6 views

Uploaded by Er Ritika Riti

vision

- Digital Signal Processing Techniques for Lti Fiber Impairment Compensation
- A Novel Modified Distributed Arithmetic Scheme for Lms Low Power and Reduced Area Fir Adaptive Filter Implementation
- Fractionally spaced equalizer for indoor visible light communication system
- ECTIpresent1
- 3-Handouts Lecture 08
- Adaptive Filter and Multirate DSP
- Filters
- Revision Bode 1
- A Survey on Digital Image Enhancement Techniques
- IJETTCS-2013-04-30-005
- 100fast Convergence Algorithms for Active Noise Control In
- COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF ANN AND LMS BASED ALGORITHMS FOR ADAPTIVE NOISE CANCELLATION
- Speckle Filtering of Dual-polarization and Polarimetric Sar Data Based On
- Sampling Process
- A8.1
- Vacon NXL Local Remote Control ALFIFF27 Applicatio
- www.ijerd.com
- MT-224
- Lecture 1 Introduction to DIP (10.1.19)
- Fourier Optics

You are on page 1of 53

Restoration

Hanyang University

Jong-Il Park

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Hanyang University

Restoration vs. Enhancement

Restoration

Objective process

A priori knowledge on

degradation model

Modeling the degradation and

applying the inverse process

to recover the original

To improve an image in some predefined sense

Enhancement

Subjective process

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Hanyang University

Restoration process

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Hanyang University

Noise models

Assume noise is independent

of spatial coordinates and it is

uncorrelated w.r.t. the image.

Gaussian: electronic circuit noise,

sensor noise

Rayleigh: range images

Exponential and gamma:

laser images

impulse(salt-and-pepper):

faulty switching

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Hanyang University

Eg. Sample noisy images

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Hanyang University

Eg. Sample noisy images(cont.)

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Hanyang University

Periodic noise

Spatially dependent noise

Periodic noise can be

reduced significantly via

frequency domain filtering

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Hanyang University

Estimation of noise parameters

PDF from small patches

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Hanyang University

When the only degradation is noise

Periodic noise subtraction gives a good result

Random noise mean filter, order-statistics filter,

) , ( ) , ( ) , (

and

) , ( ) , ( ) , (

v u N v u F v u G

y x y x f y x g

+ =

+ = q

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Hanyang University

Mean filters

Arithmetic mean filters

For Gaussian or uniform noise

Geometric mean filters

For Gaussian or uniform noise

Harmonic mean filters

Work well for salt noise but fail for pepper noise

Contraharmonic mean filters

Suited for impulse noise but require identification(salt

or pepper)

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Hanyang University

Arithmetic & Geometric mean filter

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Hanyang University

Contraharmonic filters

Q<0 : eliminates salt noise

Q=-1 harmonic mean filter

Q=0 : arithmetic mean filter

Q>0: eliminates pepper noise

e

e

+

=

xy

xy

S t s

Q

S t s

Q

t s g

t s g

y x f

) , (

) , (

1

) , (

) , (

) , (

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Hanyang University

Eg. Contraharmonic filters

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Hanyang University

Wrong sign in contraharmonic filters

Disaster!

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Hanyang University

Order-Statistics filters

Median filter

Max filter

Min filter

Midpoint filter

Alpha-trimmed mean filter

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Hanyang University

Median filters

3x3

median

3x3

median

3x3

median

blurred

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Hanyang University

Max and Min filter

Max filter Min filter

Removes pepper noise

Removes dark pixels

Removes salt noise

Removes light pixels

Makes dark objects larger

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Hanyang University

Eg. Comparison

(a) Additive uniform

noise

(b) (a)+additive S&P

5x5 arithmetic

mean

5x5 geometric mean

5x5 median 5x5 alpha-trimmed

Mean(d=5)

