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Norm- Referenced Tests & Criterion-Referenced Tests

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Introduction of Norm- Referenced Tests & Criterion-Referenced Tests


A norm-referenced test (NRT) is a type of test, assessment, or evaluation which yields an estimate of the position of the tested individual in a predefined population, with respect to the trait being measured. Critics of criterion-referenced tests point out that judges set bookmarks around items of varying difficulty without considering whether the items actually are compliant with grade level content standards or are developmentally appropriate.

Compare NRT & CRT


Norm-Referenced Tests Provide information on how the performance of an individual compares with that of others. Criterion-referenced test Provide information on how the individual preformed on some standard of objective.

Individuals standing is compared Allow users to interpret what an with that of a know group. individual can do without considering the performance of others. Percentile rank is obtained to Designed to measure the results of determine the relative standing in instruction. a norm group. Emphasize the discrimination among individuals. An individuals performance on a specific behavioral or instructional objective Emphasizes description of performance.

NRT & CRT common characteristics


*Require a relevant and representative sample of test items

*Require specification of the achievement domain to be measured


*Use the same type of test items *Use the same rules for item writing

*Judged by the same qualities (validity and reliability)


*Useful in educational measurement

Advantages and disadvantages of NRT & CRT

Advantages and disadvantages of NRT

Advantages They easy for instructors to use They work well in situations requiring rigid differentiation among students They are generally appropriate in large courses

Advantages and disadvantages of NRT


Disadvantages An individual's grade is determined not only by his/her achievements, but also by the achievements of others.

Advantages Students are not competing with each other Students are thus more likely to actively help each other learn. A student's grade is not influenced by the caliber of the class.

Advantages and disadvantages of CRT

Advantages and disadvantages of CRT


Disadvantages It is difficult to set a reasonable standard for students Most experienced faculty set criteria based on their knowledge of how students usually perform Criterion-referenced systems often become fairly similar to norm-referenced systems.

Background of GEPT & TOEFL GEPT


The GEPT (General English Proficiency Test) was sponsored by the Taiwan Ministry of Education (MOE) and was developed at The Language Training and Testing Center (LTTC). It is designed to measure English language skills including listening, reading, writing and speaking to individuals whose mother tongue is not English. Since the first test launched in 1990, the GEPT has come one of the most recognized and popular tests for evaluating English proficiency levels in Taiwan.

Statistic shows more than 1.74 million people would have taken the test by September 2005. According to the reports by the LTTC, most examinees are students who would use the test score as one of the criteria to be accepted for further education in Taiwan or as a method of passing the benchmark requirements of English studied in schools. Recently GEPT test takers have included many business corporations and government officials. Though a new rule stipulated in 2006 indicates children under 12 are prohibited from taking the test in fear of the negative psychological effects that might occur if they do not perform well on the test.

TOEFL
The Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) evaluates the potential success of an individual to use and understand academic English at a college level. It is required for non-native applicants at many Englishspeaking colleges and universities. Additionally, institutions such as government agencies, businesses, or scholarship programs may require this test. A TOEFL score is valid for two years and then is deleted from the official database. Colleges and universities usually consider only the most recent TOEFL score. The TOEFL test is a registered trademark of Educational Testing Service (ETS) and is administered worldwide. The test was first administered in 1964 and has since been taken by nearly 20 million students.

References:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Criterion-referenced_test http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Norm-referenced_test http://chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/col/measeval/crnmref.html