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UNDERSTANDING PSYCHOLOGY

10TH EDITION By Robert Feldman Powerpoint slides by Kimberly Foreman Revised for 10th Ed by Cathleen Hunt

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EIGHT: COGNITION AND LANGUAGE

CHAPTER

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MODULE 23: Thinking and Reasoning


What
What

is thinking?

processes underlie reasoning and decision making?

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MODULE 23: Thinking and Reasoning


Cognitive

Psychology

Branch of psychology that focuses on the study of

higher mental processes, including thinking, language, memory, problem solving, knowing, reasoning, judging, and decision making

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MODULE 23: Thinking and Reasoning


Thinking

Manipulation of mental representations

of information

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Mental Images: Examining the Minds Eye

Representations in the mind of an object or event


Not just visual

representations but every modality

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Concepts: Categorizing the World

Concepts
Mental groupings of

similar objects, events, or people


Prototypes Highly representative examples of a concept Example:
Vehicle

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Reasoning: Making Up Your Mind


Syllogistic

Reasoning: The Formal Rules of

Logic
Kind of formal reasoning in which a person draws

a conclusion from a set of assumptions Example


Premise 1: All professors are mortal. Premise 2: Dr. Rivera is a professor. Conclusion: Therefore, Dr. Rivera is mortal.
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Reasoning: Making Up Your Mind


Algorithm

Rule that, if applied appropriately, guarantees a

solution to a problem
a + b = c

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Reasoning: Making Up Your Mind


Heuristic

Thinking strategy that may lead to a solution Representativeness heuristic


Rule one applies when he judges people by the degree to which they represent a certain category or group of people

Availability heuristic
Judging the probability of an event on the basis of how easily the event can be recalled from memory
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Computers and Problem Solving: Searching for Artificial Intelligence


Field

that examines how to use technology to imitate the outcome of human thinking, problem solving, and creative activities

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MODULE 24: Problem Solving


How

do people approach and solve problems? are the major obstacles to problem solving?
is creativity?
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What

What

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Preparation: Understanding and Diagnosing Problems


Well-Defined

Problem

Both the nature of the problem itself and the

information needed to solve it are available and clear


Ill-Defined

Problem

Not only the specific nature of the problem is

unclear, but the information required to solve the problem is less obvious
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Preparation: Understanding and Diagnosing Problems

Kinds of Problems
Arrangement problems Problems of inducing

structure Transformation problems

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Preparation: Understanding and Diagnosing Problems

Representing and Organizing the Problem


Depends on the way a

problem is phrased, or framed

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Production: Generating Solutions


Trial

and Error Means-end Analysis


Involves repeated tests for differences between

the desired outcome and what currently exists Most frequently applied heuristic in problem solving

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Production: Generating Solutions


Forming

Subgoals: Dividing Problems into Their Parts Sudden Awareness

Insight:

Wolfgang Khler

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Judgment: Evaluating the Solutions


Impediments

to Solutions: Why Is Problem Solving Such a Problem?


Functional Fixedness Tendency to think of an object only in terms of its typical use Mental Set Tendency for old patterns of problem solving to persist
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Judgment: Evaluating the Solutions


Impediments

to Solutions: Why Is Problem Solving Such a Problem?


Inaccurate evaluation of solutions Confirmation bias
Problem solvers favor initial hypotheses and ignore contradictory information that supports alternative hypotheses or solutions

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Creativity and Problem Solving


Creativity

Ability to generate original ideas or solve

problems in novel ways


Divergent thinking
Ability to generate unusual, yet appropriate, responses to problems or questions

Convergent thinking
Produces responses that are based primarily on knowledge and logic
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MODULE 25: Language


How
How

do people use language?


does language develop?

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MODULE 25: Language


Communication

of information through symbols arranged according to systematic rules

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Grammar: Languages Language


Grammar

System of rules that determines how our thoughts

can be expressed
Phonology
Smallest basic units of speech
Phonemes

Syntax
Rules that indicate how words and phrases can be combined to form sentences

Semantics
Meanings of words and sentences
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Language Development: Developing a Way with Words


Babbling

(babble)

Speechlike but meaningless sounds Critical periods for language


Production

of Language

Telegraphic speech Overgeneralization


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Language Development: Developing a Way with Words


Approaches

Learning theory approach Nativist approach Universal grammar Language-acquisition device


Neural system in the human brain

Interactionist approach Genetically determined predispositions and environmental circumstances that help teach language
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The Influence of Language on Thinking:


Do

Eskimos Have More Words for Snow Than Texans Do?


hypothesis
Notion that language shapes and, in fact, may

Linguistic-relativity

determine the way people in a specific culture perceive and understand the world

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Do Animals Use Language?

Chimpanzees and sign language


Chimps are able to communicate at surprisingly

high levels
Example: Washoe could sign 132 words and combine simple sentences

Critics contend that language such animals use

lacks grammar and complex and novel constructions of human language

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Teaching with Linguistic Variety: Bilingual Education


Bilingual

Education
Programs

Immersion

Students are immediately plunged into foreign

language instruction in all subjects


Alternation

Model
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Biculturalism
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