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First edition

Ahmed M. Alaa

2008

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FIrst edItIon

Fundamental

Types of Antennas

By Ahmed M.Alaa
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Contents
Introduction …. 8 Chapter 1 : Basic antenna terminology ………..9 1.1 Radiation pattern 1.2 Directivity 1.3 Gain 1.4 Efficiency 1.5 Types of antennas Chapter 2 : Dipole antenna ………..34 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Balanced and Unbalanced Systems 2.3 Image theory 2.4 Monopoles 2.5 Disadvantages
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77 4.3 Design procedure 4.3 Equivalent Circuits 3.5 Applications in mobile Communication system Chapter 4 : Yagi Uda antennas……….5 The folded dipole 4 .Contents Chapter 3 : Loop antennas……….4 Loop antenna Configurations 3.61 3..1 Introduction 4.2 Components 4.4 Advantages 4.2 Design Parameters 3.1 Introduction 3..

5 Using Image theory To calculate field 5.2 Types of reflectors According to geometry 5.6 Using GTD to calculate The field 5 ..92 5.1 Why Reflectors ? 5.Contents Chapter 5 : Reflector antennas……….4 Methods of feeding Parabolic reflectors 5.3 Types of Parabolic Surfaces 5.

reflectors.Contents Chapter 6 : Microstrip antennas……….4 Advantages 6.7 Microstrip arrays 6.105 6. 6 .1 Components 6.8 Feeding of arrays 6.2 Types of microstrip Antennas 6..9 Microstrip vs.5 Disadvantages 6.6 Techniques to overcome Disadvantages 6.3 Feeding techniques 6.

4 Advantages 7 .3 Types of fractals 7.2 Characteristics 7.1 Definition 7.Contents Chapter 7 : Fractal antennas………..130 7.

their advantages . Disadvantages and applications they are used in without Involving any complicated equations. The book can be Considered a quick guide for amateur antenna designers Or readers interested in understanding how antennas Work with no prerequisites … 8 .Introduction This book presents a collection of presentations I gave And tutorials I made previously for basic concepts of Antenna design . it shows you a conceptual overview for Each type of antennas and software programs that you Can use to design them .

Chapter 1 Basic antenna terminology Thomas Edison used Antennas in 1885 ! 9 .

Radiation Pattern 2. Gain 4. Directivity 3. Types of antennas 10 . Efficiency 5.Basic Antenna terminology Outline 1.

1.. An example to a radiation pattern in Cartesian coordinates 11 .e. The pattern varies according to Different w and u . : Radiation pattern Is concerned with the proportion Of magnitudes and not their values. relative to the maximum Magnitude . i.1 Radiation Pattern The distribution of power or it’s Derivatives ( power density . power Intensity ) in the space around the Antenna .

Radiation Pattern u w Azimuth plane Elevation plane An example to a radiation pattern in Polar coordinates 12 .

13 .Radiation Pattern An example to a 3D Representation of a Radiation pattern.

Radiation Pattern : Half power beam width The beam width is the angle included between two angles in which u ( u . the same for the elevation angle .u2 . The half power beam Width = u1 . w ) Is equal to half Umax . The Half power beam widths are : a – Azimuth plane beam width b – Elevation plane beam width 14 . Where u1 and u2 are the angles where U is half its Max value . where U is the power intensity .

then the Azimuth plane beam width is equal To the elevation plane beam width .Radiation Pattern : Half power beam width When the pattern’s mathematical formula is independent on phi . we can calculate Theta 1 and Theta 2 15 . we can calculate Phi 1 and Phi 2 Putting w = p / 2 . Calculating Azimuth plane beam width Calculating elevation plane beam width Putting u = p / 2 . the pattern Is symmetric about the z – axis .

Radiation Pattern : Azimuth plane half power beam width 16 .

Radiation Pattern : Elevation plane half power beam width 17 .

usually the first Nulls bound the major lobe of the radiation pattern . the first null beam width Is calculated by estimating the angles where the power intensity is Zero .Radiation Pattern : First Null beam width The beam included by angles where the power is ZERO . 18 .

19 . the radiation pattern then have a major lobe With most of the power concentrated in a certain beam .Radiation Pattern : Directive Antennas Some Applications we need the receiving or transmitting process to be Directed in a certain direction .

