Sie sind auf Seite 1von 29

Right To Know

Understanding Flammables
and Combustibles
Learning Objectives
 Meaning of terms “Flammable”
and “Combustible
 Difference between:
 Flammable Aerosols
 Flammable Gases
 Flammable Liquids
 Combustible Liquids
 Flammable Solids
Learning Objectives (cont)
 Flammables and Combustibles in
Your Area
 Physical Hazards
 Health Hazards
 Methods of Detection
 Emergency and Handling Procedures
 First Aid Procedures
Overview
 Awareness
 Remember
 MSDS’s
 Toluene
 (etc)
Definitions
 For a fire to occur there must be:
 Fuel (the Flammable/Combustible substance)
 Heat
 Oxygen or an Oxidizer
 Chemical or Chain Reaction
 Flammable – a material that is easily ignited
and burns rapidly. In addition to the fire
hazard, exposure to vapors from flammables
can have serious health effects. Common
Flammable: Gasoline
 Combustible – a substance capable of fueling a
fire, but will not burn as readily as a
flammable. Common Combustible: Wood
Types of Flammables
and Combustibles
 Types of Flammables
 Aerosols
 Gases
 Liquids
 Solids
 Types of Combustibles
 Many materials are combustibles, but
there is a special category og
combustible liquids
Flammable Aerosols
 An Aerosol that yields a flame
projection for more then 18” at full
valve opening, or a flashback (a
flame extending back to the valve)
at any degree of valve opening
 In your Area
 MSDS’s
 Incidents or Concerns
Flammable Gases
 A Compressed Gas with:
 Lower Explosive Limit (LEL) at or below 13% by
volume
 Flammability Range greater than 12%
regardless of the Lower Limit
 LEL and other flammability information is
determined by the chemical manufacturer,
and can be found on the MSDS
 Any terms like “LEL” can be found in the
Glossary of the MSDS ( or MSDSonline System)
 MSDS
Flammable Gases:
Physical Properties and
Hazards
 Properties
 Expand to several times their volume when released
 May be Heavier than Air (Butane, Propane) and will
settle in low places
 May be Lighter than Air (Hydrogen, Methane)

