Organizing Co- ordinating Commanding controlling

Encouraging Motivating Developing Inspiring creating


A leader is one who gets people to do things willingly

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charismatic

Leadership
NO ONE RIGHT WAY Contingency theories (Adair) Leadership

Types of leader

traditional situational appointed functional

Trait theories Likert McGregor Lewin Tannenbaum and schmidt Black and Mouton
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Style theories

physical

personality

social

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Leadership
Dictatorial management LIKERT LEWIN
Exploitive Authoritative

inclusive

little or no
Participative

Authoritarian

Democratic

Laissezfaire

McGregor
Tannenbau m and Schmidt
Blake and Mouton

Theory X

Theory y

Tells

delegate s
(9,9)

Abdicate s (1,1)

(9,1)

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Leadership
LEWIN PRODUCTIVITY SATISFACTION MOST SATISFIED Democratic manager makes MOST PRODUCTIVE decisions with group participation Laissez-faire manager leaves group alone Authoritarian leader tells group what to do Mc GREGOR theory X Managers assumes people do not want to work, dislike responsibility and cannot be trusted. NEXT MOST PRODUCTIVE

NOT SATISFIED

LEAST PRODUCTIVE

LEAST SATISFIED
Theory Y Managers assume people want to work, are motivated and seek self achievement.

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Tannebaum and Schmidts leadership continuum Dictatorship Area of freedom for managers Increase

Abdication

Area of freedom for subordinates Increase

Manager .
Able to make unchallenged decisions Persuade workers to accept Presents decisions invite questions Present draft decision Present problem decision after worker input Gives limits all discuss group decides Group decides and discuss on their own

Manager .
Tells Tells and sells Tells and talks consults Involve Delegates Abdicates
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Blake and Mouton managerial grid

Country club

Team

Middle road

Impoverished

Task oriented

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Adair action centered leadership

Task roles Initiating Information seeking Diagnosing Opinion seeking Evaluating Decision making

Group maintenance roles


Communicating Team building Disciplining Peace keeping Standard seeking

Task needs

Group needs

Individua l needs Individual maintenance roles Goal setting Feedback Counseling developing
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Exam tips- management . and leadership


Ensure that you understand the concepts of power, authority, responsibility, leadership and delegation. Consider the challenge of the global business environment and how this impacts a manger . Do not be afraid of giving your opinion as long as it is relevant to the question.

Thinks about the different theoretical perspectives on management ; consider their application and relevance to the question you are attempting

EM- Tharindu Ameresekere

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Past paper questions- management and leadership


Around 30% of the exam paper will come from the management of relationships section, of which management and leadership makes up a considerable part. This part of the syllabus includes all the management and leadership theories which have been examined many times. The following question is from the E2 paper, but most of the syllabus P5 question are also worthwhile reviewing . Staff performance/moral- YR Hospital (Nov 10) A scenario based question requiring students to identify and discuss problems within an organization using relevant theories and models. A variety of answer is possible here, depending on which models the student used. The most obvious model was Herzberg ,but others could also have been brought in . It is essential that students have a good understanding of the various management and leadership models so that they can provide a well argued answer .

REMEMBER All parts of the syllabus are examinable.


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Management of relationshipsrelationships in the working environment


Enterprise management

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Problems Meetings Methods

Conflict

Teams Communication

Management of relationships

Belbin

Tuckman

Finance function Mentoring

Negotiation

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Stages of group formation TUCKMAN


DORMING(RECENTLY ADDED

PERFORMING

NORMING

STORMING

FORMING
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Belbin-team roles
shaper leader Belbin-team roles Team worker Company worker plant

finisher

Monitor evaluating Resource investigator

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conflict

Conflicts is any personal divergence of interests between groups and individuals

Types of conflict
horizontal

Between groups and departments at the same level hospitality

Time wasting

Symptoms of conflicts

Lack of cooperation

v e r t i c a l

Between individuals and group at different levels in the hierarchy

frustration
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Managing conflict-The Thomas kilmann conflict mode instruments (TKI):