Radiation Pattern : Directive Antennas Side lobes : lobes That have lower Power than major Lobes ( also called Minor lobes ) . Major lobes : the Lobes with highest Power concentration ( usually present in Directive antennas) Back lobe : The Lobe directed To the earth in 3D representation The decart plot of a directive antenna 20 .

Radiation Pattern : Directive Antennas The 3D plot of a directive antenna 21 .

Radiation Pattern : Omindirectional Antennas Antennas are said to be omindirectional when the power is distributed Equally around the antenna without being concentrated within a certain Beam . 22 .

23 .Radiation Pattern : Omindirectional Antennas The decart plot of an omindirectional antenna The distribution of power Around the antenna Is nearly equal .

Radiation Pattern : Omindirectional Antennas The 3D plot of an omindirectional antenna 24 .

25 . power density or power Intensity is concentrated in a certain beam D = Umax / Uo Where Uo is the average power intensity and Umax is maximum intensity When Umax = Uo . Directivity Directivity : The measure of how much power .1.2 . the antenna is omindirectional & D = 1 = 0 dB .

Directivity The directivity is usually inversely proportional with the half power beam width D a ( 1 / HPBW ) Ideal case D = Infinity .w) u u 26 . ( a Pulse where ALL Power is concentrating At one point .w) Omindirectional U(u.) U(u. and HPBW =0.

1.3 . Gain

Gain : The directivity after considering the antennas efficiency . G=D* Usually measured in dB .

h

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1.4 . Efficiency

The Efficiency of an Antenna is divided into three parts : a – Radiation Efficiency b – Mismatch c – Polarization losses .

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Efficiency : Radiation Efficiency

Radiation Efficiency : The efficiency of the antenna itself , regardless of The antenna system , and the polarization mismatch , it is related to the Material of the antenna .

Radiation Efficiency = ( Radiated Power ) / ( Radiated Power + Lost Power ) .

Sometimes called = ecd

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the transmission line used causes a reflection in the impedance of the antenna if the characteristic impedance of The transmission line ( Zo ) differs from the input impedance of the antenna ( Z in ) .Efficiency : Reflection Mismatch When an antenna is connected to a generator . G= | ( Zin – Zo ) / ( Zin + Zo ) | Reflection Coefficient Reflection Efficiency 30 er = 1 . The input impedance is transformed by Zin = ( Zo * Zo ) / Zold .| G |2 .

Efficiency : Reflection Mismatch Zo An equivalent circuit for an Antenna attached to a Generator . ~ Zin 31 . the input Impedance of the load ( antenna ) is not equal to Zin but the transmission Line transforms it according To its characteristic Impedance Zo .

Antenna Polarization Received Signal Co – Polar Component Cross -Polar Component PLF = Cos c 32 Lost Component . losses results in and measured by polarization loss factor PLF .Efficiency : Polarization losses If the Polarization of the incident wave is not matching with the polarization of The antenna .

1. 33 .5 . Types of Antennas 1 – Wire Antennas 2 – Aperture Antennas 3 – Microstrip Antennas 4 – Array Antennas 5 – Reflector Antennas 6 – Lens Antennas .

Chapter 2
Dipole antenna

C.A.Balanis is one of The most important antenna scientists , and Contributed with a famous book ―Antenna theory‖.
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Dipole Antenna
Outline
1. Introduction 2. Balanced and Unbalanced Systems 3. Image theory 4. Monopoles 5. Disadvantages Practical Example

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2.1. Introduction

The dipole antenna is the simplest antenna , despite of not being used Practically in applications , it is used to test antenna labs ( so it is considered The reference antenna ) , a dipole antenna consists of 2 wires ( lambda /4 for Its length ) , the two wires are separated by a gap and their terminals are Connected to the transmitter or the receiver

+ -

l/4 l/4

This type of dipoles is called Half wave length dipole as the Total length is lambda / 2 .

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Introduction : Geometry 37 .

Introduction : dipole configuration 38 .

6 dimensionless and about 2 -> 2. 39 .2 dB .Introduction : Characteristics The directivity is nearly equal to 1. The input impedance is usually 73 + 42.5 j ohms and the radiation resistance Is nearly 73 ohm .

The 3D plot of the radiation Pattern of a dipole antenna . that means that the magnetic field is Zero at the near field . The polarization is along the dipole . 40 . and a null along it .Introduction : Radiation Pattern I The dipole is an Electric field Antenna . The radiation pattern is like a donut cake with the maximum Perpendicular to the dipole .

