3.3K views

Uploaded by utub3abr0

Finite element analysis notes

- Finite Analysis
- FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS
- Practical Guide to Finite Elements
- Finite Elements Analysis of Structures
- Finite Element Methods of Structural Analysis
- Finite Element Analysis
- Finite Element Analysis in structures.
- Finite Element Book
- STASA.applied Finite Element Analysis for Engineers
- FEA Basics very imp.ppt
- Practical Finite Element Analysis
- Understanding and Implementing the Finite Elementh Method
- M. Rades - Finite Element Analysis
- Finite Element Methods Lecture Notes
- Introduction to Finite Elements Method
- Finite Element Method
- Building Better Products With Finite Element Analysis - Finite Element Method
- Finite Element Method and Computational Structural Dynamics by Shrikhande, Manish
- ME2353 Finite Element Analysis Lecture Notes
- Fundamental Finite Element Analysis and Applications

You are on page 1of 48

Introduction to FEA

&

General Steps of FEA

2.1. Definitions

2.2. Typical Steps In F.E. Analysis

2.3. Modeling Requirements for FE

2.1. Definitions

The Finite Element Method

A CAE technique in which a model of physical

configuration is developed. It permits computer modeling

prior to prototype building.

A group of numerical methods for approximating the solution of

governing equations of any continuous system.

2.1. Definitions

Example of problems that can be treated by FE:

• Structural Analysis

• Heat Transfer

• Fluid Flow

• Mass Transport

• Electromagnetic Potential

• Acoustic

• Bioengineering

2.1. Definitions

The primary commercial FE codes

NASTRAN for aircraft industry

ANSYS for nuclear industry

ABAQUS

MARC

SAP

ADINA MIT

PATRAN

2.2. Typical Steps in FE

using Computer Aided Engineering tools.

is:

2.2. Typical Steps in FE

5 steps involved in the procedure

generation Pre-Processor

2. Definition of materials properties.

3. Assemble of elements

Solver

4. Boundary conditions and loads

defined

and display results/data Post-Processor

2.2. Typical Steps in FE

continuum into finite elements.

generation program, called pre-processor.

2.2. Typical Steps in FE

deformation states that are allowed.

2.2. Typical Steps in FE

2.2. Typical Steps in FE

Constraints, force, known temperatures, etc.

to obtain the solutions.

2.3. Modeling Requirements

1. Model geometry

2. Material Properties

3. Meshing (s)

4. Load Cases

5. Boundary conditions

2.3. Modeling Requirements

1. Model Geometry

simplify from actual dimensions

components?

The problem can be reduced to part-modeling via

symmetry?

2.3. Modeling Requirements

2. Material Properties

Standard or based on test data

Elastic modulus, poisson ratio, thermal conductivity,

electromagnetic permeability, etc.

If it is not standard materials, do we need to confirm the

properties first through testing?

Composite materials, new types of alloys, honeycomb

structure, etc.

2.3. Modeling Requirements

3. Meshing

better accuracy of results and efficient computation.

• Aspect ratio

• Element shape

• Use of symmetry

• Mesh refinement

2.3. Modeling Requirements

3. Meshing (examples)

2-D meshing

3-D meshing

2.3. Modeling Requirements

3. Meshing (Practical Considerations)

* Aspect Ratio

is defined as the ratio of the longest dimension

to the shortest dimension of a quadrilateral element.

as the aspect ratio increases, the inaccuracy

of the solution increases.

2.3. Modeling Requirements

3. Meshing (Practical Considerations)

* Aspect Ratio

exact solution

FEA results

2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30

ca f ot necr e P

AR

2.3. Modeling Requirements

3. Meshing (Practical Considerations)

* Element shape

An element yields best results if its shape is

compact and regular.

poor results.

• in general try to:

1. Maintain aspect ratio as low as

possible (closest to 1)

2. Maintain the corner angles of

quadrilateral near 90°.

2.3. Modeling Requirements

3. Meshing (Practical Considerations)

* Element shape

Examples of elements with poor shape

small corner angles

Triangular quadrilateral

With Large and small angles

2.3. Modeling Requirements

3. Meshing (Practical Considerations)

* Element shape

2.3. Modeling Requirements

3. Meshing (Practical Considerations)

Use of Symmetry

instead of the actual problem.

Model the problem with less number of elements.

Use a finer meshing with less labor and computational cost.

2.3. Modeling Requirements

3. Meshing (Practical Considerations)

Use of Symmetry

Example on application of symmetry

-F F

2.3. Modeling Requirements

3. Meshing (Practical Considerations)

Use of Symmetry

2.3. Modeling Requirements

3. Meshing (Practical Considerations)

Use of Symmetry

Not only the

geometry,

the forces as well

2.3. Modeling Requirements

3. Meshing (Practical Considerations)

•Mesh refinement

Use a relatively fine discretization in regions where you expect

a high gradient of strains and/or stresses.

