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Lesson 1

application design

of components material protection (from corrosion, damage, etc.)

1. Physical properties 2. Mechanical properties 3. Chemical properties

colour

light wave length

specific

heat the heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of a substance by one degree centigrade (J/kg K)

density

mass per unit volume expressed in such units as kg/cm 3 conductivity rate at which heat flows through a given material (W/m K)

thermal

melting

point a temperature at which a solid begins to liquify conductivity a measure of how strongly a material opposes the flow of electric current (m)

electrical

coefficient

of thermal expansion degree of expansion divided by the change in temperature (m/C)

tensile

strength measures the force required to pull something such as rope,wire or a structural beam to the point where it breaks a measure of how much strain a material can take before rupturing

ductility

malleability

the property of a material that can be worked or hammered or shaped without breaking breaking or shattering of a material when subjected to stress (when force is applied to it)

brittleness

elasticity

the property of a material that returns to its original shape after stress (e.g. external forces) that made it deform or distort is removed - the deformation of a material undergoing non-reversible changes of shape in response to applied forces

plasticity

toughness

the ability of a material to absorb energy and plastically deform without fracturing the property of being rigid and resistant to pressure; not easily scratched

hardness

machinability

the property of a material that can be shaped by hammering, pressing, rolling

corrosion

resistance - a material's ability to resist deterioration caused by exposure to an environment

Material aluminium rubber ceramics steel copper lead nylon cast iron wood

Properties

Material aluminium rubber ceramics steel copper lead nylon cast iron wood

Properties lightness ; strength elasticity ; insulation thermal resistivity strength conductivity ; corrosion resistance high density; ductility strength ; toughness damping capacity insulation ; environmental friendliness

Material aluminium

Application

rubber ceramics steel copper lead nylon cast iron wood

Material aluminium

Application foil; aircraft; window frame

rubber ceramics steel copper lead


nylon cast iron wood

tyres,; seal; gasket furnace; brick section; pipe pipe; cables storage battery; radiation protection ballast; bullets
rope; clothing engine block; valves furniture; deck

gold - 19300 kg/m3


uranium - 19100 kg/m3 lead - 11340 kg/m3 steel - 7800 kg/m3

Material carbon nanotubes

Tensile Strength 62000 MPa (theoretical300000 MPa) 5650 MPa 4700 MPa 1000 MPa

UTS (Ultimate Tensile Strength) 48000 kNm/kg

carbon fibre glass fibre spider web

3200 kNm/kg 1340 kNm/kg 900 kNm/kg

high-strength steel

1200 MPa

154 kNm/kg

Material silver copper

Conductivity 63 x 106 S/m (1/ohm)

59.6 x 106 S/m (1/ohm) gold 45.2 x 106 S/m (1/ohm) aluminium 37.8 x 106 S/m (1/ohm)

Material polyethylene terephthalate (PET) glass rubber 1020 ohm 1014 ohm 1013 ohm

Specific resistance

Forging - a manufacturing process where metal is shaped by plastic deformation under great pressure into high strength parts. Casting pouring or injecting molten metal into a mold containing a cavity with the desired shape