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GENES: What are they?

A gene a sequence of nucleotides (section of DNA) that has a specific function A gene can code for either a protein or a type of RNA (eg tRNA, rRNA, snRNA) The protein or RNA formed will perform a specific task in the cell. or e!ample

GENES: What are they?


A lot of our DNA consists of regulatory sequences and promoters. %ome "iologists include these sequences within the definition of a gene others do not.
Regulatory sequence that controls when gene is turned on or off & the amount of product formed
(promoter signals start of transcription)
S T A R T

Regulatory sequence that controls things such as where transcription should end.
(terminator signals end of transcription)

Will be transcribed
S T O P

Promoter

Coding Sequence

Terminator

Start codon (TAC) for translation

Only some parts of the gene will be translated into protein

Stop codon (ATT, ATC, ACT) for translation


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GENES: What are they?


A lot of our DNA consists of regulatory sequences and promoters. %ome "iologists include these sequences within the definition of a gene others do not.
Regulatory sequence that controls when gene is turned on or off & the amount of product formed
(promoter signals start of transcription)
S T A R T

Regulatory sequence that controls things such as where transcription should end.
(terminator signals end of transcription)

Will be transcribed
S T O P

Promoter

(!on

'ntron (!on

'ntron (!on

Terminator

Start codon (TAC) for translation

Exons expressed Introns Interr!ptions


Read & )ighlight (p*)

%top codon (ATT, AT+, A+T) for translation


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GENES: How are they used?


Transcription Translation +ellular function
Amino acid

tRNA Structural? Regulatory? Contractile? Immunological? rRNA Transport? Protein Catalytic?

PowerPoint: ,*-Always .aughing DNA mRNA Nari

GENES: How are they used?


Transcription A gene in DNA is transcri"ed into an RNA such as/ tRNA rRNA mRNA Translation tRNA, rRNA & mRNA are in0ol0ed in translation that forms an polypeptide (chain of amino acids)
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TRANSCR PT !N: What"s #oin# on?


Single(armed chromosome as fo!nd in non( di)iding cell 'ree n!cleotides !sed to constr!ct the m"#A strand

"#A polymerase Template strand of $#A contains the information for the constr!ction of a f!nctional m"#A prod!ct (e%g% a protein)

D ir sy ect nt io he n si of s

Coding strand

The two strands of $#A coil !p into a do!ble heli&

'ormation of a single mRNA strand that is complementary to the template strand (the same *message+ as coding strand)

Read: 1ene (!p & Transcription (p3)

$% DNA unwinds &% RNA polymerase attaches to promoter '% +omplimentary RNA nucleotides "ind to DNA template strand (A-() (T-A) (1-C) (+G) )% Nucleotides are added at the *2 end so the pre*mRNA grows +" '" +% RNA polymerase

TRANSCR PT !N: What"s #oin# on?


Non-template +oding %trand

.io/one: Simplest Case ,enes to Proteins Nari (-./)

RNA Splicin#: pre*mRNA mRNA


0NA Template
"eg!latory Se0!ence
S T A R T

DNA Coding Sequence Will be transcribed

S T O P

"eg!latory Se0!ence

Transcription

72 (!on 'ntron (!on

Pre*mRNA
'ntron (!on

*2

RNA Splicin# 'ntrons remo0ed (!ons spliced together

mRNA: ready to lea1e nucleus


+oding segment made of e!ons

.eader

.eader

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RNA SP2 C NG: pre*mRNA mRNA


ene in DNA
Intron Intron Intron Intron Intron $o!ble stranded genomic $#A Exon Exon Exon Exon Exon Exon

ntrons 3 interuptions
may "e remnants of now unused genes may help recom"ine e!ons 'n0ol0ed in gene regulation

Transcription

1oth e&ons and introns are transcribed to prod!ce a long primary "#A transcript

pre mRNA transcript

2&ons are spliced together

messenger RNA
3ntrons are remo)ed

E4ons 3 e4pressed 5mostly6 7essen#er RNA is an edited copy of the DNA molecule

Translation
Introns Protein

RNA SP2 C NG: pre*mRNA mRNA

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E8!N: Rearran#ement
'n the past it was thought that one #ene coded for one polypeptide or one protein )owe0er, there are more proteins in the human "ody than there are #enes. How can this occur?