Introduction : Radiation Pattern I The radiation pattern for the Electric field for a folded dipole antenna 41 .

42 .Introduction : Radiation Pattern II The radiation pattern of the dipole . all the field is electric as shown .

Introduction : Radiation Pattern III The radiation pattern of the dipole . No radiation Pattern for the Magnetic field ― H ― !! This means that A dipole is an Electric field Antenna … 43 . the magnetic field equals zero .

Introduction : Radiation Pattern IV When the length of the dipole exceeds lambda the radiation pattern takes A new shape due to the appearance of the grating lobes where the major Lobes divides into multiple lobes . 44 .

2 input terminals + - Balanced System 45 .2. Balanced and Unbalanced Systems Balanced System A system with two input terminals .2 . a positive and negative terminals . the Dipole antenna is a balanced system because it has two terminals and this Is why it is not widely used in applications .

1 input terminal Unbalanced System 46 . we desire an unbalanced system because when mounting an antenna in a Device only one input will is used for each component and all components have A common ground .Balanced and Unbalanced Systems Unbalanced System A system with one input terminal . having a single pole and a ground plane .

Balanced and Unbalanced Systems : Baluns 47 .

Fields Electric field Magnetic field Conductors Electric conductor PEC Magnetic Conductors PMC 48 . this type of antennas is called Monopoles . virtual sources ( images ) Will be introduced to account for their reflections . Image theory When a single pole is near an infinite plane conductor . and have the advantage of being an unbalanced system .3 . the plane conductor can be Considered a ground and thus we can construct an antenna that have the same Behavior of a dipole but having a single pole .2.

Image theory When electric and magnetic fields are near electric and magnetic fields their Images are in the following directions : s = infinity PEC PMC s = infinity 49 .

has the same Effect of a virtual source Representing the second Pole .2.4 . A direct ray from the Actual source to the Observation point Represents the first Pole of a dipole . A reflected ray from the Ground plane to the Same observation Point . an equivalent system of a dipole Is resulted and actually resembles the behavior of a dipole but with using a Single pole and having the advantage of being an unbalanced system . Monopoles When combining actual and image sources . this is Why monopoles are more practically used than dipoles . 50 .

Monopoles 51 .

25j Zin = 73+ 42.Monopoles Monopole Dipole Zin = 36.5j 52 .5 + 21.

Monopoles The radiation pattern of a monopole is half the radiation pattern of a dipole If we imagined that the radiation pattern of a dipole is a donut cake . 53 . in monopoles theta is defined from 0 to 90 . In a dipole theta is Defined from 0 to 180 . the Monopole’s radiation pattern is a half eaten donut !! .

Monopoles : Coaxial cables ( Coax ) Co – axial cables consists of a central and a ground plane . it is used to connect The monopole to the load ( ex: a TV ) . Central cable Ground plane Dielectric material 54 .

Central cable Ground plane 55 .Monopoles : Coaxial cables ( Coax ) We benefit from the ground plane of cable by welding it to the ground of monopole And welding it to the ground of monopoles and welding the central cable to the Wire ( the monopole ) .

Monopoles : Coaxial cables ( Coax ) We can even make a monopole from just a co – axial cable ! Central cable And the pole of The monopole Antenna at the Same time. Equivalent to ~ Ground plane Of the monopole And the ground Plane of the coax At the same time... 56 .

the Word balun is the abbreviation of ― Balanced to Unbalanced converter ―. we should use a balun . which Is a device that converts a balanced system to an unbalanced system . Balun Balanced System 57 .Monopoles : Baluns When we use a dipole instead of a monopole .

5 . Disadvantages An Electric field antenna . this makes dipoles incompatible with portable Combination .2. Dipoles are balanced systems . 58 . this makes it difficult to mount them On any device without the use of baluns . this means that the magnetic field “ H “ is Zero at near field .

Practical Example Try connecting a terminal of a cable like the one shown in the figure to a port in your TV . the other terminal acts as a monopole ( but with a bad Performance ) . and you can enjoy watching your TV …!! 59 .

Dielectric cover Material… 60 . you can reduce the length of your Design by covering it with a dielectric material with permittivity Is reduced then by 1 / e e .Practical Example When designing your dipole or monopole . the length Antenna with Reduced length .