Depersonalising conflict and resolving low Assertiveness Avoiding Accommodating

Competing

Collaborating

High

Low
Co operativeness
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High

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Communication
Barriers to good communication

Negotiation
preparation

Unclear message Omitting information Using jargon/inappropriate wording Inappropriate medium used Sending mixed messages Sending too much information Using emotive words noise

opening

bargaining

closing

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Meetings

Clear purpose

Discussion

Summarise results
Suitable time and location Publish minutes Correct attendees Effective meeting

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The finance function


Strategic decision making Authorities

Information for decision making

Focus on value adding activities

Investors

External stakehold ers

The finance function

BP( business process outsourcing) Access to external expertise

External auditors Specialization SSC(shared service centers)

Cost reduction

Consistency
Internal outsourcing
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Monitoring
A trainer

A guide

Mentor

An advisor A sounding board

Benefits of mentoring improved motivation Development of skills Less staff turnover Faster career progression
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A tutor

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Exam tips

Remember individuals join groups in order to satisfy some important need. A team is a small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose. Ensure you understand how groups forms and the various roles that may exist within a team. Think about the importance of good communication and the ability to negotiate in all situations.
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Exam tips

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Around 30% of the exam paper will come from the management of relationships section, of which management and leadership makes up a considerable part. This part of the syllabus includes teams ,conflicts ,communication and negotiation. All these areas have been examined many times.

The following question is from the E2 paper, but most of the syllabus P5 question are also worthwhile reviewing .All questions are scenario based.
Conflict/team leading-RM (specimen) This question required students to identify and discuss the nature and sources of conflict and to suggest how effectively lead a team. Outsourcing the finance department/negotiation-T4M (May 10) This required students to explain the pros and cons of an outsourcing proposal and discussion on how the negotiation for this should be handled. This was a 25 mark questions lot of depth was required in the answer.
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Conflicts-LS (Nov 10) This required students to compare and contrast the main sources of conflict in an organization. REMEMBER all parts of there syllabus are examinable

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Management of relationshipsmanagement control


Enterprise management

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Equal opportunities

Staff appraisal
Human resources

Health & safety


fairness Diversity

Control systems 6 As TARA

Manageme nt control levels

Discipline and grievance


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Management control control is a primary management task and is the process of ensuring the operation proceed according to plan (Lucey)

Levels of control
Strategic

Emphasis on strategic planning, setting the control environment and monitoring achievement of and compliance with plans and policies. Emphasis on tactical planning, establishing the control procedures and monitoring achievement of plans and policies Emphasis on control of structured and repetitive activities

Tactical

Operational

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Management control
Control system Effective control system -6As ARGET acceptable

T A

affordable CTUAL adaptable

A
Action oriented

appropriate

R A

EVIEW

accessible

CTION
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Aspects of management control


To provide and maintain risk free work place. Health and safety

To improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the organization and to develop and motivate employees. Self appraisal To provide support, aid development and improve knowledge and work practices. Mentoring

Discipline
To achieve a change in the behavior of employees Grievance

Management control

To provide a mechanism for employees to raise problems or concerns.

Fairness To ensure the organization acts in a fair and non discriminatory manner

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Discipline The process

Informal talk

Oral warning

The aim of disciplinary procedures is to improve rather than punish.

Suspension

Written warning

Demotion or transfer

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ENTERPRISE MANAGEMENT Management of relationships Management Control Grievance


Discuss with grievance with a colleague, HR or union representative Unfairly appraised Overlooked for promotion

Grievance taken to immediate boss

A grievance occurs when an employee feels that they are being wrongly treated by colleagues or supervisors Discriminated against

Escalated upwards, HR informed

Being bullied

Colleague, HR or union representative permitted to be involved

Time limits set to resolve issues

Right to appeal to industrial tribunal

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ENTERPRISE MANAGEMENT Management of relationships Management Control


Health and safely at work Act 1975 (HASAWA) Applies to all organisations employing 5 or more people