• Near entrant corners or sharply curved edges.

• In the vicinity of concentrated (point) loads, concentrated

reactions, cracks and cutouts.

material properties or cross sectional areas.

2.3. Modeling Requirements

3. Meshing (Practical Considerations)

•Mesh refinement

Examples.

2.3. Modeling Requirements

3. Meshing (Practical Considerations)

•Mesh refinement

Examples

2.3. Modeling Requirements

4. Load Cases

• Is the force applied to the whole body ? (Inertia,

gravity)

• What is the estimated magnitude of forces (and

direction)

100 N

2.3. Modeling Requirements

4. Load Cases

In practical structural problems, distributed loads are

more common than concentrated (point) loads.

Distributed loads may be of surface or volume type.

Distributed surface loads are associated with actions

such as wind or water pressure, snow weight on roofs, lift

in airplanes, live loads on bridges, and the like. They are

measured in force per unit area.

Volume loads (called body forces in continuum

mechanics) are associated with own weight (gravity),

inertial, centrifugal, thermal, pre-stress or

electromagnetic effects. They are measured in force per

unit volume.

2.3. Modeling Requirements

4. Load Cases

Examples

2.3. Modeling Requirements

5. Boundary conditions

• Types of support.

• Fully constraints or free to

translate/rotate in

certain direction?

• Friction?

boundaries?

2.3. Modeling Requirements

Numerical Method?

The finite element method is a numerical method for

solving problems of engineering and mathematical

physics.

In FEA, the continuum is divided into finite number of elements

and the governing equations are represented in matrix form.

Method for solutions developed to solve complex mathematical

problems:

• Runge-Kutta, Gauss-Seidel, Galerkin, Rayleigh, Ritz, Forward

Difference, etc.

2. Global Stiffness Matrix

1. Physical problem

3. Governing Equations

In obtaining the approximate solution, the continuum is

discretized into finite elements.

Useful for problems with complicated geometries,

loadings, and material properties where analytical

solutions can not be obtained.

Approximation?

Finite element analysis is broadly defined as a group of

numerical methods for approximating the governing

equations of any continuous system.

For a regular types bodies/surfaces (constant cross section,

cylinder, square, etc) , it might be possible to find closed-loop

analytical solution.

For irregular types bodies/surfaces, the boundaries are irregular

and the analytical solution might not exist.

Discretize?

In obtaining the approximate solution, the

continuum is discretized into finite elements.

The structure/parts/components are divided into

finite number of elements.

The selection of elements types are based on

many factors – geometry, processing power, types

of loadings, etc.

1. Actual geometry & loading 2. Discretization (Meshing) 3. Solution (Von Mises Stress)

Discretize?

The elements are interconnected at points common to

two or more elements (nodes or nodal points) and/or

boundary lines and/or surfaces.

The transfer of load (force, displacement, heat flux, etc)

between elements occurred at the common nodes

between elements.

Node

Elements

Discretize?

The transfer of load (force, displacement, heat flux, etc) between

elements occurred at the common nodes between elements.

Primary Assumptions in

FEA

Typical Steps in FEA

Matrix Operation Review

Vectors & Matrix

Examples

3 x 1: vector 4 x 4: matrix

1 1 0 9 6

6 0

{u} = − 2

8 4

[K] =

2 1 6 3

3.2

6 8 4 0

Matrix Definition

The elements of a matrix are defined by their row and their column

position:

k11 k12

[k] =

k 21 k 22

Note, the 1st subscript is the row position and the 2nd subscript is the

column position.

Therefore, k ij is the element in the ith row and the jth column.

Element Definition

B1,1=1, B1,2=3, B2,1=4, B2,2=5

1 3

[ B] =

4 5

Matrix Multiplication

hand matrix has the same number of columns as the right hand

matrix has rows.

A*B=C

1 4 3 7 12

A=

5 2 6 B = 11 18

9 10

78 74

C=

111 136

Identity Matrix

The product of a Matrix, A, and it’s inverse, A-1 is the identity matrix, I. Only

square matrices can be inverted.

3 5

4 5 A =2

−

2

−1

A= − 1 2

2 3

1 0 1 0

−1

A* A = I =

0 1 0 1

Not all square matrices are invertible. A matrix has an inverse if and only if it

is nonsingular (its determinant is nonzero)

Announcement

Lecture & Lab

Please check lists of lecture group posted at Block 18, 3rd

Floor.

Starting this week attendance will be recorded and you

have to attend your assigned lecture session.

