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Anatomy & Physiology Chapter 2

Perry C. Hanavan Audiologist

Mnemonic Devices
Acronyms (form words) Acrostics/Sentences (create sentences from first letter) Rhymes & Songs Loci (rooms, routes) Linking/Chaining Chunking (breaking down into small parts) Peg (key words) Phonetic (sounds represent numbers to form word pegs)

Anatomy & Physiology


Anatomy study of structure Physiology study of function

Question
Which of the following is the study of abnormal structures or systems? A. B. C. D. E. F. G. Descriptive or Systemic Regional Anatomy Applied or Clinical Anatomy Surface Anatomy Developmental Anatomy Comparative Pathological Anatomy

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Types of Anatomical Studies


Descriptive or Systemic Anatomy - the method of studying the body by systems, such as auditory and respiratory systems Regional Anatomy - the study of the body by regions, such as the thorax and abdomen Applied or Clinical Anatomy - emphasizes structure and function as they relate to diagnosis and treatment Surface Anatomy - the visualization of structures that lie beneath the skin. It is an essential part of the study of regional anatomy and the primary means by which clinicians use anatomical knowledge in treating patients Developmental Anatomy the study of anatomy from conception to adulthood Comparative Anatomy study of anatomy across the animal kingdom, animal models, etc. Pathological Anatomy study of abnormal structures or systems

Types of Physiological Studies


Electrophysiological
Evoked Potentials, EEG,

Respiratory

Question
Which is the study of structure and function of muscles?
A. B. C. D. E. F. G. Cytology Histology Osteology Myology Arthrology Angiology Neurology

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Related Fields in A & P


Cytology study of structure and function of cells Histology microscopic study of cells and tissue Osteology study of structure and function of bones Myology study of structure and function of muscles Arthrology study of structure and function of joints Angiology study of structure and function of blood vessels and lymph system Neurology study of nervous system

Organization of the Body


1. Organism 2. Organ systems 3. Organs

4. Tissue
5. Cell

6. Organelle
7. Chemical

Question
Which of the following epithelial cells is found in the cochlea as inner and outer hair cells?
A. B. C. D. E. Squamous Cuboidal Columnar Ciliated columnar Stratified

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I. Epithelial
A. Simple. Single layer of cells
Squamous Cuboidal Columnar Ciliated columner

B. Compound. Different layers of cells


Stratified

Epithelium Functions
Impervious barrier (epidermis, urinary bladder) Secretion (exocrine glands)
sweat glands, salivary glands, mammary glands, stomach, liver and pancreas

Adsorptive (intestinal mucosa)


Transport (motile cilia)

Sensory (photoreceptor cells, outer and inner hair cells, olfactions, etc.)

II. Connective
A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. Areolar elastic Adipose fat globules Blood corpuscles Bone Cartilage Lymphoid tonsils, adenoid, lymph White fibrous ligaments, fascia Yellow elastic trachea, cartilage, lungs

III. Muscular
A. Striated skeletal, voluntary B. Smooth internal organs, involuntary C. Cardiac combination of striated and smooth, involuntary

IV. Nervous
Neurons transfer of information Glial cells nutrient transfer (glue)

Systems of Speech
Respiratory Phonatory Articulatory Resonatory

laryngeal/voice alter sounds nasal and soft palate

Orientation Terminology
What is the opposite of proximal? A. Superior B. Inferior C. Anterior D. Posterior E. Ventral F. Dorsal G. Distal H. Medial I. Lateral

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Orientation Terminology
Left Right

Superior
Anterior Ventral

Inferior
Posterior Dorsal

Proximal
Medial Superficial Adduct Cranial

Distal
Lateral Deep Abduct Caudal

Movement Terminology
Abduction Flexion Inversion Dorsiflexion Pronation Lateral rotation Protrusion Elevation Opposition Circumduction Adduction Extension Eversion Plantarflexion Supination Medial rotation Retrusion Depression Reposition

Body Planes
Which divides the body into anterior or ventral and posterior or dorsal halves? A. Sagittal B. Transverse C. Frontal (Coronal) plane
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Body Planes
Sagittal plane - Divides the body into right and left halves. Transverse (Horizontal) plane - Divides the body into superior and inferior halves. Frontal (Coronal) plane Divides the body into anterior or ventral and posterior or dorsal halves.

Video
MPEG from head to foot MPEG sagittal view MPEG coronal view Body Worlds Exhibition