Organisation must

Prepare and regularly revise a written statement of their H&S policy

Ensure policy is implemented

Bring the policy to the notice of employees

Provide training information and supervision

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ENTERPRISE MANAGEMENT Management of relationships Management Control Staff appraisal


Benefits to Organization Fair process for reward Identifies candidates for promotion Helps asses the competence of of staff Identification training needs Improve communication A basis for HR planning Provides clear targets Monitors requirement and induction process
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Benefits to employees Feedback about performance Basis of remuneration Opportunity to discuss future prospects Identification training and development needs Identifies work of merit done in period Provides formal opportunity for discussion
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ENTERPRISE MANAGEMENT Management of relationships Management Control Expectations Maximizing potential

commitment
Diversity Equity Relevant to all Fair reward Disadvantages groups Equal Opportunity No discrimination
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Proactive action

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ENTERPRISE MANAGEMENT Management of relationships Management Control Exam tips


Consider an organisation divided into 3 hierarchical levels: Strategic, Tactical and Operational and within these decision making levels, Control will need to be decided. An element of operational control is individual control to ensure that they are working hard and effectively. Methods used to control their behavior include: Employment contracts, appraisals, supervision, health and safety and disciplinary procedures. Students tend to be familiar with many of the control topics from their own experience. Students should bring their own knowledge and experience to their answers.

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ENTERPRISE MANAGEMENT Management of relationships Management Control Past exams questions


Around 330% of the exams paper will come from the management of relationship section, of which management control makes up a considerable part. This part of the syllabus includes a variety of control topics: Staff appraisal, health and safety, mentoring, discipline, grievance and fairness. Most these topics have been examined at some point. The following questions is from the E2 paper, but most of the old syllabus p5 questions are also worthwhile reviewing. Mentoring P co (Nov 10) A short scenario base question requiring students to identify the process and benefits of mentoring. As with many topics in this section, students tend to be familiar with much of the material from their own experiences. Should be used in this type questions.
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Remember - all parts of the syllabus are examinable

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PROJECT MANAGEMENT
Enterprise Management
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ENTERPRISE MANAGEMENT Project Management Reasons for projects

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Feasibility

histogram Risk Analysis

Milestones and gates GANNT

Project Planning and tools Project initiation

WBS

Software

Project Management

CPA/PERT

Project Management Constraints End of project review

Project Execution control and completion Post completion 69 Audit

Lifecycle

Models

Success or failure

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ENTERPRISE MANAGEMENT Project Management Projects A project is a unique undertaking to achieve a specific objective. It has defined beginning and end. It has resources allocated to it. Once complete, it should become integrated into business as usual. TIME

Other constrains:
Legal Ethical Environmental political QUALITY COST

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ENTERPRISE MANAGEMENT Project Management Models 4-D and 7S Discover Dream What gives the current system life? What might be? Envisage the results of the project

Design
Deliver

What is the ideal solution? Design elements and assemble them.


Plan for continuous improvement Structure System Strategy

Shared Values
Style Staff
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Skills
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ENTERPRISE MANAGEMENT Project Management Models - PMBOK 1. Project integration management 2. Project scope management 3. Project time management 4. Project cost management 5. Project quality management 6. Project human resource management 7. Project communications management 8. Project risk management 9. Project procurement management

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ENTERPRISE MANAGEMENT Project Management

Corporate or program management Project mandate


Directing a project

Starting up a project

Initiating a project

Controlling a stage

Managing stage boundaries

Closing a project

Managing a project delivery

Planning
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ENTERPRISE MANAGEMENT Project Management Project Lifecycle

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ENTERPRISE MANAGEMENT Project Management


Project Sponsor

Project brief Allocation of Funds, terms of Or reference

Project owner

Project Customer

Project proposals, schedules status reports

Project manager

Project team
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ENTERPRISE MANAGEMENT Project Management

Role of Project manager Not preparing The projects Financial plan could caused disastrous Losses: N - Negotiation P Planning and control T Technical Awareness P People Skills (motivation) F Financial Awareness P Problem Solving C - Communication D - Delegation C Change management L - Leadership

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ENTERPRISE MANAGEMENT Project Management Project Teams Control the team Ensure the teams effectiveness

Select the team


The Project Manager must

Communicate with the team

Manage the team

Motivate the team

Build the team

NOTE: Tuckmans model of team development, Belbins model of team roles and leadership theories are relevant here.
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Feasibility

Feasibility

Technical

Operational / Social

Economic

Time/Risk etc.