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Hanyang University

Adaptive filters

Behavior changes locally based on statistical

characteristics of local support

Simple adaptive filter based on mean and variance

1. If global_var is zero, then f(x,y)=g(x,y)

2. If local_var>global_var, then f(x,y)=g(x,y) (high local

var edge should be preserved)

3. If local_var==global_var, then arithmetic mean filtering

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Hanyang University

Eg. Adaptive filter

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Hanyang University

Adaptive median filter

Cope with impulse noise with large probability

Preserve detail while smoothing non-impulse noise

Level A: A1=z

med

-z

min

A2=z

med

-z

max

If A1>0 AND A2<0, go to level B

Else increase the window size

If window size<=S

max

repeat level A

Else output z

xy

Level B: B1=z

xy

-z

min

B2=z

xy

-z

max

If B1>0 AND B2<0, output z

xy

Else output z

med

Algorithm

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Hanyang University

Eg. Adaptive median filter

median adaptive median

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Hanyang University

Periodic noise reduction

By frequency domain filtering

Band reject filter

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Hanyang University

Eg. Periodic noise reduction

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Hanyang University

Noise extraction

By bandpass filter

Help understanding noise pattern

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Hanyang University

Notch filters

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Hanyang University

Eg. Notch filtering

Removing sensor scan-

line patterns

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Hanyang University

Optimum notch filtering

First isolating the principal contributions of the

interference pattern

Then subtracting weighted portion of the pattern from

the corrupted image

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Hanyang University

Eg. Periodic interference(1/3)

Noisy image

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Hanyang University

Eg. Periodic interference(2/3)

Extraction of noise interference pattern

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Hanyang University

Eg. Periodic interference(3/3)

Restored image by subtracting weighted portion of

periodic interference (Refer to the derivation of

weights in pp.250-252)

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Hanyang University

Linear, Position-Invariant Degradation

) , ( ) , ( ) , ( ) , (

: Domain Frequency

) , ( ) , ( ) , ( ) , (

: Domain Spatial

v u N v u F v u H v u G

y x y x f y x h y x g

+ =

+ - = q

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Hanyang University

Degradation knowledge

Degradation knowledge about

1. A priori (known)

2. A posteriori (unknown)

blind restoration

or blind deconvolution

f

g

H

Restoration:

determine the original image ,

given the observed image and

knowledge about the degradation (H).

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Hanyang University

Fundamental issue

Restoration problem

restoration is to find , such that

but, 1. does not exist: singular

2. may exist, but not be unique: ill-conditioned

3. may exist and unique, but there exists ,

which can be made arbitrarily small, such that

which is not negligible

Image restoration is ill-conditioned at best and

singular at worst

g f T = } {

1

T

f g T =

} {

1

1

T

1

T

1

T c

, , } {

1

c o o c >> + = +

f g T

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Hanyang University

Estimation of degradation function

Approaches

Observation

Experimentation

Mathematical modeling

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Hanyang University

Estimation by observation

Looking at a small section of the image containing

simple structures and then obtaining degradation

function

Observed sub-image:

Estimate of original image:

) , ( y x g

s

) , (

y x f

s

) , (

) , (

) , (

v u F

v u G

v u H

s

s

s

=

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Hanyang University

Estimation by experimentation

Possible only if equipment similar to the equipment

used to acquire the degraded images is available

Eg. Use an impulse

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Hanyang University

Estimation by modeling

Based on either physical characteristics or basic

principles

Eg.1. Physical characteristics: atmospheric turbulence

Eg.2. Math derivation: motion blur

Starting from

After some manipulation(p.259)

Setting the motion model, we obtain the degradation

func.

6 / 5

) (

2 2

) , (

v u k

e v u H

+

=

dt e v u H

T

t vy t ux j

}

+

=

0

)] ( ) ( [ 2

0 0

) , (

t

}

=

T

dt t y y t x x f y x g

0

0 0

)] ( ), ( [ ) , (

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Hanyang University

Eg.1. Physical model

Atmospheric turbulence

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Hanyang University

Eg.2. Math modeling

Motion blur

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Hanyang University

Restoration methods

Inverse filtering

Wiener filtering

Constrained least square filtering

Geometric mean filtering

Etc..

