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# 2014/2/12

## 1 Aerosol & Particulate Research Lab

Electrostatic Precipitator (ESP)
Electrical migration
Electrical mobility
Corona discharge
ESP theory
Charging mechanisms
Ash resistivity
Flue gas conditioning
Power consumption

Positive
Negative
Republican
Democrat
Love Hate
Ying Yang
Man
Woman
Hell
Heaven
Cation
Anion
War
Peace
Attraction Repel
2014/2/12
2 Aerosol & Particulate Research Lab
Electrical Migration
Coulombs law

Statcoulomb (stC): the charge that causes a repulsive force of 1
dyne when 2 equal charges are separated by 1 cm (3.3310
-10
C)
Unit charge: 4.8 10
-10
stC (1.610
-19
C)
2
2 1
r
q q
K F
E E
=
E
F
q
E
=
(q=ne)
Electric Field
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3 Aerosol & Particulate Research Lab
Millikan Experiment
(Robert Millikan,
US, 1868-1953;
Nobel Prize
Laureate, 1923)
Hinds, Aerosol Technology, 1999
http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1923/millikan-bio.html
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4 Aerosol & Particulate Research Lab
Electrical Mobility
Terminal velocity in an electrical field
(electrical migration velocity/drift velocity)
c
TE p
C
V d
qE
t 3
=
( ) qEB
d
qEC
w V
p
c
TE
= = =
t 3
qB
d
qC
E
V
Z
p
c TE
= = =
t 3
(force balance)
D E
F F =
(for Re < 1)
Q: What is the physical meaning of electrical mobility?
Q: When does a particle have a higher mobility?
May the force be with the particles!
Q: Difference between cyclone
and ESP in terms of forces
acting on the system? Whats
the effect?
2014/2/12
5 Aerosol & Particulate Research Lab
Positive Corona Negative Corona
+
-
+
-
+
+
-
+
+
+
-
-
+
-
+
-
+
-
-
-
+
+
Corona Discharge
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
Collection Plate
Collection Plate
Electron
Molecule
Particle
Electrode
Electrode
Q: How can we generate charges?
Ozone generation - http://www.mtcnet.net/~jdhogg/ozone/ozonation.html
2014/2/12
6 Aerosol & Particulate Research Lab
1
2 3
1 2
3
(20)
(12)
(8)
Turbulent Flow with Lateral Mixing Model
Electrostatic Precipitator
2014/2/12
7 Aerosol & Particulate Research Lab
Deutsch-Anderson Equation
R
dt V
R
dt RV
N
dN
TE TE
2 2
2
= =
t
t
)
2
exp(
) (
0
R
t V
N
t N
TE
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
= = q
Q
A V
P
c TE
exp 1 1
A
c
/Q: Specific Collection Area (SCA)
Turbulent flow: uniformly mixing
Perfect Collection
The fraction of the particles
removed in unit time = the ratio of
the area traveled by drift velocity
in unit time to the total cross-
section
Q: How to increase the efficiency?
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8 Aerosol & Particulate Research Lab
Q: An ESP that treats 10,000 m
3
/min of air is
expected to be 98% efficient. The effective
drift velocity of the particles is 6.0 m/min. (a)
What is the total collection area? (b) Assuming
the plates are 6 m high and 3 m long, what is
the number of plates required?
6 m
3 m
Internal Configuration: self-review
2014/2/12
9 Aerosol & Particulate Research Lab
Charging Mechanism: Diffusion Charging
Random collisions between
ions and particles
(
(

