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# ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES

Characteristics of electromagnetic
waves :
ØPropagated in space
ØTransversal waves
ØRectilinear propagation - the movement of light
waves in a straight line.
ØReflection ( pemantulan ) - wave direction change
after striking a reflective surface.
ØRefraction ( pembiasan ) - wave direction changes
due to a change in the wave's speed from entering
a new medium.
ØInterference ( interferensi ) - superposition of two
waves that come into contact with each other.
ØDiffraction ( lenturan ) - bending of waves as they
interact with obstacles in their path.
INTERFERENCE
( INTERFERENSI )
Observed by Fresnell and Thomas Young
•Interference by one tight aperture (satu
celah sempit)
•Caused by diffraction of wave when its pass a
tight aperture
•Bright patterns  constructive interference
( maximum )
d sinθ = (n+ ⅟2)�
•Dark patterns  destructive interference ( minimum )
d sinθ = n�
n = 1, 2, 3, 4, …..
d = aperture width
Interference by two tight
apertures

## Schematic diagram of Young’s double-slit

Constructive interference occurs Destructive interference
at point P and Q occurs at R
• Bright bands  constructive interference
( maximum )

n = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, …..

## • Dark patterns  destructive interference

( minimum )
• n = 0,1, 2, 3, 4, …..

• n = order number
• d = distance between two tight apertures
• y = distance of center bright to certain
bright or dark
• Interference in thin sphere
• Constructive interference ( maximum )
• 2nd cos θ = ( m+ ⅟2 )�
• Destructive interference ( minimum )

2nd cos θ = m�
• n = index of diffraction
• d = thickness of sphere
• θ = diffraction angle
• � = wavelength

Seberkas cahaya monokromatis dijatuhkan
pada dua celah sempit vertikal berdekatan
dengan jarak 0,01 mm. Pola interferensi
cm dari celah. Jika diketahui jarak antara
dua pita gelap pertama adalah 7,2 mm,
maka panjang gelombang cahaya tersebut

a. 180 b. 270 c. 360

d. 720 e. 1800

(SPMB’03)
A viewing screen is separated from a
double-slit source by 1.2 m. The distance
between the two slits is 0.030 mm. The
second-order bright fringe (m = 2 ) is
4.5cm from the center line.
(a)Determine the wavelength of the light.
(b)Calculate the distance between
Diffraction
a. Single Slit
Diffraction
Maximum diffraction : d sinθ = ( m –
½ )λ
Minimum diffraction : d sinθ = mλ
m = number of order (1, 2, 3, 4, ….. )
d = slit width
θ = diffraction angle
� = wavelength
b. Grid Diffraction
Maximum diffraction  d sinθ = mλ
Minimum diffraction  d sinθ = ( m
+ ½ )λ
d = constant of grid or distance between
two slits

## N = number of slits per cm

m = number of order ( 1, 2, 3, …. )
λ = wavelength
θ = diffraction angle
Resolution
Power

## dm = Resolution power / daya urai ( m

)
λ = wavelength ( m )
D = slit or aperture width ( m )
ℓ = distance of light source from
lens ( m )
POLARIZATION

## Schematic diagram of an electromagnetic wave

propagating at velocity c in the x direction. The
electric field vibrates in the xy plane, and the
magnetic field vibrates in the xz plane  the resultant
electromagnetic wave is a superposition of waves
vibrating in many different directions.
a. Polarization by Selective
Absorption
 Producing polarized light by using a material
that transmits waves which electric fields
vibrate in a plane parallel to a certain
direction and that absorbs waves whose
electric fields vibrate in all other directions
 called polaroid
 The intensity of the (polarized) beam
transmitted through the analyzer varies
as :

known as Malus’s
law
• Two polarizing sheets whose transmission
axes make an angle with each other. Only a
fraction of the polarized light incident on
the analyzer is transmitted through it.
b. Polarization by Reflection

##  When an unpolarized light beam is

reflected from a surface, the
reflected light may be completely
polarized, partially polarized, or
unpolarized, depending on the
angle of incidence.
 If the angle of incidence is 0°, the

## reflected beam is unpolarized.

When unpolarized light is The reflected beam is
incident on a reflecting completely polarized when
surface, the reflected and the angle of incidence equals
refracted beams are the polarizing angle θp ,
which satisfies the equation n
• the angle of incidence θ1 is varied until the
angle between the reflected and refracted
beams is 90°  the reflected beam is
completely polarized (with its electric
field vector parallel to the surface), and the
refracted beam is still only partially
polarized.
• The angle of incidence at which this
polarization occurs is called the Brewster’s
called polarizing
angle θp law
n1 = refractive index of incident medium
n2 = refractive index of refractive medium
n = refractive index of refractive medium relative to
c. Polarization by Double
Refraction
• In certain crystalline materials, such as
calcite (kalsit) and quartz (kwarsa),
the speed of light is not the same in
all directions  are characterized by
two indices of refraction  as double-
refracting materials.

d. Polarization by Scattering

## • When light is incident on any material,

the electrons in the material can
absorb and reradiate part of the light.
• Such absorption and reradiation of light
by electrons in the gas molecules that
make up air is what causes sunlight
reaching an observer on the Earth to
be partially polarized.
Speed of electromagnetic
wave
vMaxwell : the speed of
electromagnetic depend on :
Permeability of magnetic ( μo )
vPermeability
Permitivityof electric ( εo )
vPermitivityof
• Mathematically,

μo = 4� x 10-7 Wb
A-1 m-1
εo = 8.85 x 10-12
C2N-1 m-2
Propagation of
electromagnetic wave

## At every instant the ratio of the

magnitude of the electric field to the
magnitude of the magnetic field in an
electromagnetic wave equals the speed
Example :
• A sinusoidal electromagnetic wave of
frequency 40.0 MHz travels in free
space in the x direction
a)Determine the wavelength and period
of the wave.
b)At some point and at some instant, the
electric field has its maximum value of
750 N/C and is along the y
axis.Calculate the magnitude and
direction of the magnetic field at this
position and time.
Solutio
n:
Energy of Electromagnetic
Wave
 The rate of flow of energy in an
electromagnetic wave is described by a
vector S, called the Poynting vector,
which is defined by the expression

## The magnitude of the Poynting vector represents

power per unit area ( Js-1 m2 or Wm2 )
The direction of the vector is along the direction
of wave propagation
Intensity of Electromagnetic
Wave
 We define the intensity I of a wave to be
the rate at which the energy being
transported by the wave flows through a
unit area A perpendicular to the direction
of travel of the wave.

Propagation of
electromagnetic wave

## At every instant the ratio of the

magnitude of the electric field to the
magnitude of the magnetic field in an
electromagnetic wave equals the speed
Energy of Electromagnetic
Wave
 The rate of flow of energy in an
electromagnetic wave is described by a
vector S, called the Poynting vector,
which is defined by the expression

## The magnitude of the Poynting vector represents

power per unit area ( Js-1 m2 or Wm2 )
The direction of the vector is along the direction
of wave propagation
Intensity of Electromagnetic
Wave
 We define the intensity I of a wave to be
the rate at which the energy being
transported by the wave flows through a
unit area A perpendicular to the direction
of travel of the wave.