(!on 4

(!on $

(!on *

(!on 3

E8!N: Rearran#ement
'n the past it was thought that one #ene coded for one polypeptide or one protein )owe0er, there are more proteins in the human "ody than there are #enes. How can this occur?
alternati0e splicing may allow different com"inations

(!on 4

(!on $

(!on *

(!on 3

(!on 4 (!on $ (!on * (!on 3

(!on 4 (!on $ (!on 3

(!on 3 (!on $ (!on 4 (!on *

NTR!NS: 9re:uency in or#anisms


The more complex an organism is the more introns its $#A contains Therefore it is li6ely that introns ha)e an important !unction
Percentage o! DNA not coding !or proteins -88

;8

.8

:8

98

8 Pro6aryotes One(celled e!6aryotes '!ngi7p 3n)ertebrates lants 4ertebrates 5!mans Nari

E(;AR<!TE: Gene E4pression


DNA gene containing both intronic and exonic DNA
,ene reg!lation ,ene reg!lation Transcription

Primary RNA transcript

Assembled exonic RNA

Splicing

Intronic RNA

processing

mRNA
Translation

processing

microRNAs Non-coding RNA exons

Protein

D i

Roles in genomic regulation

Role in timing o! de"elopment

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TRANSCR PT !N TRANS2AT !N
In eu#aryotic cells$ Transcription occ!rs in the n!cle!s Translation occ!rs in the cytosol In pro#aryotic cells$ There is no n!cle!s so transcription < translation occ!r in the cytosol at the same time
Nucleus

"ibosomes m"#A

#!clear pore thro!gh which the m"#A passes into the cytoplasm

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Cytoplasm

RNA Splicin#: pre*mRNA mRNA


0NA Template
"eg!latory Se0!ence
S T A R T

DNA Coding Sequence Will be transcribed

S T O P

"eg!latory Se0!ence

Transcription

72 (!on 'ntron (!on

Pre*mRNA
'ntron (!on

*2

RNA Splicin# 'ntrons remo0ed (!ons spliced together

mRNA: ready to lea1e nucleus


+oding segment made of e!ons

.eader

.eader

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TRANS2AT !N: The #enetic code


Triplet

0NA
Codon

The #enetic code is read ' ,ases at a time% DNA/ Triplet codes mRNA/ +odons tRNA/ Anticodons Each triplet codes =or an aa there are 53 triplets "ut only $, amino acids (meaning there is redundancy) there may "e more than one code for a gi0en aa stop codons 8 no aa

mRNA
Anti%codon

A A A

tRNA
Amino Acid

Poly* peptide

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TRANS2AT !N: The #enetic code


"ead second letter here "ead first letter here &&&

Second (etter

"ead third letter here

&
Phe Phe =e! =e! =e! =e! =e! =e! 3so 3so 3so 'et 4al 4al 4al 4al &C& &CC &CA &C CC& CCC CCA CC AC& ACC ACA AC C& CC CA C

C
Ser Ser Ser Ser Pro Pro Pro Pro Thr Thr Thr Thr Ala Ala Ala Ala &A& &AC &AA &A CA& CAC CAA CA AA& AAC AAA AA A& AC AA A

A
Tyr Tyr STOP STOP 5is 5is ,ln ,ln Asn Asn =ys =ys Asp Asp ,l! ,l! & & & C & A & C & C C C A C A & A C A A A & C A Cys Cys STOP Try Arg Arg Arg Arg Ser Ser Arg Arg ,ly ,ly ,ly ,ly & C A & C A & C & C A

&

&&C &&A && C&& C&C C&A C& A&& A&C A&A A& && &C &A &

)irst (etter

T*ird (etter

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TRANS2AT !N: The #enetic code