+ =
kT
t N e c d
e
kT d
n
i i p p
2
1 ln
2
2
2
t
Q: Does q depend on time?
Does q depend on d
p
?
The total number of charges on a particle
(c
i
~ 2.410
4
cm/s)
ne q =
The total charges on a particle
Use esu, not SI units.
2014/2/12
10 Aerosol & Particulate Research Lab
Charging Mechanism: Field Charging
Bombardment of ions in the presence of a strong field

eZ 1
eZ

4 2
3
i
i
2
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
t N
t N
e
Ed
n
i
i
p
t
t
c
c
Total number of charges by field charging
Q: Is the charging rate dependent on
particle size? On field strength? On time?
On material?
Aerosol Technology, Hinds, W. C., John Wiley & Sons, 1999.
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
e
Ed
n
p
s
4 2
3
2
c
c
Saturation charge
(Z
i
~ 450 cm
2
/stVs)
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Comparison of Diffusion & Field Charging
Q: Does collection efficiency
increase as particle size increase
(because of a higher number of
charges)?
dp (um) n
diff
n
field
n
total
Z
diff
Z
Field
Z (stCs/g)
0.01 0.10 0.02 0.12 0.66 0.10 0.76
0.02 0.30 0.06 0.36 0.49 0.11 0.60
0.05 1.1 0.40 1.50 0.31 0.12 0.43
0.1 2.8 1.6 4.38 0.23 0.13 0.36
0.2 7 6.5 13.2 0.18 0.17 0.35
0.5 21 40 61.2 0.15 0.30 0.45
1 48 161 209 0.16 0.52 0.68
2 108 646 754 0.16 0.98 1.14
5 311 4035 4346 0.18 2.34 2.52
10 683 16140 16824 0.20 4.61 4.80
20 1490 64562 66052 0.21 9.16 9.37
50 4134 403510 407644 0.23 22.78 23.0
Number of Charges vs dp
dp (um)
0.01 0.1 1 10
n

10
-2
10
-1
10
0
10
1
10
2
10
3
10
4
10
5
10
6
Diffusion charging
Field Charging
Nit = 10
7
s/cm
3
c= 5.1
E = 5 KV/cm
T = 298 K
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12 Aerosol & Particulate Research Lab
ELectrical Mobility vs dp
dp (um)
0.01 0.1 1 10
Z

(
s
t
C
.
s
/
g
)
0.1
1
10
Diffusion charging
Field Charging
Combined Charging
Typical fly ash
size distribution
Q: If the ESP is used to collect the
fly ash, how will the particle size
distribution at ESP outlet look like?
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Resistivity/Conductivity
Impact of particles resistivity on ESPs performance:

Factors: temperature, composition
Flue gas conditioning
10
9
- 10
10
ohm-cm is desired
Q: How does resistivity affect an ESPs performance?
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Effects of sulfur content and temperature on resistivity
Q: Is S in coal good or bad?
2014/2/12
15 Aerosol & Particulate Research Lab
Water spray for cement kiln dust
Flue Gas Conditioning
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Effective drift velocity as a function of resistivity by measurement
Use the same Deutsch-Anderson Equation with new w
e
.
Q: Estimate the total collection area required for a 95% efficient fly-ash ESP
that treats 8000 m
3
/min. The ash resistivity is 1.610
10
ohm-cm.
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Good for moderate
collection efficiency
(90% ~ 95%)
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High Efficiency ESP (>95%)
Matts-Ohnfeldt Equation
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
k
e
C
w
Q
A
exp 1 q
Use k = 1 for fly ash
k = 0.5 or 0.6 for
industrial category
Rule of Thumb
Below 95%, use Deutsch-Anderson Equation
Above 99%, use Matts-Ohnfeldt Equation
Between them, use an average
Q: In designing a high
efficiency ESP, a smaller
drift velocity is to be used.
Why?
2014/2/12
19 Aerosol & Particulate Research Lab
Power Consumption
avg C C
V I P =
C
C
e
A
kP
w =
Power density ~ 1-2 W/ft
2
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
Q
kP
C
exp 1 q
Corona power

Drift velocity

Efficiency vs. Corona Power
k = 0.55 for P
c
/Q in W/cfs up to 98.5%
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20 Aerosol & Particulate Research Lab
Quick Reflection