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Metal Cutting & Tool Life: Introduction Economics of Metal Machining

Metal forming Jigs and Fixtures Metrology:

Machine tools Metal Casting Process

Welding Forming Processes

Introduction to Welding, Classification of Welding Processes, Gas Welding: Oxy-Acetylene Welding, Resistance Welding: Principle, Spot and Seam Welding, Arc Welding: Metal Arc, TIG & MIG Welding, Submerged Arc welding (SAW), Electrode types and selection, Thermit welding, Electro slag welding, Electron beam welding, Laser beam welding, Forge welding, Friction welding, Welding Defects and remedies, Brazing & Soldering.

Welding is a process of joining two similar or two dissimilar metals by fusion ,with or without the application of pressure & with or without the use of filler metal. The fusion of metal takes place by the means of heat. The heat generated from electric arc, Electrical Resistance, Chemical reaction Or friction energy.



PRESSURE WELDING (under pressure without additional filler material) Heat created by

Non-PRESSURE WELDING (with additional filler material) Heat created by

Electric Arc Blacksmiths fire Electric current Friction



Chemical Reaction

Resistance Welding Carbon arc




Percussion welding

Metal Submerged Inert gas arc arc arc welding TIG MIG

A Good weld is as strong as the base metal. A Large number of metals/alloys can be joined by welding Repair by welding is very easy. Portable welding equipment is easy. Total joining cost is less in case of welding joint.

Welding produces harmful radiation, fumes etc. A skilled welder is required. Welding heat produces metallurgical changes. Cost of the equipment is high. Edge preparation is required before welding. More safety devices are used in welding.

Oxy acetylene welding

Oxy-Acetylene welding derives the heat from the combustion of a fuel gas such as acetylene & oxygen. The process is called as Fusion welding.

Principle of operation
When acetylene gas is mixed with oxygen in correct proportion in welding torch & ignited, the flame is produced which is hot to melt & join the parent metal. o Temperature of the flame is about 3100 C. A filler Rod is generally added to build up the seam for greater Strength.

Principle of operation(Contd)

Fig: Oxy-Acety-lene gas welding

Chemistry involved in oxyacetylene gas welding

THIS TAKES PLACE IN 2 STAGES: STAGE -1:Oxygen & acetylene in equal proportions by volume burn in inner white cone & forms carbon monoxide. C2H2+2O2 4CO+2H2

Stage:2: Carbon Monoxide uses the oxygen from air & results in carbon dioxide & vapors.
4CO+2H2+3O2 4CO2+2H2O

COMBINING 1 & 2 ,we get

2C2H2+5O2 4CO2+2H2O

Constructional details of oxyacetylene gas welding

Gas welding equipments

Oxygen gas cylinder
Oxygen gas cylinders are painted black & valves outlet are screwed right handed.

Acetylene gas cylinder Acetylene gas cylinders are painted maroon & screwed left handed to make this easily recognizable.
Oxygen & acetylene pressure regulators Oxygen & acetylene gas hoses Welding torch or blow pipe.

Oxygen & fuel gas having been reduced in pressure by gas regulators are fed through blow pipe.
Trolley, for transportation of oxygen & acetylene cylinders. Set of spanners Filler rods & fluxes Gas lighter

Protective clothing for the welder.

Welding operation
To ignite a flame
Open the acetylene valve of welding torch & after the system has been flushed clean of air, the gas is ignited. At this stage, enough of oxygen is drawn from the atmosphere to burn acetylene completely. The acetylene control valves of the welding torch is then opened in order to adjust the proportions in which acetylene & oxygen are required to mix & burn.

Oxy-Acetylene Flames

It is produced when oxygen to acetylene ratio is 1.1:1
The temperature is of order of about 5900 F(3200OC) It is called neutral because it will not carburize or oxidise the metal. It is used for

Oxidising Flame
After the neutral flame, if the supply of oxygen is further increased, the result will be an oxidizing flame. Its inner cone is more pointed, outer flame is much shorter. It burns with a loud roar. The temperature is of the order of about 6300 F(because of excess o2,complete combustion takes place) This flame is harmful for steels, because it oxidizes the steel. Only in welding of copper & copper based alloys,oxidising flame is desirable, because in those cases a thin protective layer of slag forms over the molten metal.

