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ES 421 Robotics

Information Sheet
Instructor: Muhammad Aqeel Aslam
Office hours: Thursday 12:15-15:30 Email:

J. L. Fuller, Robotics: Introduction, Programming, and Projects, Second Edition, 1998, Prentice Hall, ISBN: 0130955434. REFERENCES John Craig, Introduction to robotics,3rd Ed. Prentice Hall, 2005 David Cook, Robot Building for Beginners, 2002, Apress, ISBN: 1893115445.

Course Objectives
At the end of this course, you should be able to: Describe and analyze rigid motion. Write down manipulator kinematics and operate with the resulting equations Solve simple inverse kinematics problems.

A brief history of robotics. Coordinates and Coordinates Inversion. Trajectory planning. Sensors. Actuators and control. Why robotics? Basic Kinematics. Introduction. Reference frames. Translation. Rotation. Rigid body motion. Velocity and acceleration for General Rigid Motion. Relative motion. Homogeneous coordinates. Robot Kinematics. Forward kinematics. Link description and connection. Manipulator kinematics. The workspace.

Syllabus (cont.)
Inverse Kinematics. Introduction. Solvability. Inverse Kinematics. Examples. Repeatability and accuracy. Basic Dynamics. Definitions and notation. Laws of Motion. Trajectory Planning Presenations

Policies and Grades

There will be eight homework assignments, four quizes, one mid-term and one final examinations. The test will be close book. The homeworks will count 1.5% each towards the final grade, the quizes will count 2% each toward the final grade, the midterm exam 20%, final exam 60%.

Policies and Grades (cont.)

Collaboration in the sense of discussions is allowed. You should write final solutions and understand them fully. Violation of this norm will be considered cheating, and will be taken into account accordingly. Can work alone or in teams of 4 You can also consult additional books and references but not copy from them.

The Project
EXTRA 10% marks on overall performance! Can work alone or in teams of 2

Introduction What is a Robot? Why use Robots? Robot History Robot Applications

What is a robot?
Origin of the word robot
Czech word robota labor, robotnik workman 1923 play by Karel Capek Rossums Universal Robots

Definition: (no precise definition yet)

Websters Dictionary
An automatic device that performs functions ordinarily ascribed to human beings washing machine = robot?

Robotics Institute of American

A robot (industrial robot) is a reprogrammable, multifunctional manipulator designed to move materials, parts, tools, or specialized devices, through variable programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks.

What is a robot?
By general agreement, a robot is:
A programmable machine that imitates the actions or appearance of an intelligent creatureusually a human.

To qualify as a robot, a machine must be able to:

1) Sensing and perception: get information from its surroundings 2) Carry out different tasks: Locomotion or manipulation, do something physicalsuch as move or manipulate objects 3) Re-programmable: can do different things 4) Function autonomously and/or interact with human beings

Types of Robots
Robot Manipulators

Mobile Manipulators

Types of Robots

Aerial Robots

Wheeled mobile robots

Legged robots


Underwater robots

Mobile Robot Examples

Hilare II Sojourner Rover

NASA and JPL, Mars exploration

Autonomous Robot Examples

Why Use Robots?

Application in 4D environments

Dangerous Dirty Dull Difficult

Automation Augmentation Assistance Autonomous

4A tasks

Why Use Robots?

Increase product quality
Superior Accuracies (thousands of an inch, wafer-handling: microinch) Repeatable precision Consistency of products

Increase efficiency
Work continuously without fatigue Need no vacation

Increase safety
Operate in dangerous environment Need no environmental comfort air conditioning, noise protection, etc

Reduce Cost
Reduce scrap rate Lower in-process inventory Lower labor cost

Reduce manufacturing lead time

Rapid response to changes in design

Increase productivity
Value of output per person per hour increases

Robot History
George C. Devol obtains the first U.S. robot patent, No. 2,998,237. Joe Engelberger formed Unimation and was the first to market robots First production version Unimate industrial robot is installed in a diecasting machine

Unimation, Inc. was formed, (Unimation stood for "Universal Automation")

Robot History
Unimation takes its first multi-robot order from General Motors.

"Shakey," the first intelligent mobile robot system was built at Stanford Research Institute, California.

Robot History
Shakey (Stanford Research Institute) the first mobile robot to be operated using AI techniques Simple tasks to solve: To recognize an object using vision Find its way to the object Perform some action on the object (for example, to push it over)


Robot History
Robot vision, for mobile robot guidance, is demonstrated at the Stanford Research Institute. Unimate robots assemble Chevrolet Vega automobile bodies for General Motors.

General Motors becomes the first company to use machine vision in an industrial application The Consight system is installed at a foundry in St. Catherines, Ontario, Canada.

The Stanford Cart

Hans Moravec

1973-1979 Stanford Cart Equipped with stereo vision. Take pictures from several different angles The computer gauged the distance between the cart and obstacles in its path

Robot History
The first PUMA (Programmable Universal Machine for Assembly) robot is developed by Unimation for General Motors.

IBM enters the robotics field with its 7535 and 7565 Manufacturing Systems.

Westinghouse Electric Corporation bought Unimation, Inc., which became part of its factory automation enterprise. Westinghouse later sold Unimation to Staubli of Switzerland.

Industrial Robot --- PUMA

Installed Industrial Robots

Japan take the lead, why?

Shortage of labor, high labor cost

How are they used?

Industrial robots
70% welding and painting 20% pick and place 10% others

Research focus on
Manipulator control End-effector design
Compliance device Dexterity robot hand

Visual and force feedback Flexible automation

Robotics: a much bigger industry

Robot Manipulators
Assembly, automation

Field robots
Military applications Space exploration

Service robots
Cleaning robots Medical robots

Entertainment robots

Field Robots

Service robots

Entertainment Robots

The Course at a Glimpse: Kinematics

F(robot variables) = world coordinates x = x(1,, n) y = y(1,, n) z = z(1,, n) In a cascade robot, Kinematics is a single-valued mapping. Easy to compute.

Kinematics: Example
1= , 2=r 1 r 4.5 0 50o
x = r cos

y = r sin

Inverse Kinematics
G(world coordinates) = robot variables 1 = 1(x,y,z)

1 = 1(x,y,z)
The inverse problem has a lot of geometrical difficulties inversion may not be unique!

Inverse Kinematics: Example

Make unique by constraining angles

Thank you!