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Hanyang University

Inverse filtering

Poor performance!

Very sensitive to noise

) , ( ) , ( ) , ( ) , ( v u N v u F v u H v u G + =

) , (

) , (

) , ( ) , (

v u H

v u N

v u F v u F + =

) , (

) , (

) , (

v u H

v u G

v u F =

Noise amplification

when H(u,v) is small

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Hanyang University

Eg. Inverse filtering

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Hanyang University

Minimum mean-square error filter

Necessary to handle noise explicitly

Statistical characteristics of noise should be

incorporated into the restoration process

MMSE filter

To find an estimate of the uncorrupted image

such that the mean square error between them is

minimized:

Assume:

the noise and the image are uncorrelated

The one or the other has zero mean

The gray levels in the estimate are a linear function of

the levels in the degraded image

Derivation: Homework

} )

{(

2 2

f f E e =

f

f

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Hanyang University

MMSE filter (cont.)

Frequency domain expression:

Approximation of the Wiener filter

) , (

) , ( / ) , ( | ) , ( |

) , ( *

) , (

) , ( | ) , ( | ) , (

) , ( ) , ( *

) , (

2

2

v u G

v u S v u S v u H

v u H

v u G

v u S v u H v u S

v u S v u H

v u F

f

f

f

(

(

+

=

(

(

+

=

q

q

Wiener filter

) , (

| ) , ( |

| ) , ( |

) , (

1

) , (

2

2

v u G

K v u H

v u H

v u H

v u F

(

+

=

PS of noise PS of image f

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Hanyang University

Eg. Wiener filtering

Using the approximation

K is chosen interactively

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Hanyang University

Eg. Restoration by Wiener filter

motion blur

Severe noise

Moderate noise

Negligible noise

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Hanyang University

Constrained Least Square Filtering

Difficulty in Wiener filter

The power spectra of the undegraded image and noise

must be known

Minimization in a statistical sense

The constrained LS filtering

requires knowledge of

Mean of the noise

Variance of the noise

Optimal result for each image

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Hanyang University

Vector-matrix form of convolution

g: MN-vector (lexicographical order of an image)

f: MN-vector

H: MNxMN matrix

Hf g + =

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Hanyang University

Formulation: Constrained LS filter

To find the minimum of a criterion function C defined as

subject to the constraint

where is the Euclidean vector norm

| |

=

V =

1

0

1

0

2

2

) , (

M

x

N

y

y x f C

2 2

|| || ||

|| f H g =

w w w

T

2

|| ||

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Hanyang University

Freq. Domain Sol.

