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1

EE362L, Fall 2008


DCDC Boost Converter
2
V
in

+
V
out


C
i
C

I
out

i
in
Buck converter

i
L

L
+ v
L

Boost converter
V
in

+
V
out


C
i
C

I
out

i
in

i
L

L
+ v
L

3
Boost converter
This is a much more unforgiving circuit than the buck converter
V
in

+
V
out


C
i
C

I
out

i
in

i
L

L
+ v
L

i
D
If the MOSFET gate driver sticks in the on position, then there
is a short circuit through the MOSFET blow MOSFET!
If the load is disconnected during operation, so that I
out
= 0, then
L continues to push power to the right and very quickly charges
C up to a high value (~250V) blow diode and MOSFET!
Before applying power, make sure that your D is at the
minimum, and that a load is solidly connected
4
Boost converter
V
in

+
V
out


C
i
C

I
out

i
in

i
L

L
+ v
L

i
D
Modify your MOSFET firing circuit for Boost Converter
operation (see the MOSFET Firing Circuit document)
Limit your output voltage to 120V
5
Boost converter
Using KVL and KCL in the average sense, the average
values are
+ 0 V
I
out
V
in

+
V
out


C

I
out



L
0 A
I
in
V
in

+
V
out


C
i
C

I
out

i
in

i
L

L
+ v
L

i
D
Find the input/output equation by examining the voltage
across the inductor
6
Switch closed for DT seconds
Reverse biased, thus the
diode is open
L
V
dt
di
in L
=
for DT
seconds
V
in

+
V
out


C

I
out

i
in

i
L

L
I
out

Note if the switch stays closed, the input is short circuited!
+ V
in

7
Switch open for (1 D)T seconds
Diode closed. Assume
continuous conduction.
L
V V
dt
di
out in L

=
V
in

+
V
out


C

I
out

i
in

i
L

L
for (1D)T seconds
(i
L
I
out
)
+ (V
in
V
out
)
8
Since the average voltage across L is zero
( ) ( ) 0 1 = - + - =
out in in Lavg
V V D V D V
in in in out
V D V D V D V - - + = - ) 1 (
D
V
V
in
out

=
1
The input/output equation becomes
A realistic upper limit on boost is 5 times
9
Examine the inductor current
Switch closed,
Switch open,
L
V
dt
di
V v
in L
in L
= = ,
L
V V
dt
di
V V v
out in L
out in L

= = ,
sec / A
L
V
in
DT (1 D)T
T
I
max
I
min
I
avg
= I
in
I
avg
= I
in
is half way between
I
max
and I
min
sec / A
L
V V
out in

I
i
L
10
Inductor current rating
( )
2 2 2 2 2
12
1
12
1
I I I I I
in pp avg Lrms
A + = + =
( )
2 2 2 2
3
4
2
12
1
in in in Lrms
I I I I = + = A
Max impact of I on the rms current occurs at the boundary of
continuous/discontinuous conduction, where I =2I
in
in Lrms
I I
3
2
=
2I
in
0

I
avg
= I
in
I
i
L
Use max
11
MOSFET and diode currents and current ratings
in rms
I I
3
2
=
Use max
2I
in
0

2I
in
0

Take worst case D for each
V
in

+
V
out


C
i
C

I
out

i
in

i
L

L
+ v
L

i
D
12
Capacitor current and current rating
2I
in
I
out
I
out
0

Max rms current occurs at the boundary of continuous/discontinuous
conduction, where I =2I
out
out Crms
I I =
Use max
i
C
= (i
D
I
out
)

V
in

+
V
out


C
i
C

I
out

i
in

i
L

L
i
D
See the lab document for the derivation
13
Worst-case load ripple voltage
Cf
I
C
T I
C
Q
V
out out
=
-
=
A
= A
The worst case is where C provides I
out
for most of the period. Then,
I
out
0

i
C
= (i
D
I
out
)

14

Voltage ratings
Diode sees V
out
MOSFET sees V
out
C sees V
out
Diode and MOSFET, use 2V
out
Capacitor, use 1.5V
out
V
in

+
V
out


C

I
out

i
in

i
L

L
V
in

+
V
out


C

I
out

i
in

i
L

L
15
Continuous current in L
sec / A
L
V V
out in

( ) ( )
( )
f L
D
D
V
T D
L
V
D
V
T D
L
V V
I
boundary
in
boundary
in
in
boundary
in out
in

|
.
|

\
|

= -

= -

=
1 1
1
1
1
1
1 2
f I
D V
L
in
in
boundary
2
=
2I
in
0

I
avg
= I
in
i
L
(1 D)T
f I
V
L
in
in
2
> guarantees continuous conduction
Then, considering the worst case (i.e., D 1),
use max
use min
, 2
f L
D V
I
boundary
in
in
=
16
Impedance matching
out
out
load
I
V
R =
equiv
R
( )
( ) ( )
load
out
out
out
out
in
in
equiv
R D
I
V
D
D
I
V D
I
V
R
2 2
1 1
1
1
= =

= =

DCDC Boost
Converter

+
V
in

+


I
in
+
V
in

I
in
Equivalent from
source perspective
Source
D
V
V
in
out

=
1
( )
in out
I D I = 1
17
Example of drawing maximum power from
solar panel

PV Station 13, Bright Sun, Dec. 6, 2002
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45
V(panel) - volts
I

-

a
m
p
s
I
sc
V
oc
P
max
is approx. 130W
(occurs at 29V, 4.5A)
O = = 44 . 6
5 . 4
29
A
V
R
load
For max power from
panels, attach
I-V characteristic of 6.44 resistor

But as the sun conditions
change, the max power
resistance must also
change

18
Connect a 100 resistor directly, extract only 14W

PV Station 13, Bright Sun, Dec. 6, 2002
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45
V(panel) - volts
I

-

a
m
p
s
130W
14W
( ) 75 . 0
100
44 . 6
1 1 , 1
2
= = = =
load
equiv
load equiv
R
R
D R D R
To extract maximum power (130W), connect a boost converter between the
panel and the load resistor, and use D to modify the equivalent load
resistance seen by the source so that maximum power is transferred
So, the boost converter
reflects a high load
resistance to a low
resistance on the
source side
19
Worst-Case Component Ratings Comparisons
for DC-DC Converters


Converter
Type

Input Inductor
Current
(Arms)
Output
Capacitor
Voltage

Output Capacitor
Current (Arms)

Diode and
MOSFET
Voltage
Diode and
MOSFET
Current
(Arms)
Boost
in
I
3
2

1.5
out
V
out
I 2
out
V
in
I
3
2


5A 10A 10A 120V 120V
Likely worst-case boost situation
5.66A 200V, 250V 16A, 20A
Our components
9A 250V
MOSFET. 250V, 20A
L. 100H, 9A
C. 1500F, 250V, 5.66A p-p
Diode. 200V, 16A
BOOST DESIGN
20
Comparisons of Output Capacitor Ripple Voltage

Converter Type Volts (peak-to-peak)
Boost
Cf
I
out


5A
1500F 50kHz
0.067V
BOOST DESIGN
MOSFET. 250V, 20A
L. 100H, 9A
C. 1500F, 250V, 5.66A p-p
Diode. 200V, 16A
21
Minimum Inductance Values Needed to
Guarantee Continuous Current

Converter Type For Continuous
Current in the Input
Inductor
For Continuous
Current in L2
Boost
f I
V
L
in
in
2
>



40V
2A 50kHz
200H
BOOST DESIGN
MOSFET. 250V, 20A
L. 100H, 9A
C. 1500F, 250V, 5.66A p-p
Diode. 200V, 16A