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Celestial Navigational System

CENG4625 Senior Projects Semester 2 Adam Almaguer, Juan Flores, Thomas Ives, and Omar Sanjak April 30, 2010

Agenda
Background Project Motive Objectives Requirements System Functionality and Components System Simulation Conclusion

Project Motive
Current NASA navigational plans :
constellation of expensive satellites 30 meter accuracy Limited to large celestial bodies

Our navigational system plan:


Provide an inexpensive alternative provide one meter accuracy position location for surface activities Useful in any environment with a solid surface

Objectives
Navigation System
Easy to use

Durable

Inexpensive

Portable

Space Temperature

COTS Parts Simple Design

Lightweight Rechargable Battery Low Power Usage Large coverage

Accurate Accommodate EMU limitations Limited Controls Simple Setup Informative Output

Shock Resistant

Dust Resistant

Radiation Shielded Zero Gravity

Requirements
Customer Requirements
System can be used on Mars, and other celestial bodies Hardware should consume little power and be rechargeable Receiver unit is easy to use

Engineering Requirements
Hardware must be enclosed to deter foreign particles from affecting internal and external components Hardware can be charged using more than one method Receiver screen output should identify itself and all beacons within its detection range

Requirements (Cont.)
There are several engineering requirements that our group will not be able to implement for the prototype because we do not have a way of testing them. They are:
1. Hardware must be built to withstand cosmic radiation and micrometeorites -This is usually done in a closed lab where components are bombarded with radiation and high velocity projectiles 2. Hardware will be able to function in zero gravity - We would need to test the hardware in a near zero gravity environment like an airplane following an elliptic flight path relative to the center of the Earth. 3. Hardware must comply with the flammability requirements of NASASTD-6001, Flammability, Odor, Off-gassing, and Compatibility Requirements and Test Procedures for Materials in Environments That Support Combustion We would need access to a laboratory in order to conduct Determination of Off-gassed Products and Total Spacecraft Offgassing Tests

Navigation Concept
Automated Survey
Beacons transmits angle to Receiver
Beacon zero-angle identified Beacon rotates clockwise
A
0

B W
0

R Z Y C D
0

Receiver calculates Beacon angles


Angles between beacons provided

Receiver calculates distance to beacons using triangulation

Build Database
Record Beacon info (ID, distance between beacons, zero-angle direction, health) User specified locations

R 0 B

R 0 D

R 0 C

R 0 A

Periodic Re-Survey
Beacon angles re-measured Beacon distances re-measured New specified locations recorded

Beacon Circuit
Prism /w Lens

30M Distance
Motor Assembly /w Photo Interrupters

Buffer
Reset

Buffer

2
5V

Counter (74LS93)

ID Switch

Preamble (AAAAH)

Buffer 16MHz CLK 2


16MHz

Laser 4 4
2MHz

12 2

8 2

16

4
8MHz

Parallel to Serial (74165)

Buffer
PSK Signal Modulator

Beacon Message
Guard (2 bits) Free (8 bits)

Guard (2 bits)

Angle (12 bit)

ID (8 bit)

Preamble (16 bit)

Extra (16 bit)

Message (48 bit)

Receiver Circuit
Photo Diode

DC bias Circuit

DC Blocking Filter

Amplifier (OPA37) Baud CLK

PLL Demodulator (NE564)

Data Clock

Preamble

Serial to Parallel (74LS299) /w Word Compare

Angle 12 ID 8

UART (IN58250N)
Data Good

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Display

RS232 112Kb/s

Navigation Computer (Propeller)

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Receiver Microcontroller

Programmed in SPIN or PASM Runs at 3.3V 32KB RAM and 32KB ROM 8 32bit CPUs 32 I/O pins One Video Generator per Core 11

Receiver Process
Inputs to Receivers
User: Range of beacon Distances between beacons Beacon Message: 16-bit preamble Beacon ID Beacon Rotation number 8-bit message postamble or Beacon Health 2-bit data separators

Calculations
Set values to variables for future calculation.

Outputs
Visual representation of each beacon and its location from the others.

Verify that message is accurate (using Message format ) Compare message with previous ones to get enough information about current location.

Visual interpretation for location of the receiver

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RECEIVER DISPLAY
Latitude 8m 120 m 56 152 24 88

2
Longitude - 24 m Vector (-2.,3.6) 2.3) -.3) 6.3) (-2 1) (-2, 5)

1 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3

6 5 4 3 2 1 0

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Conclusion and Future Work


On Beacons
FSK modulator implementation.

On Receiver
Hardware integration and troubleshooting. Navigational software for calculations.

Navigation system dependent on other systems for accuracy Accurate directional system such as Celestial Navigation. Accurate distance measurement between beacons.

Questions?

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Conclusion (Cont.)
References
NASA, The Vision for Space Exploration, Tech. Rep. NP2004-01-334-HQ, NASA, Washington, D.C., 2004 Schier, James. NASAs Lunar Space Communication and Navigation Architecture, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics- 092407, NASA HQ, Washington, D.C., 2008

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Additional Slides

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Phase Lock Loop (PLL) Demodulator


PLL Phase Detector FSK in (8/16MHz) VCO BPF (2MHz) Schmitt Trigger Data out (2MHz)

Clock out (16 MHz)

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System Difficulties
Receiver Hardware Integration. Message separation to calculate receivers location. Communication between microcontroller and the receiver itself.

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