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CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT: MORAL EDUCATION

ONE IMPORTANT EVENT IN THE EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF ME WAS THE CABINET COMMITTEE OF EDUCATION'S REQUEST THAT THE MINISTRY OF EDUCATION SET UP MACHINERY FOR THE DEVELOPMENT AND FORMULATION OF A ME CURRICULUM . THE REQUIREMENT STATED WAS THAT THE CURRICULUM SHOULD EXTEND THROUGHOUT THE 11 YEARS OF SCHOOLING PERIOD AND BE FOCUSED ON NON-MUSLIM STUDENTS. THE LATTER REQUIREMENT CAME ABOUT BECAUSE, AT THAT TIME, MUSLIM STUDENTS WERE ALREADY LEARNING ISLAMIC RELIGIOUS KNOWLEDGE IN THEIR SCHOOL CURRICULA . THE NEW ME SYLLABUS WAS REQUIRED TO BE EXAMINABLE, SINCE THE UGAMA SYLLABUS WAS AN EXAMINABLE SUBJECT (REPORT OF THE CABINET COMMITTEE, 1979, PARA. 127.1).

Cont..
All activities in regards to ME were based on the 1979

report of the Cabinet Committee on Education to review the implementation of education policy. In this report, it was stated that: To build a disciplined, cultured and united society, it is recommended that while Muslim students study Islamic Religious Knowledge, and this includes other pupils who choose to follow this subject, Non-Muslim pupils should be taught moral and ethics education. All pupils who study this subject, Moral and Ethics Education, must take it in the examination. In both these subjects, respect for individual, freedom to embrace any religion in a multi-religious society must be cultivated (para 127.1: 49).

Cont
The decision made resulted in the formation of a few working

committees. The Ministry of Education directed the Curriculum Development Centre to formulate a ME syllabus to be tabled at Parliament. During the Central Curriculum Committee meeting of October, 1976 The Head of the School Inspectorate was appointed as the chairperson, and representatives of various religious and voluntary groups and heads of schools, colleges of education, universities, and other divisions of the Ministry of Education were appointed as members (Mukherjee, 1983). The role of the committee was to discuss, debate, and finally formulate a suitable syllabus for non-Muslim students in Malaysia. It was of great importance to involve as many people as possible, from all walks of life and different faiths, to provide feedback, suggestions, and ideas for the new subject.

The First ME Syllabus


The New Primary Schools Curriculum (NPSC) was

implemented in 1983. For the first time, ME was officially introduced as a core subject in Year One in all primary schools throughout Malaysia. The programme was implemented in stages, on a year-by-year basis, and was completed in 1988. The subject was then taught from Year One to Year Six. In 1989, with the implementation of the Integrated Curriculum for Secondary Schools, ME was extended to all secondary schools as well on a year-by-year basis. By 1993, all primary and secondary schools had ME as a core subject in their school curriculum.

Cont..
At the end of 1993, the first cohort of Form Five non-Muslim

students sat for their centralised examination in ME. Since ME is a core subject in the secondary education syllabus, every non-Muslim student must take the subject and sit for the examination. Because morality itself is so subjective, assessing it as objectively as possible is another continuous challenge. After several revisions, the assessment has been divided into two sections. One tests knowledge, and the other is project work where students' commitment to the affective and physical domains of morality is assessed (Vishalache, 2004a). In the pioneer syllabus, ME emphasises the spiritual, humanitarian, and social aspects of the total development of the individual. It stresses the inculcation and internalisation of the noble values found in Malaysian society, based on the various religions, traditions, and cultures of the different communities and also consonant with universal values.

FIRST CURRICULUM OF ME
The first curriculum for ME consists of values

observed and upheld by the individual and society. These values are essential to ensure the healthy interaction between the individual and his/her family, peers, and society and the institutions of which he/she is a member (Ministry of Education Malaysia, 1988).

In the premier syllabus, 16 values are taught in secondary school. The values are:
1. Compassion Self-reliance Humility Respect Love Justice Freedom Courage Physical cleanliness and mental health Honesty Diligence Cooperation Moderation Gratitude Rationality Public spiritedness

THE CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT PROCESS

THE CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT PROCESS CYCLE


SUMMATIVE EVALUATION / NEEDS ANALYSIS / RESEARCH

SUPPORT, GUIDANCE AND FORMATIVE EVALUATION

PLANNING

IMPLEMENTATION AND MONITORING

DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT

PILOT/ LIMITED IMPLEMENTATION

PUBLIC REVIEW via Electronic / Print Media (1 month)

CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT CYCLE


NEEDS ANALYSIS
Policy World Trend Research Evaluation Public Opinions Learning Theories

SUPPORT, GUIDANCE & EVALUATION

PLANNING
Consultation, Benchmarking (Academicians, Industries, NGOs)

IMPLEMENTATION & MONITORING

DESIGN & DEVELOPMENT

PILOT & LIMITED IMPLEMENTATION

PUBLIC REVIEW via Electronic / Print Media

IMPLEMENTATION AND MANAGEMENT OF CURRICULUM

Roles of a Curriculum Administrator:


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Understand and inculcate the NEP and its aspirations Understand, define and operationalise curriculum activities inside and outside the classroom Understand subject specialisation Know in general curriculum content of every subject Know importance and management of evaluation procedures Know personnels ability and experience in their relevant subjects
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IMPLEMENTATION AND MANAGEMENT OF CURRICULUM

Roles of a Curriculum Administrator:


7. Know the need for teaching materials, instruments and other tools 8. Know existing facilities in school and willingness to improve on them 9. Know pupils ability, background, experience and families 10. Able to conduct in-house training to promote and upgrade professionalisme 11. Know latest trends in teaching-learning strategies/practices 12. Able to instill positive attitudes among teachers, create a caring attitude and a sense of belonging 13. Have liberal administrative management ideas and leadership qualities 14. Able to create teamwork among members of the school community and the social milieu that surrounds it,
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School Curriculum Committee


Function :
1.
2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Plan, organise and evaluate teaching learning activities in school Work towards increasing the knowledge and competence of teachers and students Study suitability of subject content and inform parties concern Study, evaluate and determine suitability of textbooks / support materials Assess scheme of work Assess students performance and identify follow-up action
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7. 8. 9.

10.
11. 12.

Plan and conduct in-house training programme Disseminate information to all teachers on latest trends and development in education Produce more educational resource materials in schools Identify suitability of educational electronic media programmes in teaching-learning activities Coordinate on-going assessment and the centralised summative assessments Coordinate additional learning activities

Members of school curriculum committee


1.

2.
3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Principal (chairperson) Senior assistants Afternoon supervisor Head of subject committee Panel heads Resource teacher Media teacher Ex-officio(members) appointed by the Principal

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THE MORAL EDUCATION CURRICULUM


Moral Education is implemented in several ways
1. Moral values infused through all subjects across the curriculum Moral education given special treatment in certain specific subjects Moral Education as a subject Moral values through co-curricular activities Moral values through daily practice

2.
3. 4. 5.

Moral Education as a subject


PRIMARY SCHOOL
1. Values related to selfdevelopment 2. Values related to self and family 3. Values related to self and society 4. Values related to self and environment 5. Values related to self and nation

SECONDARY SCHOOL
1. Values related to selfdevelopment 2. Values related to family 3. Values related to environment 4. Values related to patriotism 5. Values related to human rights 6. Values related to democracy 7. Values related to peace and harmony