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# SFZ3001/FZK3001

INTRODUCTORY PHYSICS

Course outline
This course is intended to give a solid introduction to basic principles of classical mechanics, waves and thermodynamics, to develop problem solving skills, and to prepare university students for professional careers in science Classes : Sunday 8.00am 9.00am (MK8) Monday 9.00am 11.00 am (MK11) Time commitment 3hrs/week (class)
Studying 5-6 hrs/week Homework 5-6 hrs/week A part from 8 hrs/day of your study time.

Assessment : Quiz/Task 20% 1st test 15% 2nd test 15% Tutorial 10% Final exam 40% 100%

Outline of course
1. Mechanics
Physics & Measurement Vector Algebra Motion in one & two dimension Forces: Newtons law of motion Additional Forces Model & Circular Motion Work & Kinetics Energy Impulse & Linear Momentum Rotation Oscillations

Continue
2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. State of Matter Deformation of matter Density & Pressure Fluid Static & Dynamics Sound Temperature, Heat & The Equation of State Electricity Magnetism Modern Physics

## To see forward, first look backward

The earliest step toward science arose out of the recognition of patterns of irregularity, which is i.e. the sequence of day& night, the seasons & regular motion of the heavenly bodies raises question about their causes. The give & take between experimental observation, the math. Formulation of descriptive & predictive theories, & further experimental test of predictions of these theories form the scientific method. Physics underwent a series of revolutionary between 1900 to 1925 which is sometime divided into classical (pre-1900) and modern physics (post-1900).

Another way to think physics is in term of scale. Newtons law of motion were thought for a long time to be universally applicable. In the late 19th century, there are scales at which these law should be replace quantum mechanics to describe the behavior of matter at atomic scale & below, & other theories. In the context of Newtons law, it includes the great subject of classical physics- mechanics, waves, thermodynamics, electricity & magnetism

## Physics & Measurement

Many concept of physics most compactly express in the language of mathematics. Term as position, force, work and energy. Basic SI (Systme Internationale) units Property Length Mass Time Name Meter Kilogram second Abbreviation m Kg s

Length (1 meter) (1889) - distance between 2 scratches on a bar of platinum-iridium stored in International Bureau of Weight and Measures in Sevres, France. (1960) the wavelength of a particular orange-red light emitted by a isotope of krypton gas (86Kr). (1983) based on speed of light in vacumm, c. is the distance traveled by light ia a vacumm during the time interval of 1/299,792,458 s.

Time - Defined as 1/86,400 of the mean solar day. - (1967) Duration of 9,192,631,770 periods of particular vibration of a cesium atom isotope (133Ce). Mass - Defined as the mass of one liter of water under certain condition of temperature and pressure. - (1901) Kg The mass of particular cylinder of platinum-iridium. Other system of units Cgs : based on centimetre,gram & second derived directly from SI. exp.: density of water=1g/cm3 in cgs 103kg/m3 in SI British Engineering Sys. : based on inch, pound and second. still use in USA in engineering application.

## Units & Unit conversion

Derived units with combination of the fundamental unit. Energy Joule (J) kg.m2/s2 Force Newton (N) kg.m/s2 Pressure Pascal (Pa) kg/m.s2 Frequency hertz (Hz) s-1. Conversion unit of different system 1 inch = 2.54 cm Exp. : 15 in. = ? Cm 15 in. = 15 x 2.54 cm = 38 cm.

Dimensional analysis
Three primary dimensions length, time & mass Abbreviation - [L],[T] and [M]. The dimension of a physical quantity is a algebraic combination of it. Speed, v, the dimension of it : [v] = [L/T], or [v] = [LT-1] which is ms-1 Exp. : area = [L].[L] = [L2] = m2 The dimension on one side od an equation must be the same as those on the other side.

## Scalar & vectors

Scalar has no direction associated with it. mass, temperature etc. A direction is needed for a complete description of physical quantities. Exp. Velocity of the ball requires specifying not only the speed but also the direction of traveling. Vectors describe both magnitude/direction and a direction. It describe displacement, velocity, acceleration, force, electric field etc.

Displacement
Displacement different between 2 position of an object. From A to B, the vector is K. With the magnitude of 3 kilometer and direction to the northeast.
A B

## Addition & Subtraction of Vectors

The result of successive displacement is also a displacement C=A+B The sum of the two vectors known as resultant vector. Scalar multiplication, dD, means length of D have d mltply. of the vector D Any vector D is written D = D, D is magnitude is unit vector that point in the direction of D and has a magnitude of 1. In other word, the unit vector simply specifies a direction.

B
A

2D D

Component
The component vector of V are the vector Vx and Vy. V = V2x+V2y. from Pythagoras theorem tan = V2x V2y Or tan-1 (Vy / Vx) Equivalently Vx = V cos Vy = V sin If adding 2 vectors V and W, V+W = (Vx + Wx) + (Vy + Wy) .

Vy

Vx

## Vectors in 3-dimensional space

3 unit vectors for 3 axes denoted by , &k Vector in 2 or 3D can be specified with Cartesian set of axes ( x,y,z)

Example
1. Describe D in terms of position vectors A and B of the points A (2,3) and B (5,4) (in cm). Calculate length of D and the angle it makes with the x-axis.
A

2.

B D

Ans. 1. A + D = B then D = B A 2. A=2 + 3 and B = 5 + 4 D = B A = (5-2) + (4-3) = 3 + 1 D = D2x +D2y. = 32 + 12 = 3.2 cm tan = Dx/ Dy = 1 cm / 3 cm = 0.33 then = 18o.