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Characteristics of electromagnetic

waves :

ØPropagated in space

ØTransversal waves

ØRectilinear propagation - the movement of light

waves in a straight line.

ØReflection ( pemantulan ) - wave direction change

after striking a reflective surface.

ØRefraction ( pembiasan ) - wave direction changes

due to a change in the wave's speed from entering

a new medium.

ØInterference ( interferensi ) - superposition of two

waves that come into contact with each other.

ØDiffraction ( lenturan ) - bending of waves as they

interact with obstacles in their path.

INTERFERENCE

( INTERFERENSI )

Observed by Fresnell and Thomas Young

•Interference by one tight aperture (satu

celah sempit)

•Caused by diffraction of wave when its pass a

tight aperture

•Bright patterns constructive interference

( maximum )

d sinθ = (n+ ⅟2)�

•Dark patterns destructive interference ( minimum )

d sinθ = n�

n = 1, 2, 3, 4, …..

d = aperture width

Interference by two tight

apertures

Constructive interference occurs Destructive interference

at point P and Q occurs at R

• Bright bands constructive interference

( maximum )

•

n = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, …..

•

( minimum )

• n = 0,1, 2, 3, 4, …..

•

• n = order number

• d = distance between two tight apertures

• y = distance of center bright to certain

bright or dark

• Interference in thin sphere

• Constructive interference ( maximum )

• 2nd cos θ = ( m+ ⅟2 )�

• Destructive interference ( minimum )

•

2nd cos θ = m�

• n = index of diffraction

• d = thickness of sphere

• θ = diffraction angle

• � = wavelength

•

Seberkas cahaya monokromatis dijatuhkan

pada dua celah sempit vertikal berdekatan

dengan jarak 0,01 mm. Pola interferensi

yang terjadi ditangkap pada layar sejauh 20

cm dari celah. Jika diketahui jarak antara

dua pita gelap pertama adalah 7,2 mm,

maka panjang gelombang cahaya tersebut

adalah ……… nm

•

a. 180 b. 270 c. 360

•

d. 720 e. 1800

•

(SPMB’03)

A viewing screen is separated from a

double-slit source by 1.2 m. The distance

between the two slits is 0.030 mm. The

second-order bright fringe (m = 2 ) is

4.5cm from the center line.

(a)Determine the wavelength of the light.

(b)Calculate the distance between

adjacent bright fringes.

Diffraction

a. Single Slit

Diffraction

Maximum diffraction : d sinθ = ( m –

½ )λ

Minimum diffraction : d sinθ = mλ

m = number of order (1, 2, 3, 4, ….. )

d = slit width

θ = diffraction angle

� = wavelength

b. Grid Diffraction

Maximum diffraction d sinθ = mλ

Minimum diffraction d sinθ = ( m

+ ½ )λ

d = constant of grid or distance between

two slits

•

m = number of order ( 1, 2, 3, …. )

λ = wavelength

θ = diffraction angle

Resolution

Power

)

λ = wavelength ( m )

D = slit or aperture width ( m )

ℓ = distance of light source from

lens ( m )

POLARIZATION

propagating at velocity c in the x direction. The

electric field vibrates in the xy plane, and the

magnetic field vibrates in the xz plane the resultant

electromagnetic wave is a superposition of waves

vibrating in many different directions.

a. Polarization by Selective

Absorption

Producing polarized light by using a material

that transmits waves which electric fields

vibrate in a plane parallel to a certain

direction and that absorbs waves whose

electric fields vibrate in all other directions

called polaroid

The intensity of the (polarized) beam

transmitted through the analyzer varies

as :

known as Malus’s

law

• Two polarizing sheets whose transmission

axes make an angle with each other. Only a

fraction of the polarized light incident on

the analyzer is transmitted through it.

b. Polarization by Reflection

reflected from a surface, the

reflected light may be completely

polarized, partially polarized, or

unpolarized, depending on the

angle of incidence.

If the angle of incidence is 0°, the

When unpolarized light is The reflected beam is

incident on a reflecting completely polarized when

surface, the reflected and the angle of incidence equals

refracted beams are the polarizing angle θp ,

which satisfies the equation n

• the angle of incidence θ1 is varied until the

angle between the reflected and refracted

beams is 90° the reflected beam is

completely polarized (with its electric

field vector parallel to the surface), and the

refracted beam is still only partially

polarized.

• The angle of incidence at which this

polarization occurs is called the Brewster’s

called polarizing

angle θp law

n1 = refractive index of incident medium

n2 = refractive index of refractive medium

n = refractive index of refractive medium relative to

c. Polarization by Double

Refraction

• In certain crystalline materials, such as

calcite (kalsit) and quartz (kwarsa),

the speed of light is not the same in

all directions are characterized by

two indices of refraction as double-

refracting materials.

•

d. Polarization by Scattering

the electrons in the material can

absorb and reradiate part of the light.

• Such absorption and reradiation of light

by electrons in the gas molecules that

make up air is what causes sunlight

reaching an observer on the Earth to

be partially polarized.

Speed of electromagnetic

wave

vMaxwell : the speed of

electromagnetic depend on :

Permeability of magnetic ( μo )

vPermeability

Permitivityof electric ( εo )

vPermitivityof

• Mathematically,

μo = 4� x 10-7 Wb

A-1 m-1

εo = 8.85 x 10-12

C2N-1 m-2

Propagation of

electromagnetic wave

magnitude of the electric field to the

magnitude of the magnetic field in an

electromagnetic wave equals the speed

Example :

• A sinusoidal electromagnetic wave of

frequency 40.0 MHz travels in free

space in the x direction

a)Determine the wavelength and period

of the wave.

b)At some point and at some instant, the

electric field has its maximum value of

750 N/C and is along the y

axis.Calculate the magnitude and

direction of the magnetic field at this

position and time.

Solutio

n:

Energy of Electromagnetic

Wave

The rate of flow of energy in an

electromagnetic wave is described by a

vector S, called the Poynting vector,

which is defined by the expression

power per unit area ( Js-1 m2 or Wm2 )

The direction of the vector is along the direction

of wave propagation

Intensity of Electromagnetic

Wave

We define the intensity I of a wave to be

the rate at which the energy being

transported by the wave flows through a

unit area A perpendicular to the direction

of travel of the wave.

Propagation of

electromagnetic wave

magnitude of the electric field to the

magnitude of the magnetic field in an

electromagnetic wave equals the speed

Energy of Electromagnetic

Wave

The rate of flow of energy in an

electromagnetic wave is described by a

vector S, called the Poynting vector,

which is defined by the expression

power per unit area ( Js-1 m2 or Wm2 )

The direction of the vector is along the direction

of wave propagation

Intensity of Electromagnetic

Wave

We define the intensity I of a wave to be

the rate at which the energy being

transported by the wave flows through a

unit area A perpendicular to the direction

of travel of the wave.

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