Vapor Density will tell you whether it is Lighter or
Heavier. Heavier = VD > 1.0, Lighter = VD <1.0
 Does not always have an Odor
 Often Colorless
 Dangerous if cylinders are damaged. A damaged
valve may cause the cylinder to “Rocket”
 In Your Area
 MSDS’s
Flammable Gases:
Health Hazards
 All flammable gases are Simple
Asphyxiants. This means they will
displace oxygen to a level below that
needed for normal body functions
 Some may also have Toxic effects, like
Hydrogen Sulfide, that can result in
Death
 In your Area
 MSDS’s
Flammable Gases:
Methods of Detection
 Odors are often added to flammable gases to
aid detection and, therefore, prevent injury.
 CAUTION: Some gases will quickly deaden the sense
of smell
 Large volumes escaping often make a hissing
sound
 Soap Solution can be used to find leaks
 Air Monitoring equipment is available to
identify leaks of flammable gases in your area
 Operators are first line of defense, but we can
assist with Air Monitoring and Hazard Analyses
Flammable Gases:
Emergency Handling and
Procedures
 Always
 Transport and Store cylinders with valve cap on
 Never drag or roll cylinders, use carts
 Secure with straps or chains
 Keep Cylinder Upright
 Keep hose connections tight and leak-free
 Store Oxygen and Flammable Gas cylinders separately
 If gas leaks: Ventilate and use respiratory protection; turn
off ignition valve; shut off the main cylinder valve
 Emergency Procedures in your Area
 Issues
Flammable Gases:
First Aid
 General Procedures for overexposure
 Inhalation: move victim to fresh air. If
unconscious, maintain an open airway.
Restore breathing if necessary. Seek
medical attention.
 Eyes: Hold eyelids open and flush for 15
minutes with large quantities of water. Seek
medical attention.
 Skin: Wash with large quantities of water.
Seek medical attention
 MSDS Information
Flammable Liquids
 A substance with a Flash Point
below 100°F.
 Flash Point – the minimum
temperature at which enough vapors
are given off to support flame when
an ignition source is present.
 MSDS’s
Flammable Liquids:
Physical Properties and
Hazards
 Properties:
 Vaporize quickly at room temperature
 Some are soluble in water (alcohols)
 Some are soluble in organic solvents or acids
 Variety of Odors (acetone smells sweet)
 Variety of colors, but are often clear
 Most have a specific gravity less than 1; this
means they will float on top of water
 Vapors are heavier than air and may settle in low
areas
 React violently with Oxidizers and Halogen Gases
(chlorine, fluorene)
 In Your Area
Flammable Liquids:
Health Hazards
 In addition to flammability the
following Health symptoms are
often present:
 Skin contact – may cause reddening
or drying
 Inhalation – may cause dizziness,
nausea or headaches, or may irritate
respiratory tract
Flammable Liquids:
Health Hazards (cont)
 In addition to the General symptoms:
 Alcohols (end in -ol) mild irritants. Methanol when
swallowed may cause blindness
 Ketones (end in -one) slightly more toxic than alcohols
 Aliphatic Hydrocarbons (end in -ane) may cause
excitement, stupor, confusion
 Amines (end in -amine, -amid, or -nitro) can cause liver,
lung and kidney damage
 Ethers (end in -ether, or -futan) may cause
unconsciousness, pneumonia, and death
 Aromatics (end in -ene) may cause convulsions, coma and
death. Some are suspected carcinogens
 In Your Area
Flammable Liquids:
Methods of Detection
 All Flammable Liquids:
 Have detectable Odors, although sense of smell may
quickly become deadened
 May cause tearing or redness of the eye
 May be felt on skin as an initial splash of liquid
 Air Monitoring equipment is available to
identify leaks of flammable gases in your area
 Operators are first line of defense, but we can
assist with Air Monitoring and Hazard Analyses
 MSDS’s
Flammable Liquids:
Personal Protective
Equipment
 When working with Flammable Liquids
 Wear approved respirator if ventilation is inadequate
 Wear splash goggles and a full face shield, where
necessary
 Wear solvent resistant gloves as prescribed in the
MSDS
 Wear a rubber apron, or, for large quantities a splash
suit when working with open containers of flammable
liquids
 PPE Recommended in Your Area
 MSDS’s
Flammable Liquids:
Emergency and Handling
Procedures
 Remember:
 Always remove all sources of ignition
 Be certain area is well ventilated
 Never pour or wash flammable liquids into
sewers or drains
 When transferring flammable liquids,
ground containers. Not only must you
ground the container you are pouring into,
You Must ground the container you are
pouring from to the container you are
pouring to.
 Issues
Flammable Liquids:
First Aid Procedures
 In the event of overexposure:
 Inhalation: move victim to fresh air. Rescuers
should be equipped with proper PPE before
attempting rescue. If unconscious maintain an
open airway. Seek medical attention
immediately.
 Eyes: hold open eyelids and flush with water
for 15 minutes. Seek medical attention
immediately.
 Skin: immediately wash with soap and water,
or waterless cleanser. Remove contaminated
clothing
 MSDS’s
Combustible Liquids
 Have a higher flashpoint then
Flammable Liquids, meaning they
will not burn as easily as
flammables. Flash Point at or
above 100°F, but below 200°F.
 Remember Flash Point for Flammable
Liquids was below 100°F.
Flammable Solids
 Any solid, other than explosives, that
can cause a fire by self-igniting through:
 Friction
 Spontaneous chemical changes
 Retained heat from manufacturing process
 Reactivity with air or water
 In Your Area
 MSDS
Flammable Solids:
Physical Properties and
Hazards
 Flammable Solids:
 Burn readily and persistent
 May generate chemical products that are
corrosive, poisonous, or flammable
 Require special extinguishing agents in a
fire
 In Your Area
 MSDS
Flammable Solids:
Health Hazards
 All Flammable Solids have potentially
severe health effects:
 Alkali Metals: react with moisture on body to
cause severe burns to skin, eyes, nose, and
throat.
 White Phosphorous: reacts with air to form
phosphoric acid, which is corrosive to eyes,
skin, nose, and throat. May affect the lungs.
 Azides: many are toxic, causing a drop in blood
pressure; inhibit enzyme action. May
decompose explosively. Sensitive to heat,
shock and friction
 In Your Area
Flammable Solids:
Methods of Detection
 If material begins to ignite, fume or
bubble when exposed to air or
water, evacuate to a safe distance
immediately and notify emergency
personnel.
Flammable Solids:
Emergency and Handling
Procedures
 For Emergency:
 For Spills: if air or water reactive,
evacuate personnel immediately, and
notify emergency personnel.
 For Fire: Notify emergency personnel
and evacuate.
 Always follow Safety Procedures
Flammable Solids:
First Aid Procedures
 In the event of overexposure:
 Inhalation: move victim to fresh air. Restore breathing
if necessary. Seek medical attention immediately
 Eyes: hold eyelids open and flush eyes with water for
15 minutes. Seek medical attention immediately.
 Skin: immediately wash area with large quantities of
cold water. Keep affected area cold. Seek medical
attention immediately.
 Ingestion (swallowing): seek medical attention
immediately.
 In Your Area
 MSDS
Summary
 Definitions:  In Your Area:
 Flammable - a material  Physical Properties
that is easily ignited and Hazards
and burns rapidly.  Health Hazards
 Combustible - a
substance capable of
 Methods of Detection
fueling a fire, but will  Emergency and
not burn as readily as a Handling Procedures
flammable  First Aid Procedures
 Types:
 Aerosols
 Gases
 Liquids
 Solids