Chapter 3 Loop antenna C. 61 .Balanis is one of The most important antenna scientists . and Contributed with a famous book ―Antenna theory‖.A.

Applications in mobile Communication system Practical Example 62 . Design Parameters 3.Loop Antennas Outline 1. Equivalent Circuits 4. Loop antenna Configurations 5. Introduction 2.

1. circle . Introduction As the dipole is the reference ( conventional ) electric field antenna . i When current Circulates in the Loop it is obvious That a magnetic Field is produced. loops Are the reference magnetic field antenna .3. triangle . i 63 . Loop antennas can take different shapes Like square . In dipoles current Moves till discontinuity occurs And then radiates ( Electric field ). ellipse or any other closed shape.

Introduction : Geometry 64 .

The elevation and azimuth Plane radiation pattern of a Loop antenna . whose axis Perpendicular to the plane of the loop. 65 .Introduction : Radiation Pattern A small loop is equivalent to an infinitesimal magnetic dipole .

showing The geometry of The loop in blue. 66 .Introduction : Radiation Pattern The 3D radiation Pattern of loop Antenna .

67 . the dominant Radiation is magnetic And this is why Loops are magnetic Field antennas .Introduction : Radiation Pattern The radiation pattern Of a loop for magnetic Field .

Introduction Types of loops are : Electrically Small Electrically large C < l / 10 C : circumference C ~ l 68 .

2. Methods of increasing radiation resistance 1 – Increasing its perimeter (electrically) 2 – Increasing number of turns 3 – Inserting a ferrite core with high Permeability ( ferrite loops ). this makes them receivers rather than Transmitters where signal to noise ratio is more important than efficiency . Design Parameters The radiation resistance of loop antennas is very small and sometimes Less than the loss resistance .3. : 69 .

4 – Thickness . 5 – Presence of a ferrite core . 2 – Increasing number of turns. 70 . 3 – Spacing between turns .Design Parameters Design parameters : 1 – Perimeter of the loop ( circumference).

N : Number of turns 1.5 2.Design Parameters The effect of design parameters on added resistance : Ron N=7 N=6 N=8 Ron : Normalized Added resistance.0 1. 71 .5 3.0 Spacing We seek a design with the Minimum spacing and Maximum turns to satisfy Maximum radiation resistance.0 2.

Design Parameters Impedance Resistance Resonance occurs When the capacitance And inductance Vanishes and resistance is maximum This is the Area we select the Design within Inductance Reactance Capacitance Thickness to circumference ratio 72 .

3.3. Equivalent Circuits Transmitting mode As we saw the transmitting mode can be modeled by a parallel resonance circuit Zg Rl Rr C + Vg - Xa 73 .

Equivalent Circuits Receiving mode Zg + Z load Vg - 74 .

Loop Antenna Configurations Top – driven triangular Base – driven triangular ~ ~ Rectangular Circular ~ ~ 75 .4.3.

3 – Loops are very immune to noise . having low noise To signal ratio makes them suitable for interfering And fading environment.5. 76 . 2 – Loops are used in portable pagers . Loops in mobile communication 1 – Loops are alternative to monopoles . the most widely Used element for hand held portable mobile Communication. but very few in Transceivers due to high resistance and inductance.3.

Chapter 4
Yagi antenna

The Yagi Antenna is a directional antenna invented by Dr. Hidetsugu Yagi of Tohoku Imperial University and his assistant, Dr. Shintaro Uta.
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Yagi – Uda Antennas
Outline
1 – Introduction 2 – Components 3 – Design procedure 4 – Advantages 5 – The folded dipole

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4.1 . Introduction

One of the most popular antennas used in home TV is the yagi uda array , it is A very practical radiator in the HF ( 3 – 30 MHz ) , VHF ( 30 – 300 MHz) and UHF ( 300 – 3000 MHz ) ranges .

The Yagi – uda antenna is primarily an array of linear dipoles with one element Serving as the feed while the others act as parasitic elements .

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an antenna that is very popular Among ham radio operators is the quad antenna .Introduction This arrangement extends for arrays of loops . Reflectors Driven ~ 80 .

2 . -Parasitic radiators are divided into reflectors and directors.4. Components The yagi uda antenna consists of a number of linear dipole elements : -One of which is energized directly by a feed transmission line while the others act as parasitic radiators whose currents are induced by mutual coupling . -The feed element is usually a type of dipoles called a folded dipole used For operation in the end fire mode . Reflector ~ Directors Driven 81 .