START/ A(G STOP/ (AA, (AG, (GA
A& AC, ,>A >>A CCC ,AA ,,C &AA

START

STOP
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TRANS2AT !N: The #enetic code


* nucleotide "ases make up a triplet which codes from one amino acid 1roups of nucleotides (in triplets) make up a gene which codes for a polypeptide or RNA %e0eral different polypeptides may "e needed to make a protein
Polypeptide c*ain )unctional protein

TAC on template $#A strand

START

Triplet

STOP

/?

ene in DNA Coding +nontemplate,

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TRANS2AT !N: What is it? What"s in1ol1ed?


m"#A

Codon

"ibosomes

t"#A

Translation is the process of "uilding a polypeptide chain from amino acids, guided "y the sequence of codons on the mRNA Structures in1ol1ed in translation mRNA: carries the code from DNA tRNA: transports specific aa to correct position on the mRNA

"ibosome attachment point Anticodon

Amino acids

INITIATION$ mRNA - t*e tRNA .ringing t*e /st aa meet at t*e ri.osome

TRAN%.AT'#N/ nitiation> (longation, Termination

/0 Small ribosomal s!b(!nit binds to a se0!ence !pstream of m"#A start codon (A>,) 10The first t"#A anticodon binds to the A>, codon 20 The large ribosomal s!b(!nit @oins

Acti)ated Thr(t"#A

3nitiator t"#A

Small ribosomal !nit attaches =arge ribosomal !nit attaches to form a f!nctional ribosomal protein(synthesiAing comple&

mRNA P A site site

Ri.osome

"ibosomes mo)e in this direction

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E(ON ATION$ aa are added .y tRNAs as t*e ri.osome mo"es along t*e mRNA

TRAN%.AT'#N/ 'nitiation, Elon#ation> Termination

Acti)ated Tyr(t"#A ,rowing polypeptide

>nloaded Thr(t"#A

mRNA /B P site A site

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TER'INATION$ 3*en ri.osome detac*es !rom stop codon on mRNA A release factor binds to the stop codon and hydrolyses the polypeptide from the t"#A, releasing it from the ribosome

TRAN%.AT'#N/ 'nitiation, (longation, Termination


"elease factor

Completed polypeptide

Completed polypeptide is released

Read: Translation (p7)

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TRANS2AT !N: An o1er1iew


Acti)ating =ys(t"#A Polypeptide c*ain in an ad)anced stage of synthesis

Acti)ated Tyr(t"#A ,rowing polypeptide >nloaded Thr(t"#A

Start codon

Ri.osome

mRNA

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"ibosomes mo)ing in this direction

PR!TE N S<NTHES S: Processes


RNA polymerase copies DNA template strand < adds n!cleotides to create pre%mRNA "#A polymerase attaches to promotor and $#A molec!le !nwinds
(n!cleotides added to CB)

Polypeptide !ormed with amino acid se0!ence determined by genetic se0!ence in m"#A

"#A polymerase

$#A rewinds

mRNA lea"es nucleus < carries genetic instr!ctions to ribosome Introns remo"ed and e&ons spliced together to form m"#A

tRNA carries speci!ic amino acid to ribosome

Nucleus

(not shown)

Ri.osome reads codons in mRNA and allows each t"#A to add an amino acid to growing polypeptide
(t"#A anticodon complimentary to m"#A codon)

Cytoplasm Nari

Section B: Q2

Transcription

,enetic instr!ctions in DNA template strand are copied by RNA polymerase complimentary pre%mRNA is produced (/B to CB) < introns are remo"ed mat!re mRNA lea)es the nucleus

Section B: Q2

Translation mRNA tra)els to ri.osome ri.osome reads the bases in mRNA, C at a time (in codons) tRNA anticodons, match7attach with complimentary m"#A codons or +tRNA carries the speci!ic4appropriate amino acid to the ribosome) amino acids are lin6ed together in the order specified by m"#A a polypeptide chain (protein) is !ormed