Feasibility study report

Accept

Reject

Project roles

Project plans
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Risk assessment Likelihood Low Low High

Accept

Reduce

Impact (Effect) Transfer High Avoid

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Various tools, techniques and reports are used throughout projects, particularly at the planning stage.

Initiation SWOT Feasibility study PID Risk assessment

Planning WBS CPA PERT GANNT Histogram Milestones/Gates PQP

Execution/control Progress report PRINCE 2 EVM

Completion End of project review Final report Post completion audit

Project software is used throughout the project


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Work breakdown structure (WBS)

Work breakdown structure

Break project down to manageable parts

Work packages Statements of work Product breakdown structure

Specifies work to be done

Who is responsible Products required Costing all of the above - Forms the BUDGET

Cost breakdown structures

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CPA or network diagram A


1 0 8 C 6 3 14 6 0 2 8

B 18 4 10

E 26 5 8

10
D

18

26

4 Critical path: A, B, E Est. duration: 26 Float on C or D of 8

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How to draw a CPA

Activity Critical path EET 1 LET Milestone

EET = earliest event (start) time for the next activity LET = Latest event (start) time for the next activity

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GANNT chart Current time 16 A A B C C B

D
E E

12

16

20

24

28

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Project management software The planning and control of the project will be assisted through the use of project software. The type of output being produced will vary depending on the package being used. They are used in a variety of ways

Other tools Scenario/ PERT consider one or more sets of circumstances that might occur. Milestone and Gates One of the main reasons for constructing a network diagram is to improve control and to facilitate this, a number of milestones can be identified. This shows how far the project has progressed and how far it has to run. Histogram A stacked bar chart showing the amount and timing for a resource or range of resources.
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Planning
Estimating Monitoring Reporting Examples include MS project and project Kickstart.

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Project control Once only


Agree plan/ risk set budget

Daily

Weekly
Mment review meeting Review updated plan Evaluate progress Revise plan Team meeting

Phase
Phase review board

Produce baseline plan and risk analysis

Operational feedback session

Operational feedback session

Manage plan

Update plan controls

Raise issues/ changes

Update plan

Collate risk issues, change and progress date

Publish progress report


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What do you control ? A project control system enables the recognition of a problem before they become too difficult to solve. How elaborate a control system is depends on the size and scope of the task to be managed, as well as the size and distribution of the team working on it. Methods of control/ review:

Weekly progress and review


Earned value management PRINCE 2 Post completion audit review

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Completion End of project File all documentation Final payments to suppliers Formal handover to customer Disband project team Produce final report End of project review Ensure project completion as defined Compare outcome againts PID Evaluate performance of project: oTime oCost oQuality Effectiveness of process
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Post completion audit Review the success of the project Receive users feedback Highlight any issues with the project Benefits delivered? Learn from experience

Carried out several months later

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Was it a success or a failure? Success Many organizations view project management as a strategic competence, from which they can gain competitive advantage. Excellence means continuous improvement. An example of this is PMMM, the project management maturity model. Given as an accreditation about how well a company has managed its project. Failure

Why some projects fail??


- Lack of user input - Long time scales - Vague requirements - Scope creep - Lack of testing - Business change
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Exam tips Ensure you are familiar with the various PM models: 4D, 7S, PRINCE 2 and PMBOK Be able to identify the project stakeholders and be able to use the Mandelow Matrix to manage them. Know the project managers role and the skills required Know the models of the team development, team roles and leadership theories. These apply equally to projects. Be familiar with the range of PM tools, use them and the benefits of using each of them. Know project life cycle

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