Components : geometry 82 .

Components : 3D display 83 .

3 . less than the feed element 84 .49 l ) The directors should be about ( ~ 0.4 l – 0. Design procedure To achieve the end fire mode the design is characterized by : Parasitic elements in the direction of the beam are smaller than feed element ( directors ) The driven element is slightly less than l / 2 ( ~ 0.45 l ) .4.45 l – 0.

4 lambda .Design procedure The directors are not necessarily of the same length or diameter ! The separation between the directors is between 0. A yagi uda array of 6 lambda total length was found to have an overall gain Independent on the directors’ separation The length of the reflector is somewhat greater than the feed element 85 .3 to 0.

25 lambda ) Most antennas has from 6 to 12 directors . 86 .Design procedure The separation between the feed element and the reflector is less than that of The feed and the nearest director ( nearly 0.

Design procedure The 3D radiation pattern 87 .

Design procedure The 2D radiation pattern 88 .

Design procedure The SWR plot of the yagi uda 89 .

4 . 90 .4. Advantages Light weighted Simple to build Low cost .

The folded dipole The folded dipole is frequently used as the feeding element As it has good directional characteristics . it is Recommended that the width << lambda .4. ~ 91 .5 .

Chapter 5 Reflector antenna The first cassegrain Reflector was designed By Laurent cassegrain In 1672 . 92 .

Reflector Antennas Outline 1.Why Reflectors ? 2 – Types of reflectors According to geometry 3 – Types of Parabolic Surfaces 4 – Methods of feeding Parabolic reflectors 5 – Using Image theory To calculate field 6 – Using GTD to calculate The field 93 .

the reflecting surface collimates radiation to The small aperture and thus we satisfied high directivity with a small Aperture . instead of using Large apertures we place a reflecting surface face to face with the aperture ( or any other antenna ) .but as this is not practical . 94 .1. and overcame space limitations. A side view of An aperture of A large area A side view of An aperture of A small area And a reflecting Surface used.5. Why Reflectors ? While using aperture antennas we always need to increase the aperture Area to increase its directivity .

Types according to geometry Plane reflectors Corner reflectors Curved reflectors 95 .2.5.

Types according to geometry : 90 degree corner To better collimate the energy in the forward direction . the geometrical shape Of the plane reflector must be changed to prohibit radiation in the back and Side directions . so it is not used in military applications To prevent radars from detecting airplanes positions. 96 . the ray incident on It reflects exactly in the same direction . The 90 degree – corner reflector has a unique property .

An example for an openGL plot for all objects of a reflector Antenna using Grasp 9 .Types according to geometry The most important software used for simulating reflector antennas is ―Grasp‖. 97 .

Types of parabolic surfaces Parabolic Cylinder Focus is a line Hyperbola Parabola Focus is a point 98 .3.5.

4.5. Methods of feeding parabolic reflectors Front – fed reflectors Offset reflectors Cassegrain fed Dual offset 99 .

we use half a dish and adjust the Feeding element in a way that makes the antenna equivalent to a single Reflector . Why we use cassegrain fed reflectors ? This increases the focal length and thus increases the directivity . 100 .Methods of feeding parabolic reflectors Why we use Offset reflectors ( single and dual ) ? To avoid blockage caused by struts .

c = 180 / n .5. C = 90 C = 180 C = 60 101 .Using Image theory in calculating fields We use the image theory to find a system of fields but The GTD is more accurate because here we assume Virtual sources .5. 2n : number of images .

En 102 ..Using Image theory in calculating fields E1 E2 E3 E4 En Total field : E = E1 + E2 + E3 + E4 + ……………….

The GTD (geometrical Theory of diffraction) accounts for reflection and diffraction of Rays after calculating the reflection and diffraction coefficients . Using GTD in calculating fields Using GTD instead of the image theory results in more accuracy As we don’t assume virtual sources .5. 103 .6 .

A satellite dish is a parabolic reflector antenna 104 .

Chapter 6 Microstrip antenna Microstrip antennas Are considered the most practical antennas For mobile communication ! 105 .

Feeding of arrays 9.Microstrip vs.Advantages 5. 106 .Techniques to overcome Disadvantages 7.Components 2. reflectors.Types of microstrip Antennas 3.Feeding techniques 4.Microstrip arrays 8.Microstrip Antennas Outline 1.Disadvantages 6.