Reducing Flame
If the volume of oxygen supplied in neutral flame is reduced, the resulting flame will be a carburizing flame or reducing flame(rich in acetylene)
In this flame, acetylene feather exists between the inner cone & outer envelope. Temperature is of the order 5500 F(Because it does not completely burn the available carbon.) Metals that tends to absorb carbon should not be welded with reducing flame. It is used for welding of lead & for carburizing(Surface hardening) process. It is used with low alloy steel rod for welding high carbon steels.

Advantages & Disadvantages of oxy acetylene gas welding


Flame temperature is less than the temperature of arc. Refractory metals(e.g. Tungsten,Molybednum etc)& reactive metals (titanium & zirconium cannot be gas welded. Gas flame takes a long time to heat the metal. Acetylene gas is rather expensive. More skilled operators are needed.

It can be applied to wide variety of manufacturing & maintenance job. No current is required. Equipment is having less cost. Operator is having better control because the source of heat & filler metals are seperate. Mainatnce cost of the equipment is low.

It is used for welding mild steel,stainless steel,copper,cast iron,high carbon steels etc. For joining thin metals. In automotive & aircraft industries. In sheet metal fabricating parts.

Principle of operation Chemistry involved Diagram Operation Types of flames Advantages, disadvantages Applications

Resistance welding
Resistance welding is a group of welding processes in which welding heat is obtained by the resistance of the work to the flow of electric current & by the application of pressure. No filler metal or flux is required.

Principle of operation
In resistance welding, a low voltage(1 Volt) & a very high current(1500 A) is passed through a joint for a very short duration(typically 0.25 sec). This high amperage heats up the joint, because heat generated in welding can be expressed as: H=I2Rt
Where H is total heat generated I is the current T is the time for which current is passed. R is the resistance of the joint

Advantages & Disadvantages of Resistance Welding

Very little skill is required to operate resistance welding machine. Heat production rate is well defined. No filler & no flux is required. Semi-Automatic equipments are available. This is an economical process as no consumables are required.

Disadvantages Initial cost of equipment is high. Certain resistance weldings are limited to only lap joints. Skilled persons are needed for mantainance.

Applications of Resistance welding

Joining Sheets, Bars & Tubes. Making metal furniture. Making containers. Welding Automobile parts.

Spot welding is a resistance welding process, in which overlapping sheets are joined by local fusion at one or more spots by heat & pressure applied by the electrodes one above the other below. The heat is generated because of resistance to the flow of electric current through work piece.


Electrodes are brought together against the overlapping work pieces & pressure is applied, so that the surfaces of the two work pieces, come in contact with each other. Welding current is switched on for definite period of time. As the current passes, a small area where the current work pieces are in contact is heated & spot weld takes place. After welding takes place, welding current is cut off. After the electrode pressure is released to remove the spot welded work pieces.

Advantages & Applications of Spot Welding Advantages:

Low cost Less Skilled workers are required. No edge preparation is needed.

In Automobile & Aircraft industries. Steel household Furniture. Containers.

Seam Welding
Seam welding is a resistance welding process in which overlapping sheets are joined by local fusion progressively along a joint by rotating circular electrodes. Fusion Takes place because of heat which is generated by resistance to electric current flow through the work piece parts, under pressure by electrodes.

Seam Welding(Contd)

Principle of operation
Work piece should be placed between the overlapped & placed between the two circular electrodes. Switch on the current supply. As the first current impulse is applied, power driven circular electrodes are set in rotation & work piece steadily moves forward. If the current is put off & on quickly, a continuous fusion zone is obtained called stitch welding. If individual spot welds are obtained by constant & regularly timed interruption of welding current, process is called roll weld.