- Finite AnalysisUploaded byMechmed
- FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSISUploaded byTochi Krishna Abhishek
- Practical Guide to Finite ElementsUploaded byTejas Gotkhindi
- Finite Elements Analysis of StructuresUploaded by81mentor
- Finite Element Methods of Structural AnalysisUploaded bywaqasahmed1983
- Finite Element AnalysisUploaded byOmer Anwaar
- Finite Element Analysis in structures.Uploaded byMac Zephyr Bist
- Finite Element BookUploaded byanggarinaldi
- STASA.applied Finite Element Analysis for EngineersUploaded byKalyan Naidu
- FEA Basics very imp.pptUploaded bysandeshlikes
- Practical Finite Element AnalysisUploaded byHemant Nishad
- Understanding and Implementing the Finite Elementh MethodUploaded byElmer Freddy Torrico Rodriguez
- M. Rades - Finite Element AnalysisUploaded byrades3702
- Finite Element Methods Lecture NotesUploaded byKiran Babu Satuluri
- Introduction to Finite Elements MethodUploaded bymanofvalour
- Finite Element MethodUploaded byKeri Mason
- Building Better Products With Finite Element Analysis - Finite Element MethodUploaded byscrappydappyboo
- Finite Element Method and Computational Structural Dynamics by Shrikhande, ManishUploaded byPHI Learning Pvt. Ltd.
- ME2353 Finite Element Analysis Lecture NotesUploaded bypgkaero
- Fundamental Finite Element Analysis and ApplicationsUploaded bychamanchandel
- Structural Analysis with the Finite Element Method; Linear Statics Volume 1, Basis and Solids_E.OñateUploaded bySerruchin 84
- Introduction to Finite Element MethodUploaded byPrithviraj Daga
- Introduction to Finite Elements in Engineering, 3rd Ed, t.r.chandrupatla_2Uploaded byRohitash Nitharwal
- Elementary Finite Element MethodUploaded byeng_1787
- 76Uploaded byMadhu Vamaravilli
- Finite Element AnalysisUploaded byBruno Coelho
- Intro to Adv Finite Element Analysis...!!!!Uploaded bySamarjit Kalsi
- finite element analysis by seshuUploaded byShridhar Srinivasan
- Finite Element Analysis Interview QuestionsUploaded byRajesh Perumal

- Ar Raheeq Al MakhtumUploaded byutub3abr0
- Amer ProposalUploaded byutub3abr0
- Mohammad Amer Qais AbroUploaded byutub3abr0
- Fc ProjectUploaded byutub3abr0
- Dua JamilahUploaded byutub3abr0
- Progress ReportUploaded byutub3abr0
- mechatronicsUploaded byutub3abr0
- List of Usefull Websites for Mechatronics II ProjectUploaded byutub3abr0
- Compressible Flow in Convergence NozzleUploaded byutub3abr0

- Typhoid Jurnal 2Uploaded byRiany Jade Sabrina
- Case Study - CholecystitisUploaded bymeed02
- wl40112aUploaded byPhyllis Stephen
- 210063054-Element-1401-AnswersUploaded byYousef Olabi
- Tropospheric Radical ChemistryUploaded byiswaleha
- RivetingUploaded byAhmadFaisal
- Stability and Global StrengthUploaded bytuan_crawco
- liqammonia.pdfUploaded byRojo John
- Pavia- Design of Masonry Structures With Bed Joint ReinforcementUploaded byamaliaconstantin
- Fast Attack and BoomersUploaded bydeepjyotibarman
- Combustion and Incineration ProcessesUploaded bythillaikali
- R100-1 to R100-56 Ground Floor Slab RC Details 1Uploaded byAaron Chinhua Chen
- Seven Steps to a Healthy,Fit, Age-resistant BodyUploaded byMeschinohealth
- 8805 Ct 9701Uploaded byZakariaChardoudi
- S2-3 - PT Transfer - Almila UzelUploaded byChien Ks
- Kabbalah, Assagioli and Transpersonal PsychologyUploaded bymundopsi
- Antifungal PharamcotherapyUploaded byrijay2001
- Rabbit Monoclonal AntibodyUploaded byYondri Mandaku Tasidjawa
- Client Profile with hypertensionUploaded byplokatz
- Sluggish VCB to TNBR Ver 10 (3)Uploaded byGaurav Singh
- CREDIT CARD FRAUD DETECTION USING HIDDEN MARKOV MODEL.docxUploaded byArunKumar
- SONY SafetyUploaded bybettomg
- pricelist cater king october 3 2017Uploaded byapi-376849750
- Bali Action Plan 2007.pdfUploaded byJustz Lim
- 20Uploaded byPrathamesh Baheti
- Circuit Cellar Nº266.pdfUploaded byJDT
- 1. OriginUploaded bySumanth Reddy
- Powell-Valley-Electric-Coop-General-Power---<50-KW,-Dispersed-Power-ProgramUploaded byGenability
- Vedavyasadevaru Vyasaya Bhavanaashaya Srishaya Gunaraashaye | Hrudyaaya Shudda Vidyaaya MadhvaayaUploaded bynaraharisumadhwa
- Fractal Geometry and Architecture Design Case Study Review.pdfUploaded bySuhailNajim