1. rectangular or any other shape . 107 . Components A microstrip antenna consists of : Patch ( radiating Element ) Feed Dielectric Ground plane copper The patch ( radiating element ) may be circular .6.

L . e W L 108 . lg = l / The microstrip antennas have a main radiating edge . . lo = c / f .Components : Design parameters e) e Design parameters : ( W . f . the other edge is weaker .

-The patch is connected to The ground -Have only one radiating Edge . -Side length of the patch is lg / 2.2 . .6.Side length is lg / 4 . Types of microstrip antennas Open circuit microstrip Short circuit microstrip -The patch is totally isolated From the ground plane -Higher efficiency than short Circuit microstrip antennas . 109 .

Shorting posts have : -Inductance in each one -Capacitance between them > As number of posts increase Resonant frequency increase . Shorting Posts 110 . we use shorting Posts instead .Types of microstrip antennas As it is difficult to manufacture a short circuit microstrip antenna .

3. Feeding techniques Feeding by coupling Microstrip line Feed Direct feeding by coaxial Feed line ( probe ) Aperture coupled feed Proximity coupled feed 111 .6.

Patch Coaxial Equivalent circuit 112 .Feeding techniques : Direct feed by coaxial fees line The inner ( central ) of the coax is attached to the patch while The outer ground is welded to the ground of the microstrip ( like the monopole ) .

Feeding techniques : Microstrip feed line It is a conducting strip of much smaller width compared to the Patch . it is easy to fabricate and simple to match . 113 ..

Depends on two substrates and A ground with a slot . however it is difficult to fabricate. Has a band width of 13% .Feeding techniques : feeding by coupling Aperture coupled feed Proximity coupled feed The most difficult to fabricate And has a narrow band . 114 .

6.4 . Advantages 1 – High accuracy in manufacturing . the design is executed by Photo etching 2 – Easy to integrate with other devices 3 – An array of microstrip antennas can be used to form a Pattern that is difficult to synthesize using a single element. 4 – We can obtain high directivity using microstrip arrays 115 .

this makes it useful for mobile Phones to avoid radiation inside the device . 6 – Small sized applicable for handheld portable communication 7 – Smart antennas when combined with phase shifters .Advantages 5 – Have a main radiating edge . 116 .

also microstrip antennas are relatively expensive . especially for short circuited microstrip antenna 3 – Some feeding techniques like aperture and proximity Coupling are difficult to fabricate 4 – An array suffers presence of feed network decreasing Efficiency .6. Disadvantages 1 – Narrow band width ( 1% ) .5 . while mobiles need ( 8% ) 2 – Low efficiency . 117 .

Decreasing dielectric Constant 2. Techniques for overcoming disadvantages Conventional techniques Non conventional techniques 1.6 .Aligned parasitic elements 2.Increasing thickness 3.Increasing width .6.Using stacked parasitic Elements. 1. 118 .

This makes the antenna has Three resonating frequencies And the ultimate resonance Is of a wider band width.Techniques for overcoming disadvantages : Aligned parasitic elements Feeding one patch by coax Probe and the other two Patches are fed by coupling . Single element Parasitic elements 119 . Patch #1 : Fed by coax Feed line Patch #2 . 3 : Fed by Coupling.

120 .Techniques for overcoming disadvantages : Stacked parasitic elements Rather than aligning them . We can even combine the two Methods and modulate the Patch’s shape to yield widest Band width .

Microstrip Arrays 2^n Feed Network 2^n 121 .6.7 .

2 – Used to scan the beam of an antenna system 3 – Increases directivity .Microstrip Arrays The optimum spacing is 0.8lo . 122 . Advantages of microstrip arrays 1 – Used to synthesize a required pattern difficult to achieve with A single element. length must be <= lo to avoid Multiple grating lobes and also must be >= lambda / 2 .

2 – Low efficiency 3 – If the separation is more than lambda . grating lobes appear 4 – Feed network decreases efficiency .Microstrip Arrays Disadvantages of microstrip arrays 1 – Narrow bandwidth ( 1 % ) . 123 .

8 . Sometimes feed networks are synthesized with the antenna ! 124 .6. Feeding of arrays A microstrip antenna uses feed network which may be either : 1 – Series feed 2 – Corporate feed .

Feeding of arrays : Series feed Series feed 125 .