Advantages, Disadvantages & Applications of Seam Welding

It can produce gas tight joints. Several Parallel beams may be produced .

Cost of equipment is high as compared to spot welding set. Welding can be done only along straight or curved line. It is difficult to weld thickness greater than 3mm

It is used for welding stainless steel, Aluminium & its alloy, Nickel & Its alloys.

Arc welding is a method of joining the metal parts. Here, the source of heat is an electric arc. Arc welding is a group of welding Processes, wherein heating is produced with an electric arc, mostly without the application of pressure & with or without the use of filler metal.


In an arc welding process, arc is generated between the positive pole of D.C. called anode & negative pole of D.C. called cathode. When these two poles are brought together, and are separated for a small distance (1.5 to 3.00 mm)such that the current continues to flow through the path of ionized particles, and electric current is formed. Heat is generated, as ions strikes the cathode.


Tungsten Inert Gas Arc Welding Or Gas Tungsten Arc Welding

In this Arc Welding Process, welding heat is produced from an electric arc established between the tungsten electrode & the job. A shielding gas is used to avoid atmospheric contamination of molten weld pool. Filler Metal, if required can be used seperately.

TIG Welding(Contd.)
Shielding Gas:
Argon is used over helium because it requires a lower arc voltage. Helium can withstand higher arc voltage so, it is used where heat input is required.

TIG Welding (Operation)

Fig:-Construction of TIG

TIG Welding (Construction)

Welding torch Tungsten Electrode Filler Metal Welding Power source High frequency unit Cooling water supply Water & gas solenoid valves.

In this process, a non consumable tungsten electrode is used, which is mounted in a special electrode holder. This holder is designed to furnish a flow of inert gas around the electrode & around the arc. Welding operation is done by striking an arc between workpiece & tungsten electrode. The air is struck either by touching the electrode with a scrap metal or using a high frequency unit.

After striking the arc, it is allowed to impinge on the job & molten metal pool is created. Welding torch & filler metal are generally kept at an angle of 70-80 degrees & 10-20 degrees with the flat workpiece. Filler metal, if required should be added by dipping filler rod in the weld pool.

Advantages & Disadvantages Of TIG welding

Advantages No flux is used, so no danger of flux entry. Better control, as there is better visibility of arc. It can weld in all positions. High quality weld is produced. Disadvantages

Tungsten, if transfers contaminate the weld pool. Filler rod, if by chance comes out of the inert gas shield can cause the weld metal contamination. Equipments cost is high.

Applications of Gas Tungsten Arc Welding(GTAW)

Welding of carbon steel, stainless steel, nickel, brass, copper etc. Welding of sheet metal & thinner sections. Used in Aircrafts, Rocket Motor chambers & in Instrument industries.



In this welding process, heat is produced from an electric arc established between the continuously fed metal electrode & the job. Argon, Helium, Carbon-dioxide, or a gas mixture shields the arc & the molten metal from contamination.

Principle of MIG

Fig:-Construction of MIG

Welding power source. Welding torch & wire coiled on the spool. Wire Feed mechanism. Shielding gas cylinder. Controls.

Consumable electrode is fed in the form of wire reel, which is fed at constant rate, through the feed rollers. Welding torch is connected to gas Cylinder, which provides necessary inert gas. Electrodes & workpiece are connected to the welding power supply. Current from the welding machine is changed by changing rate of feeding of electrode wire.

Advantages & Disadvantages

Advantages Disadvantages

GMAW does not require high degree of operators skill. Continous welding at higher speeds is possible. Thick & thin both type of workpieces can be welded effectively. The process can be easily mechanised.

Welding equipment is more costly & complex. The metallurgical and mechanical properties of the joint may be affected due to high cooling rate. It is difficult to weld in small corners.

It is suitable for welding variety of ferrous & nonferrous metals Metal fabrication industries, ship-buildings, automobiles, pressure vessel industries. Welding tool steels & dies.