: adjustable parameter

: Fourier transform of the Laplacian operator

) , (

| ) , ( | | ) , ( |

) , ( *

) , (

2 2

v u G

v u P v u H

v u H

v u F

(

+

=

) , ( v u P

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Hanyang University

Eg. Constrained LS filter

Significant improvement over Wiener filter

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Hanyang University

Procedure for computing

Define a residual vector

Adjust so that

Calculation

a = =

2 2

|| || || || ) ( r |

f H g r

=

] [ || ||

2 2 2

q q

o m MN + =

In general, automatically determined restoration filter

yields inferior results to manual adjustment of filter

parameters

iteration

- Digital Signal Processing Techniques for Lti Fiber Impairment CompensationUploaded byesatjournals
- A Novel Modified Distributed Arithmetic Scheme for Lms Low Power and Reduced Area Fir Adaptive Filter ImplementationUploaded byprjpublications
- Fractionally spaced equalizer for indoor visible light communication systemUploaded bySEP-Publisher
- ECTIpresent1Uploaded byAnirut Trakultritrung
- 3-Handouts Lecture 08Uploaded byMd.Arifur Rahman
- Adaptive Filter and Multirate DSPUploaded byHiLmar EscaLante
- FiltersUploaded byEo Un
- Revision Bode 1Uploaded byLee Jia Qi
- A Survey on Digital Image Enhancement TechniquesUploaded byijcsis
- IJETTCS-2013-04-30-005Uploaded byAnonymous vQrJlEN
- 100fast Convergence Algorithms for Active Noise Control InUploaded byshaikshaa007
- COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF ANN AND LMS BASED ALGORITHMS FOR ADAPTIVE NOISE CANCELLATIONUploaded byAZOJETE
- Speckle Filtering of Dual-polarization and Polarimetric Sar Data Based OnUploaded byAngello387
- Sampling ProcessUploaded byMuhammad Salah Elgabo
- A8.1Uploaded byVo Phong Phu
- Vacon NXL Local Remote Control ALFIFF27 ApplicatioUploaded byTanuTiganu
- www.ijerd.comUploaded byIJERD
- MT-224Uploaded byJelena Stojkovic
- Lecture 1 Introduction to DIP (10.1.19)Uploaded byRajalakshmi Mohandhoss
- Fourier OpticsUploaded byfcord
- 10.1.1.98.1515Uploaded byAhmet Fırat Berrak
- A SURVEY : On Image Denoising and its Various TechniquesUploaded byAnonymous kw8Yrp0R5r
- Spatial ConvolutionUploaded bydeysanz
- FUZZY LOGIC CONTROLLER BASED THREE PHASE SHUNT ACTIVE POWER FILTER FOR HARMONICS REDUCTION WITH ID-IQ CONTROL STRATEGYUploaded byIJIERT-International Journal of Innovations in Engineering Research and Technology
- iZotope_AudioRepairUploaded byRobertClifton

- Let Review (Gen.ed)Uploaded byJunel McCartney
- ca0142_0089221_imm_rc9_v003_gbr_Uploaded byVanjimuthu Velusamy
- Endometrial CancerUploaded byvaloveva
- SB5c_OwnersManual_2015Uploaded byKim Dela Cruz
- SprocketsUploaded byJoey Brown
- Blood and ImmunologyUploaded bySdaf Sdf
- Copper Sky Recreation Complex OverviewUploaded bysarahruf
- Power & Rate of Force DevelopmentUploaded byamoghpandit
- 60ws e Lgl Dr Xx 8091 Rev 2Uploaded byMihai Aurel Ioana
- P Sample SolutionUploaded byLoh Hui Yin
- plant factsUploaded byapi-297841438
- H. Wedgwood - A Dictionary of English Etymology (Vol. a-D) (OCR)Uploaded bysodade_x@yahoo.com
- Catalogo automatizacion rockwell.pdfUploaded byRienzi Nicolás Guzmán Aravena
- Propagation of Seismic DisturbancesUploaded byEM Simon
- Tle Carpentry 2nd Quarter ExamUploaded bySan Vicente Integrated
- C Programming FullUploaded bysolariun
- Efficiency-boiler & TgUploaded byAnand Swami
- Topographic Map of Lake WorthUploaded byHistoricalMaps
- Francis Turbine - Wikipedia, The Free EncyclopediaUploaded byRogfox
- Energetics Questions.rtfUploaded byselle
- 74HC194N.pdfUploaded byOsman Koçak
- Image aideUploaded byBppaditya Ghosh
- 24K Magic Sheet Music Bruno Mars (SheetMusic Free Com)Uploaded bystarchaser_player
- List of FruitsUploaded byJonas Sunshine Callewaert
- equilibrium lesson 5 - take two - blueUploaded byapi-209402888
- religion isu essayUploaded byapi-359662998
- PRATIKRAMAN_SUTRAUploaded byanildhar
- 8000-HE425_RevD_10-7-09Uploaded byimagenydiagnostico
- Aubrey Ross - SeerUploaded bySandy Garcia
- Standing Waves Exploration PhET-Koser.pdfUploaded byAlex Emery