Feeding of arrays : Corporate feed Corporate feed 126 .

Microstrip vs. Reflectors Microstrip Antennas Reflector Antennas Preferred for low directivity applications Performed for high directivity applications as the effect of blockage Is less Higher efficiency Lower efficiency Suffers low efficiency caused by Feed network for arrays Suffers blockage caused by fixation Struts 127 .9 .6.

apertures .. sometimes parabolic Surfaces are rough Feeding is by coupling or coax feed Lines Uses other antenna ( dipole .Microstrip vs. uses electronic scanning when combined with phase Shifters More accurate manufacturing by photo etching Uses mechanical scanning .etc) as A feed 128 . …. monopole . Reflectors Microstrip Antennas Reflector Antennas Smart antennas . Less accuracy .

Flat plane Microstrip Antenna 129 .

Chapter 7 Fractal antenna Fractal antennas are Very compact as they Utilize the same Physical area of classic Antennas but with an Electrically large length ! 130 .

Fractal Antennas Outline 1 – Definition 2 – Characteristics 3 – Types of fractals 4 – Advantages 131 .

132 .1 . self-similar design to maximize the length.Definition A fractal antenna is an antenna that uses a fractal.7. [ source : wikipedia ] A fractal is : a recursively generated geometry that has fractional Dimensions. of material that can receive or transmit electromagnetic signals within a given total surface area or volume. or increase the perimeter (on inside sections or the outer structure).

the Opposite figure shows A koch loop after several Iterations . 133 .Definition : fractal generation Some software products can generate fractals And fractal maps .

7.2 – Characteristics A fractal antenna's response differs markely from traditional antenna designs. Normally standard antennas have to be "cut" for the frequency for which they are to be used—and thus the standard antennas only work well at that frequency. 134 . in that it is capable of operating with good-to-excellent performance at many different frequencies simultaneously. This makes the fractal antenna an excellent design for wideband and multiband applications.

Characteristics Fractal antennas satisfies the requirements of wireless communication Systems : 1 – Wideband 2 – Multiband 3 – Low profile 4 – Small antenna 135 .

136 . Fractal antennas utilizes the available space in a sphere of radius r in an Efficient way The quality factor Q is inversely proportional with the band width.Characteristics The band width of an antenna can be improved as the geometry of the The antenna best utilizes the available planar area of a circle of radius r That encloses the antenna .

and also used To represent nature .Characteristics The concept of fractals is frequently used in electromagnetism . A Fern fractal Represents a plant 137 .

Sierpinski gaskets .Minkowski island 138 .3 – Types of fractals Fractals may be: Deterministic Random -Von Koch snowflake .7.

Types of fractals : Koch loop Fractals that begin with a basic geometry (initiator) and uses a recursive Algorithm t produce copies of themselves . Initiator Generator 139 .

Types of fractals : Koch loop Iterations 1 2 3 140 .

Types of fractals : Minkowski island A Minkowski island A Minkowski island after more iterations As plotted by the directx display of 4nec2 Software ( by Arie voor ) 141 .

A2 = 1 3 elements 2M +1 = 3 142 .Types of fractals : Sierpinski gaskets Determined by the nodes of a Pascal triangle which are numbered by the excitation coefficients of the binomial array decided by J. 1 element 2M + 1 = 1 M=0 A1 = 1 2 elements 2M = 2 M=1 A1 = 1 .stone ( 1 + x ) ^ ( m – 1 ) = 1 + ( m -1 ) * x + ( ( m – 1 ) ( m – 2 ) ( x ^ 2 ) ) / 2! + ( ( m – 1 ) ( m – 2 ) ( m – 3 ) ( x ^ 3 ) ) / 3! +….S.

Types of fractals : Sierpinski gaskets The Pascal triangle 143 .

5 .Types of fractals : Sierpinski gaskets If the nodes with numbers divisible by a prime number p ( p = 2 . ………) is deleted the result is a sierpinski gasket of mod-p 144 . 3 .

Types of fractals : Random fractals 145 .

7. but can resonate And has input resistance that are much greater than classic geometries Of loops and dipoles The first resonance for a linear dipole occurs at lambda / 2 overall length Which can be physically large for some frequencies 146 .4 – Advantages Fractal antennas results in more compact antennas .

Advantages The higher iterative geometries . 147 . the lower resonant frequencies because Its overall length becomes electrically large .